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IB History 2: 20th Century World History

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Title: IB History 2: 20th Century World History


1
IB History 2 20th Century World History
  • The Year in Review

2
The 20th Century
  • The 20th century of the Common Era began on
    January 1, 1901 and ended on December 31, 2000,
    according to the Gregorian calendar.

3
Punctuate the following
  • woman without her man is nothing

4
Making sense of the world Link 3 of the
following words together to make a sentence
answering for yourself this is how the world
works
  • Chaos
  • Negotiation
  • Poverty
  • Competition
  • Order
  • Power
  • Conflict
  • Peace
  • Violent
  • Progress
  • Cooperation
  • War
  • Justice
  • Prosperity
  • Weakness
  • Military
  • Economy
  • industrial
  • Respect

5
(No Transcript)
6
Stages of Historical Consciousness
  • History as fact
  • This happened.
  • History as causal sequence
  • Why did this happen? What happened
    before/after?
  • History as complexity
  • How does this fit into a wider scope of
    regional/world events?
  • Are there larger patterns this fits into?
  • History as interpretation
  • People make things happen What people made this
    happen? Why did they make it happen?

7
Causes of War
8
Causes of War, World War I
  • Entangling Alliances their consequences
  • Dual Alliance (1879) Germany Austria
  • Triple Alliance (1882) added Italy
  • Dual Entente (1893) France Russia
  • Entente Cordial (1904) Brits FR make nice
  • Anglo-Russian Entente (1907) Brits RUS turn
  • Triple Entente is now formed FR, RUS, UK
  • Causes of Militarism/Nationalism
  • Germanys Weltpolitik (Schlieffen Plan)

9
Causes of War, World War I
  • Militarism/Nationalism Austria
  • Militarism/Nationalism Italy
  • Militarism/Nationalism Russia
  • Militarism/Nationalism France
  • Consequences War was inevitable ???
  • Domestic factors
  • Germany (Kaiser needed to prove his manhood?)
  • Austria-Hungary (needed to unite ethnicities)
  • France (hating on Germany!!!)

10
Causes of War, World War I
  • Imperialism
  • They needed more stuff!
  • Places / resources / power
  • Italy Germany possessed no colonies and they
    wanted in on the land grab game!!!
  • Austria-Hungary wanted Balkans
  • Germany hating on the Brits
  • Russia is insecure wants to increase influence
    in Turkey (straits) Balkans, too!

11
Causes of War, World War I
  • Brits FR rule but feel their power
    declining
  • Brits
  • The Middle East market was threatened by Germany
    and Italy
  • The China market was being lost to the U.S. and
    Japan
  • FR
  • Although France was really declining, French
    governments followed well-thought out
    expansionist aims overseas and refused to be
    intimidated
  • They added to the empire in North Africa (Tunis
    was added to Algeria) and in eastern Asia in
    Indo-China
  • Until 1903, Britain blocked French imperial
    ambitions FR hated Britain, too!

12
Causes of War, World War I
  • Causes of the War
  • The isms
  • Nationalism
  • Imperialism
  • Militarism
  • Entangling alliances
  • Triple Alliance Germany, Austria-Hungary, Italy
  • Triple Entente Britain, France, Russia
  • Powder Keg of Europe

13
Unit 1 Causes of War, World War I
  • Balkan Wars
  • Growing Russian Support of Serbia
  • The Assassination
  • Austria-Hungary believed that
  • Serbia and Russia would be restrained by Austrian
    diplomacy backed by Germany
  • Russia was utilizing Balkan discontents against
    Austria-Hungary
  • A diplomatic offensive was no longer enough
  • Serbia needed to be punished or the empires
    role as a great power would be at an end
  • If they could prove that Russian protection could
    not save Serbia from Austria-Hungarys wrath, the
    lesson would not be lost on the other Balkan
    states

14
Causes of War, World War I
  • Blank Check
  • AH gives Serbia an Ultimatum to which Serbia
    complies (except for Austrian rule) but war is
    declared anyway July 28, 1914
  • On August 1st, 1914, war was declared on Russia
  • On August 3rd, 1914, war was declared on France
  • On August 4th, 1914, Germany invaded neutral
    Belgium Britain declared war on Germany the same
    day

15
Causes of War, World War II
  • Treaty of Versailles
  • Germans were forced to sign in June 1919
  • Vengeance, not reconciliation, was the treatys
    dominant tone
  • Article 231 War Guilt Clause Germany had to
    accept everything as their fault
  • Great Depression
  • Destroyed the positive and encouraging economic
    and political developments of the years between
    1924 and 1930

16
Causes of War, World War II
  • The Great Depression Debts Reparations
  • Dawes Plan 1924
  • Created a cycle
  • U.S. banks loaned money to Germany
  • Germany paid reparations to France and Britain
  • France and Britain paid war debts to the U.S.
  • Isolationism in Britain, SERIOUS economic
    problems in Germany!!!

17
Causes of War, World War II
  • Failure of the WEIMAR REPUBLIC
  • Rise of HITLER!!!
  • Spread of FACISM
  • Hitler Mussolini
  • Aryanism Lebensraum
  • Policy of Appeasement the granting concessions
    to potential enemies to maintain peace
  • BR FR reasons to appease

18
Causes of War, World War II
  • Policy of Appeasement
  • Disarmament Conference (GER withdrew 1933)
  • German-Polish Non Aggression Pact (Jan 1934)
  • Anglo-German Naval Agreement (June 1934)
  • Remilitarization of the Rhineland (1935)
  • Italian invasion of Abyssinia (Oct 1935)
  • Spanish Civil War (GER IT sent weapons)

19
Causes of War, World War II
  • Neville Chamberlain
  • Austrian Anschluss (1938)
  • Sudeten Crisis/Czechoslovakia (1939)
  • Munich Conference (September 29th)
  • German occupation of the Sudeten area was agreed
    to. Chamberlain even got Hitler to sign the a
    paper promising to settle all future Anglo-German
    differences by diplomacy
  • Czechoslovakia (March 1939)
  • Hitler breached the Munich settlement by taking
    rest of Czechoslovakia

20
Causes of War, World War II
  • Hitler signed the Nazi-Soviet Non-Aggression Pact
    on August 23, 1939
  • Danzig Dispute
  • Germany wanted it (population was 96 German),
    Poland didnt want to give it up (port city!)
  • Germany invaded Poland September 1st, 1939
  • Failure of the League of Nations

21
Causes of War, World War II
  • Summary of the Causes of WWII
  • The clash of ideologies
  • Economic pressures and opportunities
  • Room to cultivate food and move undesirables
  • Changes in military technology and strategic
    thought
  • Long-standing territorial disputes, conflicts of
    interest, psychological tensions between peoples
  • Propaganda and coercion
  • Prestige and material interests
  • Appeasement and confidence

22
Causes of War, World War II
  • Remember MAIN!!!
  • Militarism (naval build up/remilitarization)
  • Alliances (entaglement!!!)
  • Imperialism (colonialism/neo-colonialism)
  • Nationalism (in particular w rise of Hitler!)

23
Effects of War, WWI
  • Discussed Economic Effects first biggest!!!
  • Blockades
  • Britain and Germany relied heavily on imports to
    feed the population and supply the war industry
  • Since Britain had a superiority of naval vessels,
    Germanys only chance to compete was through
    U-boats
  • They used unrestricted submarine warfare to sink
    any ships in the area of Britain

24
Effects of War, WWI
  • Effects in Germany
  • 750,000 German civilians died of starvation
    during and after the war
  • blockade continued until June 1919 in order to
    force the Germans to sign the Versailles Treaty
  • Sinking of the Lusitania the Zimmerman Telegram
    (if Mexico were to join Germany in an alliance,
    they would get Texas and Arizona in return)
    brought US into war
  • Deaths Russia suffered THE MOST! Followed by
    Germany

25
Effects of War, WWI
  • Devastation In Belgium France the Balkans,
    Middle East, and Italy Africa and the Pacific
  • Rise of the United States
  • Inflation is the greatest single economic factor
    because of massive
  • War budgets
  • Demand, which caused shortages of many consumer
    goods
  • Virtually every able-bodied person was employed
    to keep up with the demand
  • When resources became scarce, nonessential firms,
    which tended to be small, were simply closed down
  • This combination of high demand, scarcity, and
    full employment sent prices soaring, even in the
    best managed countries

26
Effects of War, WWI
  • Results of inflation were
  • Value of money went down
  • The standard of life went down
  • People living on fixed incomes or small earnings
    were hurt the most
  • Had to plant gardens for food
  • Had to take odd jobs like repairing clothes

27
Effects of War, WWI
  • Dawes Plan ( subsequent Young Plan) both
    failed!!!
  • Both were designed to help Germany meet its
    reparation payments
  • The U.S. would lend money to Germany Germany
    would make reparation payments to Britain and
    France Britain and France would pay back loans
    to the U.S.
  • This made the countries dependent on the U.S.
  • Defaults led to Great Depression rise of
    extreme nationalism!

28
Effects of War, WWI
  • Social effects
  • Disillusionment (All Quiet on the Western Front)
  • Trench warfare
  • Shell Shock
  • Development of arms race / arms manufacturers
    became major enterprises
  • Effects of rationing
  • Effects on women (rise of public employment)

29
Effects of War, WWI
  • Womens suffrage
  • Many restrictions on women disappeared during the
    war. It became acceptable for young, employed,
    single middle-class women to
  • Have their own apartments
  • Go out without chaperones
  • Smoke in public
  • Women's skirts rose above the ankle permanently
  • Effects on African Americans
  • Growth of Labor Unions

30
Effects of War, WWI
  • Restrictions of Civil Liberties during war
  • Propaganda
  • Armenian Genocide
  • Influenza
  • Moved on to Effects of War, WWII
  • Started w effects on Germany USSR

31
Effects of War, WWII
  • German Soviet war children where many women
    were raped, often repeatedly
  • Women were seen as collaborators ostracized
    from society (FR DEN)
  • Holocaust
  • By May 1945, every 2 out of 3 Jews were murdered
  • A total of 6 million Jews were killed, along with
    2 million others
  • Communists, Jehovahs Witnesses, Roma and Sinta
    (gypsies), Socialists, trade unions, homosexuals,
    Polish and Soviet dissidents, and the mentally
    and physically disabled were also in the
    Holocaust

32
Effects of War, WWII
  • Germany
  • 3 million soldiers killed or missing
  • ½ million civilians killed
  • Millions more wounded and disabled
  • Parts of cities were totally flattened
  • No key industry had suffered more than 20 losses
  • Conditions were BAD post war in GER!!!

33
Effects of War, WWII
  • Germany
  • Germans were distrusted by Allies
  • 15 million German people expelled from several
    countries after the war
  • An estimated 500,000-3 million died in the
    expulsion
  • Rehabilitation of Nazis (re-education)
  • Nuremburg Trials
  • German Occupation

34
Effects of War, WWII
  • Soviet Union
  • Relaxed their ideology to maximize the war effort
  • Propaganda appealed to Mother Russia rather
    than communism
  • Soldiers could not talk with local populations
  • Captured Russian soldiers, when repatriated, were
    sent to the Gulags or simply shot
  • Rigid censorship in newspapers was imposed

35
Effects of War, WWII
  • Soviet Union Origins of the Cold War
  • Different philosophies/ideologies
  • Democratic capitalism
  • Marxist communism
  • The Western Allies had appeased the growing power
    of Hitler partly in the hope that he would
    destroy the Soviet state for them
  • The USSR had been supplying the Luftwaffe with
    aircraft fuel with which to fight the Battle of
    Britain and to bomb British cities in the Blitz
  • Delays in opening a second front angered the
    Soviets

36
Effects of War, WWII
  • Soviet Union
  • From the scorched earth policy
  • 25 million were homeless
  • Factories were destroyed
  • Railways disrupted
  • Farm machinery was almost non-existent
  • 21 million died
  • 1 in 4 Russians were killed or wounded
  • Lend-lease aid from the U.S. was ended in August
    1945
  • Reparations were exacted from the Soviet zones of
    Germany and Austria

37
Effects of War, WWII
  • Soviet Union
  • The Soviets wanted Poland because
  • Russia wanted a buffer area because they had been
    invaded many times
  • 1 time by the French
  • 2 times by the Germans
  • 1 time by the Poles
  • The Soviets then installed a Polish Communist
    government

38
Effects of War, WWII
  • Eastern Europe disappeared from Western sight
    behind the iron curtain of secrecy and
    isolation
  • East Germany
  • Poland
  • Czechoslovakia
  • Hungary
  • Romania
  • Bulgaria
  • Finland
  • Yugoslavia
  • Albania

39
Effects of War, WWII
  • Britain
  • Britains financial situation was dependent on
    U.S. lend-lease aid
  • Gave up colonies
  • Formation of Israel
  • British controlled Palestine was given the Jews
    to establish a safe haven and homeland
  • Greek Civil War (1944-49)
  • British troops liberated them in 1944
  • Most of the Greek people didnt wish to return to
    pre-war political and social conditions, so they
    supported the EAM a communist Greek National
    Liberation Front

40
Effects of War, WWII
  • France
  • Grave shortages of food and fuel
  • Infrastructure devastated
  • Mandates of Syria and Lebanon were given
    independence during WWII
  • It was policy to draw a veil over the Vichy years
    to conciliate and unite the nation
  • Italy
  • The perception of Italians was better than the
    Germans because they entered on the side of the
    Allies and didnt commit atrocities on the scale
    of the Germans

41
Effects of War, WWII
  • US
  • Not so bad off
  • Trumans Fair Deal
  • Japanese internment
  • GI Bill Provided federal grants which gave
    soldiers money for college, to start new small
    businesses, or build a new home
  • Baby Boom Caused an growing need for
    educational resources
  • Interstate Highway System Would be created
    under Eisenhowers administration because he saw
    it as a way to move military supplies around the
    country quickly. He got the idea from his
    wartime experiences in Europe (Autobahn)

42
Effects of War, WWII
  • Origins of the Cold War
  • Atomic bomb
  • The Marshall Plan
  • Aid through the Marshall Plan was intended to
    create strong democracies and open new markets
    for American goods
  • The Soviet Union was invited to join, but refused
  • Americans were buying their way into European
    affairs
  • Wouldve had to accept it on difficult terms
    making vast political reforms and have outside
    controls
  • They discouraged their satellite nations from
    joining as well
  • Occupation of Japan

43
Effects of War, WWII
  • Psychological, social effects of WWII
  • Women, minorities, economics
  • End of European domination, myth of white
    supremacy in the eastern part of the world

44
Single Party States
  • Hitler, Lenin, Stalin EUR
  • Mao ASIA
  • Castro AMERICAS
  • Unit 4 Origins of the Cold War
  • Unit 5 Vietnam
  • Unit 6 End of the Cold War

45
Foreign Policy of AdministrationsTruman
(1945-53)
  • Doctrine
  • The policy of the United States to support free
    peoples who are resisting attempted subjugation
    by armed minorities or by outside pressures
  • Policies
  • Containment (Kennan) U.S. would resist Soviet
    attempts to form Communist governments elsewhere
    in the world
  • Important Events
  • Atomic Bombs Marshall Plan Berlin Airlift
    Korean War
  • Potsdam Intervention in Turkey Greece
    NATO
  • Iran Controversy McCarthyism China Is
    Communist

46
Foreign Policy of AdministrationsEisenhower
(1953-61)
  • Doctrine
  • U.S. pledged military and economic aid to Middle
    Eastern nations threatened by communism
  • Policies
  • Massive Retaliation (Dulles) roll back
    communism use of nuclear weapons New Look
    Foreign Policy - Build up SAC (Strategic Air
    Command) i.e. Superbombers Domino Theory if
    one country was allowed to fall to communism,
    then others would fall too
  • Important Events
  • Hungarian Rebellion KGB CIA Suez
    Crisis Space Race Begins (Sputnik)
    Lebanon Crisis Summit Conferences U-2
    Incident

47
Foreign Policy of AdministrationsKennedy
(1961-63)
  • Doctrine
  • Containment of Communism and the reversal of
    Communist progress in the Western Hemisphere
  • Policies
  • Mutually Assured Destruction (MAD) (McNamara)
    build up your nuclear arsenal so much that the
    other side will be afraid to attack you Single
    Integrated Operational Plan (SIOP) a plan for
    the possible launching of a first strike against
    the Eastern bloc Flexible Response (McNamara)
    an array of military options that depended on the
    gravity of the crisis at hand
  • Important Events
  • Vietnam War Berlin Wall Bay of Pigs
    Cuban Missile Crisis

48
Foreign Policy of AdministrationsJohnson
(1963-69)
  • Doctrine
  • Domestic revolution in the Western Hemisphere
    would no longer be a local matter when "the
    object is the establishment of a Communist
    dictatorship
  • Policies
  • Vietnam War escalation Operation Rolling Thunder
    authorization of the bombing of North Vietnam
    Cointelpro CIA can turn intelligence operations
    on domestic activities
  • Important Events
  • Gulf of Tonkin Incident/Resolution

49
Foreign Policy of AdministrationsNixon (1969-74)
  • Doctrine
  • The U.S. would honor its existing defense
    commitments, but that in the future, Asians and
    others would have to fight their own wars without
    the support of large amounts of American ground
    troops
  • Policies
  • Vietnamization turning over the war to the
    South Vietnamese Peace With Honor withdrawing
    from Vietnam, but leaving not as in a defeat,
    rather with honor Détente
  • Important Events
  • Cambodia Kent State/Jackson State
    Pentagon Papers 26th Am Paris Peace Agrmt
    War Powers Act Vietnam ends Ostpolitik

50
Foreign Policy of AdministrationsFord (1974-77)
  • Doctrine
  • None
  • Policies
  • Détente continues Neoconservatives start to
    affect policy
  • Important Events
  • Helsinki Accords

51
Foreign Policy of AdministrationsCarter
(1977-81)
  • Doctrine
  • Would use military force if necessary to defend
    its national interests in the Persian Gulf region
  • Policies
  • Tough stand on human rights Rapid Deployment
    Force to respond to crisis in far away places
    immediately Wanted young people, including women
    to register for draft Neoconservatives are more
    in govt
  • Important Events
  • Afghanistan War Boycott Moscow Olympics
    Iran Hostage Crisis SALT II Not Ratified

52
Foreign Policy of AdministrationsReagan
(1981-89)
  • Doctrine
  • Foster and support irregular forces to overthrow
    pro-Soviet governments in the Third World
  • Policies
  • Reagan and other top officials are
    Neo-conservatives Believed that an arms race
    would make the Soviet economy collapse Nuclear
    Use Theorists (NUTs) Reagan and others believed
    that the U.S. could fight and win a nuclear war
    Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) would
    vaporize nuclear missiles from space and
    accelerated arms race
  • Important Events
  • Solidarity Movement Summits in 1985-88
    Berlin Wall Falls
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