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The Causes of the First World War

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Title: The Causes of the First World War


1
The Causes of the First World War
2
A slow march to war
  • The First World War is sometimes referred to
    as The Great War or The War to End All
    Wars. It began in the summer of 1914 and ended
    in the fall of 1918.
  • Tensions had built up, over many years,
    between the powerful nations of Europe. There
    were four long-term causes for all the tension
  • Militarism
  • Alliances
  • Imperialism
  • Nationalism

3
The M.A.I.N. Causes
Alliances
Militarism
Imperialism
Nationalism
4
Imperialism
  • The practice of establishing and controlling
    colonies
  • Competition is fierce and Britain and France are
    in the lead

5
Nationalism
  • The patriotic feelings for ones country or
    ethnic group
  • Many colonies are seeking independence
  • Austria-Hungary and the Ottoman Empire are made
    up of many different ethnic groups

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8
Militarism
  • The glorification of the military.- A
    willingness to use the military.

9
Artillery/Scale of War
  • Artillery pieces had become much more powerful.
    Battlefields got bigger as the range of artillery
    pieces got bigger. Larger battlefields, made it
    impossible for commanders to alter plans once
    they had been set in motion.

10
War was highly attractive to the generation of
Europeans before 1914.
  • Europeans had not fought a major war since 1815,
    so they had forgotten how horrible wars could be.
  • The small wars they had fought were short and did
    not have heavy casualties.
  • Winning a war was seen as a quick and easy way to
    accomplish something for the nation.

11
Big Ass Cannon
12
Mobilization Plans
  • The side who got the most men in the field, the
    earliest, gave their side the advantage.
  • Each nation opted for drafting masses of men, and
    for rapid mobilization plans to utilize them.

13
Barbed Wire
  • Barbed wire made it difficult for attackers to
    get to the men they wished to attack. This gave
    the machine gun and artillery crews more time to
    shoot the soldiers attacking them.

14
Alliances
A network of agreements that commit countries to
support each other, specifically in times of war.
15
Setting the Stage
  • Several factors made a European war likely.
  • Constant military build up/success of
    mobilization.
  • Rivalry due to colonization
  • Nationalism and the strive for prestige
  • Above all, Europeans made alliances which ended
    the possibility of traditional two country
    warfare.
  • Alliances grew out of a fear of France.

16
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17
The Schlieffen Plan
  • Germany, like the rest of Europe, felt a war was
    coming, and made a battle plan early.
  • Germany had a big problem, if war broke out, they
    would most likely be attacked from 2 directions.
  • Their plan was that as soon as fighting began,
    they must immediately invade and conquer France
    by surprise, then focus on the other side of
    Europe.
  • Thought it would take Russia, and other larger
    countries longer to mobilize, buying them time to
    take over France.
  • Would most likely attack through Belgium, less
    defended.
  • http//www.youtube.com/watch?vlJXAcl8D51Y

18
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19
  • Archduke Franz
    Ferdinand, heir to the
    throne of the Austro-

    Hungarian Empire
    married a woman,
    Countess Sophie Cotek,
    who was
    unacceptable
    to Emperor Franz Joseph and the
    rest of the Austrian nobility. As a result,
    Franz Ferdinand liked to get his wife out of the
    capital, Vienna, whenever possible so that she
    could receive the royal treatment he felt she
    deserved.

20
Archduke Franz Ferdinand and his wife pay an
unfortunate visit to Sarajevo, Bosnia. Add
Sarajevo and Serbia to map.
21
The Serbian terrorists group, The Black Hand,
wanted to assassinate Archduke Ferdinand and his
wife. One of the members of The Black Hand threw
a bomb into the car Ferdinand was riding in. The
bomb was thrown out of the car before it could
explode.
The numbers indicate the location where assassins
were stationed along the parade route.
The place where the bomb exploded
22
Franz Ferdinand and Countess Sophie arrive safely
at Sarajevos city hall.
23
Archduke Franz Ferdinand and his wife got back
into their car to drive to the hospital to
check on the people hurt when the assassins bomb
exploded. The driver of their car took a wrong
turn. As the driver stopped the car to turn
around, one of the members of The Black Hand
rushed up to the car and shot Archduke Franz
Ferdinand and his wife.
The place where the assassin shot Archduke Franz
Ferdinand and his wife.
24
A Tragic Wrong Turn
The assassin was caught just seconds after he
shot the Archduke and his wife.
http//www.youtube.com/watch?vK_tNXFbx0VYfeature
related
http//www.youtube.com/watch?vVC_26YXMZd4
25
The Situation Continued
  • Austria annexes Bosnia and Herzegovina
  • Archduke Franz Ferdinand, heir to the Austrian
    throne, is assassinated in Sarajevo in 1914. In
    retaliation, the Austro-Hungarian Empire invades
    Serbia.
  • Looks to Russia For help
  • Austria is upset and must get backing from what
    country?
  • Germany b/c knows Serbia is backed by Russia
  • Germany gives blank check to Austria
  • Austria offers Serbia an ultimatum and Serbia
    accepts
  • Austria rejects ultimatum and invades Serbia
  • http//wwi.lib.byu.edu/index.php/The_Austro-Hungar
    ian_Ultimatum_to_Serbia_28English_translation29

26
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27
The Situation Continued
  • Russian troops align along Austria/German border
  • Germany declares war on Russia b/c fearful Russia
    will declare war on them
  • Who is Russia allied with?
  • France
  • Von Schlieffen Plan says attack on Western front,
    then Eastern front.
  • French troops aligned along border, so how
    invade?
  • Through Belgium and down to Paris
  • Belgium neutral, so Great Britain and Italy
    declare war
  • German troops blockade Britain, sink Lusitania
    (and other causes), get America involved in WWI

28
Reading
  • Franz Ferdinands
  • Car of Death

29
  • Path to War
  • Austria-Hungary declares war on Serbia
  • Russia mobilizes to help Serbia
  • Germany declares war on Russia and then its ally
    France-invades through Belgium.

30
  • Britain declares war on Germany for violating the
    neutrality of Belgium
  • Britain calls for soldiers from former and
    current colonies, including Canada, Australia,
    New Zealand, India
  • Italy backs out of Triple Alliance due to German
    attack, saying it was only for defensive purposes
  • First is neutral and then joins the Allies
  • Ottoman Empire and Bulgaria join Germany and
    Austria-Hungary to form the Central Powers

31
The Dominoes Fall
32
  • II. A European conflict becomes a true world war
  • European powers fight for control of African
    colonies as battles spread to Africa
  • Allies fight Ottoman Empire to gain access to the
    Black Sea and assist Arab nationalists fighting
    the Ottoman Empire for control of territory in
    the Middle East
  • Japan declares war on Germany and seizes Asian
    colonies

33

34
  • Western Front
  • French troops able to force retreat of invading
    German forces at the Marne in September 1914
  • Germany realizes it must fight a two-front war
  • Trench Warfare
  • Each side developed a series of mazelike trenches
  • Attacks took place in No Mans Land, the area
    between the trenches
  • Conditions were bad mud, trench foot, rats,
    disease
  • Little land is exchanged with high rates of
    casualties

35
Reading
  • Trench Warfare
  • Going Over the Top
  • http//www.youtube.com/watch?vRRv56gsqkzsfeature
    relatedsafety_modetruepersist_safety_mode1

36
Trench systems
37
Trench Warfare Weapons
38
Troops in Action
39
Places for soldiers to hide. Bunkers, dug deep
underground, provided protection during artillery
bombardments.
40
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41
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42
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43
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44
Trench Rats

45
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46
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47
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48
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49
  • http//www.youtube.com/watch?vRRv56gsqkzsfeature
    relatedsafety_modetruepersist_safety_mode1

50
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51
Miserable living conditions rats, lice,
mud.Dead people became the floor. Trenchfoot.
52
Activity
  • http//www.youtube.com/watch?vgo0LprJwxaw
  • http//www.youtube.com/watch?v0KzqzIR8x4Ufeature
    relatedsafety_modetruepersist_safety_mode1
  • http//www.youtube.com/watch?vzJZttzblHFQfeature
    related Weapons DETAILS
  • Poison Gas DETAILS

53
  • IV. New Technology Changes Warfare
  • Technology at the outset of war
  • Europeans still planned on a fairly quick war
  • Mounted cavalry was making its final appearance

54
  • New weapons change warfare
  • Machine Guns placed in positions to guard
    trenches
  • Crossing No Mans Land nearly impossible
  • Helps cause stalemate on Western front

55
  • Poison Gas most feared weapon of war
  • Introduced by Germans at Bolimow in East and
    Ypres, Belgium on Western Front
  • Most casualties were not fatal, but crippling
  • Mustard Gas damage to skin and lungs
  • Chlorine/Phosgene damages lungs by internal
    blistering, causing lung flooding and suffocation
  • http//www.youtube.com/watch?vVY-3BNnbV_ofeature
    related

56
Weapon Poison gas
57
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58
Use Terrorize enemy troops.Inflicts crippling
and fatal injuries.
59
Increased the barbarism of the war.Caused
blindness, choking, vomiting, blisters.
60
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61
  • Airplanes move from spying to outright warfare
    http//www.youtube.com/watch?vmF4wIQt6vhwfeature
    relatedsafety_modetruepersist_safety_mode1
    Initially used for photographing enemy positions
  • Adapted to drop bombs, then mounted with guns
  • Submarines brought naval warfare to new level
  • Introduced by the Germans and called U-Boats
  • Destroyed ships carrying supplies with torpedoes
  • German policy of unrestricted submarine warfare
    helps cause US entry into World War I

62
The German U - boats in Kiel in May 1914.
63
This is a view of the control room of a German
U-boat used in World War 1.
64
World War I
  • III. U.S. Involvement in the War
  • President Wilson claims neutrality at the
    beginning of the war
  • Wilson wins reelection in 1916, campaigning that
    He kept us out of the war
  • Wilson wants to avoid US entanglement in Europe
    and issues caused by revolution in Mexico and
    crisis with Pancho Villa
  • US attempts to continue trade as a neutral party

65
  • Citizens begin taking sides
  • Many in US favored Allies, due to connection to
    Britain by culture and France as a past ally
  • Many in Midwest strongly favor Germany due to
    heritage
  • Recent immigrants often torn, as many came from
    Eastern and Southern Europe
  • Propaganda from Europe that reached US often
    pro-British or anti-German

66
  • Economic factors for the War
  • US traded much more with Allies
  • American banks loaned nearly 2 billion to Allies
    that would only be paid back if Allies are
    victorious
  • German submarine warfare harmed US trade
  • Political and military causes
  • Submarine Warfare unannounced sinking of trade
    vessels against law and caused loss of American
    life
  • Lusitania British passenger ship destroyed in
    1915, killing 128 Americans
  • Wilson gets Germany to temporarily end strategy
    after second incident (Sussex)

67
New York Times Headline
68
New York Tribune Headline
69
Reading
  • Calls the Situation Critical
  • http//www.youtube.com/watch?vuRygTO3pyUYfeature
    relatedsafety_modetruepersist_safety_mode1
  • Baltimore, Md. on the sinking of the Lusitania

70
  • Zimmerman Telegram from Germany advising Mexico
    to attack the US if it declares war on Germany
    (Jan. 1917)
  • US/Mexican relations strained due to attack on
    New Mexico by Pancho Villa
  • Germany offers to help Mexico recapture territory
    lost in Mexican-American War
  • Germany wants to keep US occupied to provide time
    to defeat Britain and France
  • Telegram is intercepted by British and given to
    US
  • Germany resumes unrestricted submarine warfare in
    Feb. 1917, sinking six US ships

71
Zimmerman TelegramReading The Zimmerman Note
72
America Joins the Ranks
73
World War I
  • IV. United States in World War I
  • Declaration of War
  • Wilson asks Congress to declare war on April 2,
    1917
  • Congress votes to declare war on Germany (82-6
    Senate and 373-50 House)

74
Readings
  • Declaration of War
  • If We Dont Lick the Huns Now

75
World War I
  • US mobilization for war
  • To protect troops, US uses convoy system of
    merchant, troop transport, and warships to get
    troops across Atlantic
  • US soldiers doughboys arrive in France in late
    1917 and boost both Allied morale and numbers
  • Nearly 2 million US soldiers will fight in World
    War I

76
  • US military action in World War I
  • US enters the war near beginning of German
    offensive
  • Russia withdraws from war after Bolshevik
    revolution, essentially ending the war on the
    Eastern Front
  • 3.3 million killed, 4.9 million military wounded
  • http//www.youtube.com/watch?vHd51pue58U0safety_
    modetruepersist_safety_mode1
  • Germany concentrates nearly all troops in the
    West
  • Germany advances to almost 40 miles of Paris but
    turned back at Chateau-Thierry and Belleau Wood
  • US involved in massive counterattack in the
    Argonne Forest, eventually driving a hole in the
    German lines

77
  • V. The American Home Front
  • Mobilization for war
  • Conscription (draft) Selective Service created
    using a lottery and draft boards to select
    soldiers
  • Control of supplies
  • Rationing used to reduce civilian consumption
  • Herbert Hoover leads increased food production
    and decreased consumption
  • Energy concerns caused introduction of daylight
    savings time and factory restrictions

78
16th Amendment
  • The Congress shall have power to lay and collect
    taxes on incomes, from whatever source derived,
    without apportionment among the several States
    and without regard to any census or enumeration.
  • The origins of the 16th Amendment (1913) date
    back to 1895, when the Supreme Court declared a
    federal income tax unconstitutional. To overturn
    this decision, this amendment authorizes an
    income tax that is levied on a direct basis.

79
  • Paying for the war (32 billion or 44 million a
    day)
  • US raised income taxes, allowed by 16th Amendment
  • War bonds sold to Americans paid for 20 billion
  • Changing populations
  • African Americans and Hispanics
  • Great Migration African Americans moved to the
    North to take jobs that were vacated by white
    workers going to war
  • Political turmoil in Mexico and job opportunities
    spike large immigration by Hispanics
  • African Americans and Hispanics joined the
    military in segregated units

80
  • Women
  • Over 1 million join workforce, although most
    leave after the war
  • Women enlisted or hired by military for mainly
    clerical and support positions
  • Army Nursing Corps only women sent overseas
  • http//www.youtube.com/watch?vXonhwLrAUVssafety_
    modetruepersist_safety_mode1

81
Women in the Work Force
  • Turn to women to work in factories and build
    products for war

82
  • Social and political issues
  • Restricting anti-war actions and speech
  • Climate of suspicion surrounded country,
    especially immigrants or those of German descent
  • Espionage Act of 1917 penalized those spying or
    interfering with the war effort
  • Schenck v. United States Charles Schenck
    unsuccessfully argued that free speech protected
    distribution of anti-draft materials
  • Free speech can not constitute a clear and
    present danger and wartime allowed more
    restrictive circumstances
  • Sedition Act of 1918 made it illegal to publicly
    express opposition to the war

83
Readings
  • The U.S. Sedition Act
  • Make America Safe for Democracy First
  • Robert La Follette Demands His Rights (1917)

84
  • Economic and worker issues
  • Increased production for World War I causes
    inflation
  • Conflicts increase between unions and owners
  • Large strikes occur throughout US, including the
    general strike (all workers) in Seattle
  • Increased labor concerns raise fear of the spread
    of socialism and help lead to the Red Scare in
    1920s

85
Ending of WWI
  • Germany and its allies are exhausted
  • All fighting has taken place Outside of Germany
    to this point.
  • Seeing very little damage done at home, Germany
    calls for an end to the war
  • Returning German Soldiers treated as heroes
  • Cease-Fire agreed on November 8th 1918
  • Goes into effect 3 days later at 11am.
  • France and Britain deal with Germany harshly, and
    threaten to restart war if Germany does no accept
    Treaty of Versailles
  • http//www.youtube.com/watch?vOuw3OdcL5GIsafety_
    modetruepersist_safety_mode1

86
The Ending of World War I and its Consequences
  • I. Ending of World War I
  • Popular misconception is that World War I ended
    with just the Treaty of Versailles
  • Ended with a series of treaties between the
    Allies and separate members of the Central Powers
  • War on Eastern Front ended earlier with Treaty of
    Brest-Litovsk, where Russia gave vast territory
    to Central Powers

87
  • II. Treaty of Versailles (November 11, 1918)
  • Ended war between Allies and Germany only
  • Germany and Russia given no say in treaty
  • Each of the major Allied Powers came in with
    different goals
  • France punish Germany for the war
  • Britain decrease German power and punish, but
    leave it enough to counterbalance France
  • Italy Obtain territory promised at outset of war
  • United States Achieve a lasting peace in Europe
    as planned through Woodrow Wilsons Fourteen
    Points

88
Discussion
  • President Woodrow Wilsons Fourteen Points

89
  • Fourteen Points
  • A League of Nations would help resolve
    international disputes to avoid future wars
  • Self-determination to allow ethnic groups
    formerly part of larger empires to determine
    status as new nations
  • Restoration of territories seized by European
    powers previous to the war
  • Wilson is forced to concede many goals about a
    less harsh settlement in order to obtain the
    League of Nations

90
Peace, Diplomacy Reparation
91
  • Results of the Treaty of Versailles
  • Germany must accept total blame for war and pay
    32 billion in war reparations
  • Germans lose territory to creation of new
    European nations and enemies
  • Germany must demilitarize
  • Germany loses African and Chinese colonies
  • Germany is both crippled economically and
    politically angry, helping lead to World War II
  • http//www.youtube.com/watch?vyj_eiyBsSScfeature
    related

92
  • US fails to ratify Treaty of Versailles
  • Many in US fearful of League of Nations as an
    entangling international alliance
  • US Senate fails to approve Treaty of Versailles
  • US does not join League of Nations, lessening the
    overall strength of the organization

93
Wilsons Last Days
94
  • Recognition of Armenia as independent
  • Armenians were subjected to genocidal actions
    during the war
  • Armenians were a Christian minority viewed as
    siding with Russia in the war
  • Forced marches to camps with high death rates,
    rape, robbery, murder were all used against the
    Armenians
  • Nearly one million Armenians were killed
  • Lack of prosecution viewed as partially
    influential on later Holocaust
  • Today though viewed by many as a genocide,
    including 20 nations and 39 US states (including
    MO, but not US as a whole)

95
Armenian Genocide Did it really happen? Was it
the worlds first genocide?
A telegram sent by Ambassador Henry Morgenthau
Sr. to the State Department on July 16, 1915
describes the massacres as a "campaign of race
extermination."
96
Armenian Genocide Did it really happen? Was it
the worlds first genocide?
The bodies of dead Armenians lie in a grove of
trees in eastern Ottoman Empire, 1915.
97
Armenian Genocide Did it really happen? Was it
the worlds first genocide?
Starving Armenian children
98
Armenian Genocide Did it really happen? Was it
the worlds first genocide?
http//www.youtube.com/watch?vYomWds4VVzYfeature
relatedsafety_modetruepersist_safety_mode1
http//www.youtube.com/watch?vHbjCyOjmTS8
99
Aftermath of the War
  • Germany is left devastated by the treaty.
  • German citizens angry at Allies
  • German money left worthless due to inflation
  • Inflation causes massive depression.
  • Wilson breaks ties with England and France
    getting his League of Nations passed.
  • US takes a policy of isolation
  • Japans Power in the Pacific is unchecked by
    Russia because of the Bolshevik Revolution
  • Desperate German citizens begin to look
    everywhere for help.
  • http//www.youtube.com/watch?vmTuIzGe2Nz8

100
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