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The Great War, The War to End All Wars, World War I

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The Great War, The War to End All Wars, World War I Causes, Battles, Life at Home, and the Consequences of War https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XRcg_t2oJkc – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Great War, The War to End All Wars, World War I


1
The Great War,The War to End All Wars, World War
I
  • Causes, Battles, Life at Home, and the
    Consequences of War

https//www.youtube.com/watch?vXRcg_t2oJkc
2
Marching Toward War
  • The long-term causes of World War I
  • M militarism
  • A alliances
  • I imperialism
  • N nationalism
  • Immediate cause of war
  • Crisis in the Balkans
  • Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand

3
Militarism
  • Having a large and strong standing army
  • Generals developed detailed plans for mobilization

4
Alliances
  • Designed to keep peace, but instead it would push
    the continent to war
  • Triple Alliance
  • Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy
  • Triple Entente
  • Great Britain
  • Russia
  • France

5
https//vimeo.com/79745051
6
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7
EUROPE IN 1914
8
Imperialism
  • Quest for colonies fueled competition
  • Sense of rivalry and mistrust deepened

9
Nationalism
  • Caused intense competition among nations
  • Germany, Austria-Hungary, Great Britain, Russia,
    Italy, and France
  • Balkan Region
  • Russia and Austria-Hungary both wanted to
    dominate the region
  • Intense nationalism of Serbs, Bulgarians,
    Romanians, and other ethnic groups led to demands
    for independence

10
Crisis in the Balkans
  • Powder keg of Europe
  • Nationalism caused many nations to want to expand
    its borders
  • 1908, Austria annexed Bosnia and Herzegovina
  • Area had a large Slavic population
  • Serbia south to rule these provinces (similar
    ethnicity)
  • June 28, 1918 Archduke Franz Ferdinand and his
    wife are assassinated

11
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13
https//www.youtube.com/watch?vBCTIaiiGB4o
14
Shot Rings Throughout Europe
  • The assassin was
  • a Serbian
  • Austria presented
  • Serbia with an
  • ultimatum
  • Serbia agreed to
  • most of the demands, but not all of them
  • Austria then declares war on Serbia
  • Russia, an ally of Serbia, declares war on
    Austria
  • Germany declared war on Russia
  • Then, Germany declared war on France

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16
And so, the Great War begins
  • Central Powers (Germany, Austria-Hungary, and the
    Ottoman Empire)
  • Allied Powers (France, Great Britain, Russia,
    Japan, Italy)
  • Why does Italy stand out?
  • War started late summer
  • Everyone expected to be home by Christmas
  • Millions of soldiers enlisted

17
World War I Posters
18
Now its your turn, create your own military
poster
  • Create a military poster to persuade others to
    join the war effort
  • Your poster can be from the perspective of any
    warring nations
  • Be creative and have fun the activity
  • This is 2 of your portfolio so use this time to
    complete this part.

19
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20
A Bloody Stalemate
  • Schlieffen Plan
  • Germany military plan
  • Attack France in the west and quickly defeat
    them. Why?
  • Then, attack Russia
  • Trying to avoid a two-front war
  • Did not go as planned- Battle of the Marne
  • Stalemate ensued in the west
  • Trench warfare
  • ..\Unit 12\Realities_of_War__The_Trenches__Weapons
    __and_Death.asf

21
The Schlieffen Plan
22
Trench Warfare
https//www.youtube.com/watch?vBq7KrXffLIo
https//www.youtube.com/watch?v8FFOXJPlci4
23
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24
WW1- Hell in the Trenches! YouTubehttps//www.
youtube.com/watch?vAoEHd1RNlI4
25
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26
Changes in Technology
  • Poison gas
  • Machine Gun
  • Tank
  • Submarine
  • All this new technology did was kill greater
    numbers of people

27
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29
POP QUIZ
  1. Give the word for each letter of the MAIN causes
    of WW1.
  2. Whose assassination sparked WW1?
  3. What battle stopped the Schlieffen plan attack on
    France?
  4. What was the last major defeat of the
    Russians-that turned the tide on the Eastern
    Front?
  5. What type of warfare was used on the Western
    Front as seen in the movie?

30
Eastern Front
  • More mobile
  • Battle on Tannenberg
  • Germans crushed Russians
  • 30,000 Russians died
  • German controlled or won most battles
  • By 1916, Russias war effort was near collapse
  • Not industrialized-always short on supplies
  • One asset soldiers
  • Germany could not defeat and focus on west
  • The Battle Of Tannenberg (WWI) - YouTube

31
Second Battle of Ypres
  • April 1915
  • Western Front
  • Began to divert Allied attention from the Eastern
    Front AND to test chlorine gas
  • Gas affected 10,000 troops
  • Within ten minutes half of the troops had died
  • 2,000 were captured
  • Little land was gained, now poison gas was used
  • Canada and the Battle of Ypres YouTube

32
Battle of Verdun
  • Lasted from February to December 1916
  • German attack to weaken the French(historic-import
    ant site)
  • Considered by many military historians as the
    'greatest' and most demanding battle in history
  • Well over 1.5 million soldiers killed and wounded
  • The outcome?
  • The front lines were about the same as the day it
    started.
  • Verdun- Shell Shock - YouTube

33
Battle of Somme
  • Was a British attempt to relieve pressure at
    Verdun. North of Verdun
  • Lasted five months
  • Symbolized the horrors of warfare
  • High causalities
  • 420,000 British
  • 200,000 French
  • 500,000 Germans
  • https//www.youtube.com/watch?vowLn_S0zaBo

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36
  • Gallipoli
  • Allied plan to gain control of waterways to Black
    Sea to be able to supply Russia
  • Disastrous for the Allies. German and Turkish
    soldiers hold them off for most of 1915.
  • Africa/Asia
  • Japan took over many German colonies in
    Asia/Pacific
  • English/French took over 3 African colonies

37
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38
The Home Front
  • War affected
  • EVERYONE!! (Total War)
  • Rationing
  • War bonds
  • Government takes over
  • economy
  • News was censored
  • Propaganda
  • Women began to
  • enter work force

39
Propaganda
  • Ideas, facts, or allegations spread deliberately
    to further one's cause or to damage an opposing
    cause
  • Glorify your nation
  • Make your enemy appear evil, almost frightening

40
End of World War I
  • Russia withdraws
  • Revolution broke out under Lenin

41
End of World War I
  • United States joins Allied Powers
  • Germany was practicing unrestricted submarine
    warfare
  • Sinking of the Lusitania
  • Zimmerman Note
  • Bring fresh troops

42
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43
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44
End of World War I
  • Allies win
  • Signed armistice on November 11, 1918
  • Both sides lost many men and women
  • Devastating impact on economies

45
Allied Power Losses
World War One had left Europe devastated. Those
countries that had fought in it, had suffered
casualties never experienced before Britain  
750,000 soldiers killed 1,500,000
wounded France 1,400,000 soldiers killed
2,500,000 wounded Belgium 50,000 soldiers
killed Italy 600,000 soldiers killed Russia
1,700,000 soldiers killed America 116,000
soldiers killed
46
Central Power Losses
  • Those who had fought against the Allies suffered
    heavy casualties as well
  • Germany 2,000,000 soldiers killed
  • Austria-Hungary 1,200,000 soldiers killed
  • Turkey 325,000 soldiers killed
  • Bulgaria 100,000 soldiers killed
  • The total deaths of all nations who fought in the
    war is thought to have been 8.5 million with 21
    million being wounded.

47
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48
Other Effects of War
  • Alongside these statistics, was the fact that
    vast areas of north-eastern Europe had been
    reduced to rubble. Flanders in Belgium had been
    all but destroyed with the ancient city of Ypres
    being devastated. The homes of 750,000 French
    people were destroyed and the infrastructure of
    this region had also been severely damaged.
    Roads, coal mines, telegraph poles had all been
    destroyed and such a loss greatly hindered the
    area's ability to function normally.
  • The victors from World War One were in no mood to
    be charitable to the defeated nations and Germany
    in particular was held responsible for the war
    and its consequences.
  • During mid-1918, Europe was hit by Spanish flu
    and an estimated 25 million people died. This
    added to the feeling of bitterness that ran
    through Europe and this anger was primarily
    directed at Germany.

49
Creating the Treaty of Versailles
  • Big Four
  • Woodrow Wilson, Georges Clemenceau, David Lloyd
    George, and Vittorio Orlando
  • Wilsons Fourteen Points
  • End secret treaties
  • Freedom of seas and trade
  • Reduce national armies
  • Association of nations that would protect great
    and small states alike
  • Changing borders/creating new countries

50
Treaty of Versailles
  • Paris Peace Conference
  • France and Britain opposed Wilsons Fourteen
    Points
  • Signed Treaty of Versailles
  • Created a League of Nations
  • United States does not join
  • Treaty punished Germany
  • War-Guilt Clause
  • Sole blame on Germany
  • Germany forced to pay reparations

51
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52
The treaty can be divided into a number of
sections territorial, military, financial and
general.
  • Territorial
  • The following land was taken away from Germany
  • Alsace-Lorraine (given to France)
  • Eupen and Malmedy (given to Belgium)
  • Northern Schleswig (given to Denmark)
  • Hultschin (given to Czechoslovakia)
  • West Prussia, Posen and Upper Silesia (given to
    Poland)
  • The Saar, Danzig and Memel were put under the
    control of the League of Nations and the people
    of these regions would be allowed to vote to stay
    in Germany or not in a future referendum.
  • The League of Nations also took control of
    Germany's overseas colonies.Germany had to
    return to Russia land taken in the Treaty of
    Brest-Litovsk. Some of this land was made into
    new states Estonia, Lithuania and Latvia. An
    enlarged Poland also received some of this land.

53
Military
  • Germanys army was reduced to 100,000 men the
    army was not allowed tanks
  • She was not allowed an airforce
  • She was allowed only 6 capital naval ships and no
    submarines
  • The west of the Rhineland and 50 kms east of the
    River Rhine was made into a demilitarised zone
    (DMZ). No German soldier or weapon was allowed
    into this zone.
  • The Allies were to keep an army of occupation on
    the west bank of the Rhine for 15 years.

54
Financial
  • The loss of vital industrial territory would be a
    severe blow to any attempts by Germany to rebuild
    her economy. Coal from the Saar and Upper Silesia
    in particular was a vital economic loss. Combined
    with the financial penalties linked to
    reparations, it seemed clear to Germany that the
    Allies wanted nothing else but to bankrupt her.
  • Germany was also forbidden to unite with Austria
    to form one superstate, in an attempt to keep her
    economic potential to a minimum.

55
General
  • There are three vital clauses here
  • 1. Germany had to admit full responsibility for
    starting the war. This was Clause 231 - the
    infamous "War Guilt Clause".
  • 2. Germany, as she was responsible for starting
    the war as stated in clause 231, was, therefore
    responsible for all the war damage caused by the
    First World War. Therefore, she had to pay
    reparations, the bulk of which would go to France
    and Belgium to pay for the damage done to the
    infrastructure of both countries by the war.
    Reparations would be used to pay for the damage
    to be repaired. Payment could be in kind or cash.
    The figure was not set at Versailles - it was to
    be determined later. The Germans were told to
    write a blank check which the Allies would cash
    when it suited them. A huge sum of money well
    beyond Germanys ability to pay.        
  • 3. A League of Nations was set up to keep world
    peace. 

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60
A Troubled Treaty
  • What problems do you see with this treaty?
  • Central Powers lose a lot of land
  • U.S. rejected treaty
  • War-guilt clause left a legacy of bitterness
  • Colonies in Africa and Asia are angry
  • Japan and Italy do not gain more land

61
  • German postcard, produced about the time of the
    Treaty of Versailles, showing the land where
    Germans lived.   The areas in red are the lands
    given to other countries by the Treaty of
    Versailles,( including the land lost by
    Austria).      
  • Its title is 'Lost but not forgotten land'.
  • The poem under the map reads
  • You must carve in your heart
  • These words, as in stone -
  • What we have lost
  • Will be regained!
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