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  • Chapter 15

Prelude to Reformation
  • Beginning in the Late Middle Ages there was an
    increasing number of calls for the reform of the
    Catholic Church.
  • Complaints about the corruption in the clergy
  • Complaints about the excessive power of the Pope.
  • What were the complaints?

Christian Humanism
  • Objections to structure and government of church?
  • Objections to approach and role of priests?
  • What did Christian Humanists believe about the
    power of individual Christians?
  • Supported education in Christian Classics,
    schools and translation of the bible into the
    vernacular language of the people.

  • Most influential of the Christian humanists.
  • The Handbook of the Christian Knight.
  • What was his central thesis?
  • In Praise of Folly
  • His most famous work
  • What was his basic message?
  • Erasmus is considered to have laid much of the
    philosophical groundwork for the later
  • Did he want to divide the church?
  • How did he feel about Luther?

Church and Religion on the Eve of the Reformation
  • Belief that the clergy was corrupt and
  • Focus on finances.
  • Church offices purchased by wealthy.
  • Sale of indulgences.
  • Poor quality of parish priests

Martin Luther
  • Germany Monk, very spiritual, well educated.
  • Professor in theology Lectured on the Bible.
  • Concerned with the question of how one attained
  • Churchs view
  • Luthers view on salvation
  • Luthers view on ultimate authority of religious

95 Theses
  • Johann Tetzel. What did he do that angered
    Luther? Why was he doing it?
  • Luthers objection to indulgences
  • 95 Theses
  • Luthers intent in publishing his Theses?
  • Luthers 95 Theses were widely printed and
    circulated and resonated with many in Germany
  • What did he ultimately call on German Princes to

Luthers Views
  • Salvation
  • Source of Religious Truth
  • Sacraments
  • Celibacy of Priests
  • Language of Mass
  • Veneration of Saints

Edict of Worms
  • Luther is excommunicated in 1521
  • Summoned before the imperial diet at Worms to
    appear before the newly-elected Holy Roman
    Emperor, Charles V
  • What was Luther asked to do? How did he respond?
  • Edict of Worms.
  • What is it?

Lutheranism Spreads
  • Between 1521-1525 Luthers movement became a
  • Many princes adopt Lutheranism and make state
  • How did structure of The Holy Roman Empire
    contribute to its spread?
  • Spreads to Scandinavia.
  • Luther creates a new religious service for these
  • How does it differ from Catholic service?
  • Mid-1520s the reform movement undergoes growing
    pains as dissenters try to espouse views of their
  • Many conservative Christian humanists abandon the
    movement. Why?

German Peasant Revolts
  • Peasants in Germany revolted in 1524 and looked
    to Luther for support.
  • Why did they revolt?
  • How did Lutheranism contribute to their revolt
  • What did Luther do?
  • Why?

Politics and Religion in the German Reformation
  • Germany was a loosely affiliated group of
    Principalities, free imperial cities, and
    ecclesiastical principalities.
  • All pledged loyalty to the Holy Roman Emperor,
    whom they elected,
  • States had gained a great deal of independence
    from the Emperor and they wanted to keep it.
  • How did this contribute to adoption of
    Lutheranism by Princes?

Charles V
  • Charles V (Hapsburg) was heir to the Spanish
    throne (as Charles I)
  • He ruled over a far-flung empire.
  • Spain and its possessions,
  • Hapsburg territories of Austria, Hungary, Bohemia
    and the Low Countries.
  • Also, selected as the Holy Roman Emperor, which
    had traditionally gone to the Hapsburgs.
  • He wanted to stamp out Lutheranism and exert
    stronger control over the princes, but he had
    other problems.

Charles Frustration
  • Charles wanted to preserve Catholic unity in his
    empire, but had to deal with other problems.
    What are they?
  • War with France that lasted from 1521 until 1544
  • Incursions in the east from the Turks.
  • The Pope (Clement VII) had sided with the French

Peace of Augsburg
  • By the time Charles V was able to bring military
    forces to Germany Lutheranism had taken hold and
    princes were unified and organized.
  • Forced to enter into the Peace of Augsburg
  • Terms?
  • Did it create religious tolerance?
  • Consequences for Lutheranism

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  • New flavors of Protestantism emerged in Europe.
    Switzerland was the heart of two other movements.
  • Zwinglianism.
  • Founded by Ulrich Zwingli. Starting in 1518 he
  • preached in Zurich.
  • What was his basic doctrine?
  • What is key difference with Lutheranism?
  • Zwingli is killed and Zwinglianism is defeated in
    Swiss civil war in 1531 between Catholic and
    Protestant states.

  • After the death Zwingli, protestant leadership in
    Switzerland passed to John Calvin.
  • 1536 Institutes of Christian Religion puts him at
    the forefront of Protestantism.
  • Similarities and differences with Lutheranism?
  • Predestination
  • the elect vs. the reprobates

Spread of Calvinism
  • Became a relatively militant and unforgiving
    doctrine. American Puritans were Calvinists.
  • 1536 Calvin creates a Calvinist theocracy in
  • Consistory
  • What is it?
  • What are its policies?
  • Geneva became the center of Protestantism in
    Europe and Calvinism becomes the dominant
    Protestant faith.

Spread of Calvinism
  • John Knox, spreads Calvinism to Scotland.
    Presbyterian Church.
  • Spreads to FranceHuguenots. Netherlands and
    eastern Europe.
  • By the mid-16th century Calvinism had replaced
    Lutheranism as the militant form of Protestantism.

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English Reformation
  • Henry VIII, the Defender of the Faith.
  • Wife is Catherine of Aragon had only one
    surviving child, Mary Tudor.
  • Henry VIII wanted a divorce. Why?
  • He applied to the Pope for an annulment.
  • What did the Pope say? Why?
  • How does Henry respond?

Act of Supremacy
  • Act of Supremacy.
  • What does it say?
  • What political advantages for Henry?
  • Thomas Cranmer appointed Archbishop, Annuls
    Henrys Marriage
  • Cranmers Goals?
  • Henrys Response?
  • Anglican Church
  • Differences with Catholicism
  • Anne Boleyn . Elizabeth

Edward VI
  • 1547 Henry VIII dies
  • Succeeded by Edward VI (only 10)
  • Turmoil swept England.
  • Scotland invaded
  • peasant violence.
  • Edward dominated by devout Protestants who pushed
    for Calvinist reforms.
  • Cranmer --Book of Common Prayer
  • How does Cranmer change doctrine of Anglican

Mary Tudor 1553-1558
  • Mary Tudor inherits the throne when Edward dies
    in his teens
  • Determined to make England Catholic again.
  • What does she do regarding religious doctrine?
  • How does parliament react?
  • Parliament would not support the return of church
    lands to the church.
  • Called Bloody Mary. Why?
  • What did she do to her half-sister, Elizabeth?

Mary and Philip II
  • Mary married Phillip II of Spain, son of Charles
    V and future king of Spain.
  • This caused an uprising in England. Why?
  • Led to plot to depose her.
  • Opposition to Mary made England more Protestant
    than it had been before heir reign
  • 1558 Queen Elizabeth takes the throne when Mary
  • She reigns for 45 years

  • Groups in England that favored radical religious
  • Religious Beliefs?
  • Should return to Christianity as it was practiced
    at time of Christ.
  • No formal priestsall believers were priests and
    each church should select among themselves.
  • No formalized structured service.
  • Rejected formalized theology in favor of living
    in accordance with the word of Christ and bible.
  • Rejected infant baptism in favor of adult baptism
  • Believed in the complete separation of Church and
  • Refused to hold political office or to bear arms.
  • Both Protestants and Catholics thought they were

Impact of Reformation on Family
  • End of celibate priests vaults status of family
  • Role of men
  • How is position of women reduced?

Reformation Makes Life More Stern
  • Reformation led to radical changes in religious
    practices that spilled over into daily life and
  • Indulgences, veneration of saints, holy days,
    veneration of relics all gone
  • Protestant services where much plainer. Much
    more emphasis on scripture, the sermon and
  • Some reformers tried to impose harsh restrictions
    on social entertainments.
  • Calvinists in England (Puritans) tried to close
    the pubs, theaters and dance halls.
  • Dutch Calvinists tried to do away with the giving
    of gifts at the feast of St. Nicholas (Christmas).

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  • By the middle of the 16th Century the Catholic
    church had suffered severe setbacks
  • Germany, Scandinavia, Switzerland, France, the
    Netherlands and much of eastern Europe had become
  • Church tries to reform itself to compete strongly
    against the Protestant tide.
  • Led to the Catholic Reformation.
  • Three pillars to the Catholic reformation
  • Development of the Jesuits
  • Reformed and revived Papacy
  • Council of Trent

Society of JesusJesuits
  • Jesuits were a military order founded by Ignatius
    of Loyola, a former Spanish soldier.
  • Highly disciplined, tightly knit religious order
    dedicated to rolling back Protestantism and
    spreading the Catholic faith.
  • Jesuits took a vow of absolute obedience to the
  • Were the Churchs shock troops.
  • Were like a military organization in discipline
    and organization.
  • What did Loyola see as the cause of the

  • Jesuit monks underwent more training than
    ordinary priests and pledge to travel anywhere to
    serve Christ
  • Jesuit schools
  • Curriculum
  • Who did they focus education on?
  • Jesuits gained great power as the spiritual
    directors to kings.
  • Were successful in restoring Catholicism in parts
    of Germany and eastern Europe.
  • Also active in converting pagans. Especially
    active in the new world

Reformed Papacy
  • The Renaissance Popes undermined the authority
    or and respect for the Pope
  • The Protestant reformation was a jolt that
    prompted reform in the nature of the Papacy.
  • Pope Paul III became Pope in 1549 and began
    reform within the Vatican,
  • What did he do?
  • What conclusions did the council reach

Council of Trent
  • Met intermittently between 1545 and 1563 to
    determine whether to reform doctrine and
  • What did Reform-minded Catholics want? What was
    their goal?
  • When Protestant leaders insisted that scripture
    was the sole source of religious teaching, this
    was a non-starter. Hope of reconciliation died.
  • What did conservatives want?
  • Which side won out?
  • Council did make a number of reforms in practices
    and procedures

Council of Trent-Doctrinal Statement
  • Scripture AND tradition were affirmed as equal
    authorities in religious matters
  • Only the church could interpret Scripture
    (Protestants believed that laymen should read and
    interpret the bible)
  • Faith AND Good works were necessary for
  • Seven sacraments, doctrine of transubstantiation
    and clerical celibacy were affirmed.
  • Belief in purgatory and the efficacy of
    indulgences affirmed.

Procedural and Administrative changes
  • Bishops required to reside in their own dioceses
    suppressed pluralism
  • Forbade the sale of indulgences
  • Clerics had to give up concubines
  • Each diocese required to establish a seminary
    preference given to the sons of the poor.
  • Seminary professors were to determine whether
    candidates for ordination had the vocation

  • In 1542 Pope Paul III established the Sacred
    Congregation of the Holy Office with jurisdiction
    over the Roman Inquisition.
  • It had judicial authority over all Catholics and
    the power to arrest, imprison and execute.
  • Its mission was to vigorously attack heresy.
  • Published an Index of Prohibited Books
  • Influence was strong within the papal states and
    strongly catholic nations such as France and
  • Outside the papal territories its influence was
    more modest

The French Wars of Religion (1562-1598)
  • French Civil Wars had two intertwined causes
    Religion and struggle between crown and nobles.
  • Fight between the Catholic majority and the
    Huguenot (Calvinist) minority.
  • Battle between the ruling Valois-Bourbon house
    and the nobles over how much power the monarchy
    would have.
  • Huguenots came from all layers of society
    including the nobility.
  • Proportion of Huguenots among the nobility was
    much higher than in the population as a whole.

House of Bourbon
  • Why were so many nobles Huguenots?
  • House of Bourbon became Huguenots.
  • Next to the Valois in the royal line of
  • Rules the southern French kingdom of Navarre.
  • The Valois monarchy is staunchly Catholic.
  • Because it has control of the church, it has
    little incentive to give Protestants a break.

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  • During the period a militantly Catholic group
    emergedultra-Catholics. Favored strict
    opposition to the Huguenots.
  • Ultra-Catholics had loyalty of large sections of
    the country,
  • Received money and support from the papacy and
    the Jesuits.

French Civil Wars
  • St. Bartholomews Day Massacre, 8/24/1572
  • Civil Wars retarded Frances development as an
    international and colonial power
  • Wars lasted for 30 years.

Resolution of French Civil Wars
  • Who are the politiques? What do they argue?
  • Views began to prevail
  • In 1589 Henry of Navarre succeeds to the crown
  • How?
  • He is from House of Bourbon and leader of the
  • What does he do to get the nation to accept him
    and end the Civil War?
  • Edict of Nantes (1598)
  • Catholicism is the official religion of France
  • Huguenots guaranteed freedom of worship and right
    to all political privileges.
  • Huguenots have the right to fortify their castles
    and towns.

Phillip II and the Cause of Militant Catholicism
  • Phillip II --son of Charles V (HRE).
  • Charles abdicates in 1556. Why?
  • He divided his empire between his younger brother
    Ferdinand, who gets Holy Roman Empire and Austria
    and his son Phillip, who gets Spain, Netherlands
    and New World possessions.
  • Phillips goals
  • Strengthen the central monarchy in Spain
  • Exert stronger authority over his territories.
  • Strengthen power of Church and beat back

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Phillip II
  • Spain is a strongly Catholic nation. See
    themselves as nation chosen to protect
    Christianity from Protestantism.
  • Phillip becomes the greatest advocate of militant
    Catholicism and ushers in an age of Spanish
    greatness and power.
  • Insists on strict conformity to Catholicism and
    adherence to dictates of monarchy
  • Holy League and Battle of Lepanto in 1571. Who
    do they defeat?

Spanish Netherlands
  • Spanish Netherlands were very important to Spain.
  • Phillips attempt to strengthen Spains control
    over the area led to revolt. Why?
  • Violence erupts in 1566 when Calvinists destroy
    Catholic Churches.
  • Phillip sends in 10,000 troops under the Duke of
  • William of Orange.
  • English Aid to Netherlands

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  • 1609 truce ends the war
  • Virtually guarantees the independence of the
    northern provinces, (United Provinces)
  • Core of modern Dutch Netherlands.
  • Spain retains the 10 southern provinces (modern

The England of Elizabeth
  • Elizabeth I took the throne of England in 1558
    and ruled for 45 years.
  • Considered one of the best British Monarchs.
  • Under her reign England went from a relatively
    poor, second-tier country to the leader of
    Protestant Europe
  • Powerful maritime power poised to create a vast

Religious Reforms
  • Elizabeths first problem was to try to heal he
    wounds in her country over religion.
  • What is Elizabeths approach?
  • What does she do to pursue this approach?
  • Repeals the anti-Protestant laws of Mary
  • Passed a new Act of Supremacy making the monarch
    the only supreme governor of both the Church and
  • Modified the church service to meet some of the
    objections of Catholicsmade less Protestant

Elizabeth and Foreign Policy
  • Elizabeth had to steer a careful course in
    foreign policy.
  • Why?
  • Elizabeth was pressed by her advisors to make a
    political marriage. Why?
  • She rejected these calls. Why?
  • How did she use her unmarried status as a
    diplomatic weapon?
  • Using this and other diplomatic maneuvers, she
    kept England neutral and unencumbered by
    alliances that would force England into war.
  • Virgin Queen.

Elizabeth Tweaks France and Spain
  • Elizabeth provided clandestine help to both the
    Dutch Calvinists and French Huguenots. Why?
  • Commissioned privateers to raid Spanish treasure
    ships returning from the New World. Why?

Golden Hinde
Conflict with Spain
  • Phillip II ultimately decided to invade England
  • Reasons
  • Believed that revolt in Netherlands would never
    be put down while England was aiding them.
  • Irritated by privateering
  • Wanted to claim England back for the Pope.
  • Believed that if Spanish troops appeared in
    England the people would rise up in support of
    Catholic liberators.

Spanish Armada
  • Phillips Plan
  • Create a powerful armada of 150 ships to destroy
    and dominate England in the North Atlantic
  • Invade with troops from Netherlands.
  • On paper, England appears to be in serious
  • What advantage to the English have? What is the
    key to Spanish naval strategy?
  • How does the weather aid England?
  • Armada suffers severe defeat and is forced to
    sail home.

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England Ascendant
  • Huge psychological impact.
  • Brits see this as Gods divine will stepping in
    to protect them.
  • Makes them feel powerful.
  • Beginning of English view that destined to be a
    major power.
  • Is the beginning of long decline for Spanish.
  • While they quickly rebuild their fleet domination
    of the Atlantic is at an end.
  • English now able to begin to try to colonize New
  • Strong negative psychological impact on Spanish.
  • Phillip II has depleted the Spanish treasury in
    battles against Turks, Dutch and English.
  • Spain is spread very thinly with its many
    over-seas possessions.

Social Upheaval in Europe
  • Between 1560 and 1650 Europe suffered economic
    and social crises as well as political upheaval.
    In addition to the religious turmoil and wars,
    other factors contributed.
  • Economy began to retract.
  • Italy, which had been an economic hot-bed of
    trade during the renaissance period was eclipsed
    by Atlantic powers.
  • Spains fortunes declined.
  • Mini-ice age after middle of 1500s hurt
    agriculture, leading to dislocation of farmers
    and intermittent food shortages.
  • Results in leveling and even slight decline in
    the population of Europe after 150 years of grow
    following the period of the Black Death.

Witchcraft Craze
  • Economic and Social upheaval results in social
    tensions that manifest themselves in witchcraft
  • Causes?
  • As many as 100,000 trials
  • Who was most frequently accused? Why?

The Thirty Years War (1618-1648)
  • Last of the religious wars, but also dynasty
    rivalry and balance of power.
  • King of Bohemia and the big pile of dung
  • Started in the Holy Roman Empire
  • Causes?
  • Protestant Union
  • Catholic League
  • Austrian and Catholic Hapsburgs v. French Burbons

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Four Phases of War
  • First phase
  • civil war in Bohemia as Bohemians fought for
    independence from Austrian Hapsburg rule.
  • Holy Roman Emperor, Ferdinand II totally defeated
    Protestant forces.
  • Second PhaseDanish Phase
  • Denmark intervenes to support Protestant forces.
    Catholics role up victories.
  • Third PhaseSwedish Phase
  • Swedish King intervened to support the Protestant
  • Decisive for the Protestants and ended Hapsburg
    ambition of uniting all the German states under
    imperial authority.

Four Phases of War
  • Fourth PhaseFrench/International phase
  • Death of Swedish King prompts French to enter the
    war to ensure that HRE does not remain strong.
  • France declares war on Spain and sends assistance
    to protestant forces in Germany.
  • War drags on with French, Dutch and Swedes,
    supported by Scots, Finns and German mercenaries
    burning, looting and destroying German
    agriculture and commerce.

  • War devastates Germany.
  • 1/3 of urban and 40 of rural population
  • Economy ravaged.

Peace of Westphalia1648
  • Terms
  • End of HRE as real political entity. Each of the
    German princes recognized as sovereign,
    independent authority
  • Independence of United Provinces of the
    Netherlands acknowledged.
  • France gets Alsace, increasing its size and
  • France allowed to intervene at will in German
  • Pope denied the right to intervene in German
  • Portugal recognized as independent of Spain.
  • France emerges as the dominant nation in Europe.

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