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Luther Leads The Reformation

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Chapter 17 Section 3 Elizabeth brought religious peace Protestant Priests could marry 1500 s began thinking of building an American Empire Colonies strengthened but ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Luther Leads The Reformation


1
Luther Leads The Reformation
  • Chapter 17
  • Section 3

2
Key Terms
  • Protestant Reformation
  • Indulgences
  • Lutheran
  • Theocracy
  • Protestant
  • Peace of Augsburg
  • Henry VIII
  • Annul
  • Anglican

3
Catholicism in the 1400s
  • Gained power and wealth
  • Influence, worldliness, and extravagance
  • Strayed from its spiritual roots
  • Protestant Reformation- a protest movement
    against the Catholic church

4
Dissatisfaction with the Church
  • Financial corruption
  • Abuse of power
  • Immorality
  • Church taxed people for renaissance projects
  • 1500s Pope Leo needed money to build Saint
    Peters Basiclica

5
Dissatisfaction with the Church
  • Indulgences-pardons issued by the pope to reduce
    a persons time in purgatory
  • Thousand years people believed you worked off
    your sins in purgatoryIndulgences one of the
    most criticized activities

6
Dissatisfaction with the Church
  • Nationalism or devotion to a particular country
    was growing
  • People thought of themselves as citizens,
    separate from the church

7
Early Reformers
  • John Wycliffe- believed the church should give up
    its worldly possessions
  • Jan Haus-1370 was a priest preached about
    immorality and worldliness of the Catholic church

8
Early Reformers
  • Hus excommunicated by Pope Gregory XII
  • Arrested for heresy and burned at the stake
  • First influential theologians to openly criticize
    the church

9
Martin Luther
  • Selling indulgences was sinful
  • Criticized the power of the pope and wealth of
    the church
  • Luthers theses were for church leaders
  • Written in Latin and nailed to a church door
  • His actions began the Reformation(religious
    movement)

10
Martin Luther
  • Not meant to be discussed at universities
  • Printing press helped them to spread throughout
    Europe
  • Read by intellectuals, clergy, and laypeople
  • Made sense to many people and they wanted reform

11
Luthers Message
  • Contradicted basic Catholic beliefs
  • Gods grace can not be won by good works
  • Also need faith
  • Jesus was the head of the Christian church not
    the pope

12
Luthers Message
  • Christians should interpret the Bible
  • Christian practices should come from the bible
  • Translated the Bible into German
  • More people could read it without the aid of the
    clergy

13
Reactions to Luther
  • 1520 Pople Leo X excommunicated him
  • 1521 summoned to appear in front of the Holy
    Roman Emperor
  • Charles IV
  • German Diet
  • City of Worms
  • Luther refused to change his opinions

14
Reaction to Luther
  • Edict of Worms-Luther to be an outlaw and
    condemned his writings
  • Edict did not prevent Luther from spreading his
    ideas
  • 1530 Lutheranism was a recognized branch of
    Christianity

15
Reaction to Luther
  • 1529 Charles V moved to suppress Lutherans
  • Princes in Germany assembly issued a protestatio
    or protest
  • Term protestant came into being

16
The Spread of Protestantism
  • Luther stood against the Catholic Church
  • Opened the door to other religions
  • Lutheranism arose in Germany
  • Religious movements began in Switzerland. and
    Europe

17
Ulrich Zwingli
  • 22 year old priest
  • Established a church in Switzerland based on
    theocracy
  • Theocracy-government in which church and state
    are joined
  • Martin Luther opposed this

18
Ulrich Zwingli
  • Luther accused him of tampering with the word of
    God
  • Swiss Protestants could not win Luthers support
  • Catholics and Swiss Protestants fought
  • Zwingli died in battle

19
John Calvin
  • Next most important Protestant reformer
  • 1509 born in France
  • Supported Luthers reforms
  • Predestination-God knows who will be saved even
    before they are born

20
John Calvin
  • God guides their lives
  • Nothing they can do good or bad to change that
  • Calvinism took root in Switzerland
  • Viewed people as sinful by nature

21
John Calvin
  • Strict laws put in place to regulate behavior
  • Geneva- church attendance was mandatory
  • Number and courses of meals
  • Color of clothing
  • Feasting, dancing, singing , wearing jewelry were
    forbidden

22
John Calvin
  • Strictness- heart of Calvinists appeal
  • Sense of mission and discipline
  • Making world fit for the elect
  • Elect were the chosen ones

23
Other Reformers
  • John Knox-spokesman for reformation in Scotland
  • Replaced the Roman Catholic Church
  • Presbyterian denomination

24
Other Reformers
  • Anabaptists- rebaptizing adults
  • Was a crime punishable by death at the time
  • Latter evolved into several religious
    factions(Amish, Mennonites)

25
Protestantism Spread to England
  • King Henry VIII- 1509 became king at 17
  • Devout Catholic
  • Wrote protests against Luthers ideas
  • 1529 Henrys wife had a girl, wanted a male heir
  • Thought girl would weaken England

26
Protestantism Spreads to England
  • Henry wanted the marriage annulled
  • Annulment- means to declare the marriage invalid
    based on church laws
  • Pope offered several solutions did not grant
    annulment

27
Protestantism Spreads to England
  • Charles the IV Holy Roman Emperor could not agree
    on it (Catherines cousin)
  • Henry fell in love with Bobelyn

28
Reformation Parliament
  • Summoned by Henry
  • Declaration that England was no longer under
    authority of the pope
  • Changed rituals of the Church
  • Closed Catholic monasteries

29
Reformation Parliament
  • Distributed much of the land to his nobles
  • Helped build more support for the split
  • 1533 Henry and Bobelyn married
  • Parliament declared the marriage to Catherine
    annulled

30
Reformation Parliament
  • Anne gave birth to a girl
  • Parliament passed the Act of Supremacy
  • Take oath to declare Henry the Supreme head of
    the Church of England
  • Split with Rome complete

31
Henrys Heirs
  • Henry VIII had six wives
  • Edward VI the male heir
  • King at 9
  • Died before 16
  • Sister becomes queen
  • Mary returned to authority of the pope

32
Henrys Heirs
  • Hundreds of people burned at the stake
  • Called Bloody Mary
  • Little sorrow for Marys death
  • Elizabeth I was protestant
  • Draft Supremacy Act of 1559

33
Henrys Heirs
  • Split England from Rome
  • Felt threatened by Catholics who wanted a new
    queen
  • Persecuted anyone who worship as a Catholic
  • Elizabeth firmly establishes the Church of
    England or the Anglican

34
Elizabeth Faces Other Challenges
  • Elizabeth brought religious peace
  • Protestant Priests could marry
  • 1500s began thinking of building an American
    Empire
  • Colonies strengthened but did not enrich the Queen
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