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CHANGES IN THE NATURE AND FUNCTIONS OF STATE STRUCTURES

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Title: CHANGES IN THE NATURE AND FUNCTIONS OF STATE STRUCTURES


1
1750 - 1914
  • CHANGES IN THE NATURE AND FUNCTIONS OF STATE
    STRUCTURES

2
REVOLUTIONARY IDEAS
  • Revolution
  • A popular idea, means to an end
  • A way to restructure society
  • Popular sovereignty
  • Relocating sovereignty in the people
  • Traditional monarchs
  • Claimed a "divine right" to rule
  • Derived from God, unquestionable
  • Monarch unanswerable to people
  • Constitutional Limitations
  • Aristocracy, Enlightenment challenged king
  • Glorious Revolution of 1688
  • Made the monarch responsible to the people
  • John Locke's theory of contractual government
  • Authority comes from the consent of the governed
  • Freedom and equality
  • Demands for freedom of worship
  • Freedom of expression, assembly
  • Demands for political and legal equality

3
TYPES OF REVOLUTIONS
  • Aristocratic Revolution
  • Aristocracy fights to preserve privileges
  • Often against royal absolutism
  • Rarely for other classes rights
  • Usually ends with constitution, limits on
    monarchy
  • English Glorious Revolution (1688) is an example
  • Bourgeois (liberal) Revolution
  • Middle class seeks rights equal to nobility
  • Extension of franchise, ability to hold office
  • Issues of taxation often involved
  • Reforms limited and rarely radical, franchise
    limited
  • American (1776), French (1789), Meiji Restoration
    (1867)
  • Latin American Revolutions (1820s)
  • Mass revolutions
  • Most of society effected and involved
  • Often goals are quite radical
  • Methods to achieve are often quite violent
  • Nationalist Revolutions
  • China (1911)

4
REFORM
  • Often system allowed change without radical
    means, violence
  • Reform was a theme of 1750 1914
  • Reform movements
  • Increased, responsive democratic representation,
    institutions
  • Expansion of male suffrage was the key issue
  • One of the hallmarks of a democratic society
  • Very successful in US, Western Europe, British
    settler colonies, Japan
  • Less so in Latin America, Russia, Eastern Europe,
    Africa, Asia
  • Abolition of slavery, serfdom
  • Abolition movement was very successful
  • Other forms of coercive labor replaced them
  • Racial, social equality did not follow
  • Women Rights
  • One goal was full female franchise
  • Not achieved until after 1914 but progress
  • Foreign Reform Movements
  • India Civil Service Act
  • China Self-Strengthening
  • Tanzimat (Turkey)

5
THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION
  • Tension between Britain, American colonies
  • Legacy of Seven Years' War
  • British debt, North American tax burden
  • Colonists increasingly independent minded
  • Colonial protest
  • Over taxes, trade policies, Parliamentary rule
  • Colonial boycott of British goods
  • Attacks on British officials Boston Tea Party,
    1773
  • Political protest over representation in
    Parliament
  • Continental Congress, 1774
  • British troops, colonial militia skirmished at
    the village of Lexington, 1775
  • The Declaration of Independence, 4 July 1776
  • Thirteen united States of America severed ties
    with Britain
  • Declaration inspired by Enlightenment, Locke's
    theory of government
  • The American Revolution, 1775-1781
  • British advantages strong government, navy,
    army, loyalists in colonies
  • American advantages European allies, George
    Washington's leadership
  • Weary of a costly conflict, British forces
    surrendered in 1781
  • Building an independent state Constitutional
    Convention, 1787

6
FRENCH REVOLUTION NAPOLEON
  • Summoning the Estates General
  • Financial crisis half of government revenue went
    to national debt
  • King Louis XVI forced to summon Estates General
    to raise new taxes
  • Many representatives wanted sweeping political
    and social reform
  • First and Second Estates (nobles, clergy) tried
    to limit Third Estate (commoners)
  • National Assembly
  • Formed by representatives of Third Estate, 17
    June 1789
  • Demanded a written constitution and popular
    sovereignty
  • Angry mob seized the Bastille on 14 July, sparked
    insurrections in many cities
  • National Assembly wrote the "Declaration of the
    Rights of Man and the Citizen"
  • "Liberty, equality, and fraternity slogan and
    values of the National Assembly
  • The Assembly abolished the feudal system, altered
    the role of church
  • France became a constitutional monarchy, 1791
  • The Convention and the Reign of Terror
  • Replaced National Assembly under new
    constitution, 1791
  • Austrian and Prussian armies invaded France to
    restore ancien régime
  • Convention abolished the monarchy and proclaimed
    France a republic
  • King Louis XVI and Queen Marie Antoinette
    executed, 1793
  • Radical Jacobins dominated Convention in 1793-94
    in "reign of terror"

7
THE POLITICAL SPECTRUM
8
HAITIAN REVOLUTION
  • Saint-Domingue
  • Rich French colony on western Hispaniola
  • Society dominated by small white planter class
  • 90 percent of population were slaves
  • Horrendous working conditions
  • Large communities of escaped slaves (maroons)
  • Ideas of Enlightenment reached educated blacks
  • Free blacks fought in American war
  • Widespread discontent
  • White settlers sought self-governance
  • Gens de couleur sought political rights
  • Slaves wanted freedom
  • Slave revolt began in 1791
  • Factions of white settlers, gens de couleur,
    slaves battled each other
  • French troops arrived in 1792 British, Spanish
    intervened in 1793
  • Slaves conquer whole island including Spanish
    part
  • Whites driven into exile, executed
  • Toussaint Louverture (1744-1803)
  • Son of slaves, literate, son of Enlightenment

9
INDEPENDENCE IN LATIN AMERICA
  • Latin American society rigidly hierarchical
  • Social classes peninsulares, creoles, mestizos,
    slaves, indigenous peoples
  • Creoles sought to displace the peninsulares but
    retain their privileged position
  • Mestizos form the largest part of population,
    wanted rights
  • Mexican independence
  • Napoleon's invasion of Spain in 1807 weakened
    royal control of colonies
  • 1810 peasant revolt in Mexico led by Hidalgo,
    defeated by conservative creoles
  • 1821 Mexico briefly a military dictatorship,
    then in 1822 a republic
  • Southern Viceroyalty of New Spain split into
    several independent states in 1830s
  • Simon Bolivar to 1822
  • Led independence movement in South America
  • Inspired by George Washington, took arms against
    Spanish rule in 1811
  • Creole forces overcame Spanish armies throughout
    South America, 1824
  • Bolivar's effort of creating the Gran Colombia
    failed in 1830s
  • Jose de San Martin to 1825
  • Led independence movements in Bolivia, Argentina,
    Chile
  • United efforts with Bolivar
  • Brazilian independence
  • Portuguese royal court fled to Rio de Janeiro,
    1807

10
THE NEW AMERICAN MAP
11
LATIN AMERICA
  • Old Problems confront new realities
  • Leaders came from Enlightenment spoke of
    equality, freedom
  • No allowance freedom of religion
  • Slavery ended but not exploitation of poor,
    Indians
  • Equality was too threatening to elite
  • Democracy uncommon, rich men voted
  • Old color distinctions did not disappear rapidly,
    easily, or at all
  • Political fragmentation
  • Political instability after independence
  • Creole leaders ruled but had little experience
    with self-government
  • White minority dominated politics
  • Peasant majority was without power
  • Political instability aggravated by division
    among elites
  • Constant argument between centralizing and
    federalizing pressures
  • Conflicts between farmers, ranchers, indigenous
    peoples common
  • Intense fighting in Argentina, Chile modern
    weapons against native peoples
  • Colonists had pacified most productive land by
    1870s
  • Caudillos, Caudillism, Politics and the Church
  • Military leaders who held power after
    revolutionary era

12
NATIONALISM
  • Born in France (Joan of Arc), spread abroad
    during French Revolution
  • Idea began as radical, adopted by liberals, used
    by conservatives
  • An idea which could unify society across social
    classes
  • Many aspects similar to religion, faith
  • Loyalty to state often replaces loyalty to
    church, monarch
  • Dominated 19th century
  • Cultural nationalism
  • An expression of national identity
  • Emphasized common historical experience
  • Used folk culture, literature, music
  • Illustrated national spirit, distinctiveness
  • Political nationalism more intense in the
    nineteenth century
  • Demanded loyalty, solidarity from national group
  • Minorities sought independence as national
    community
  • Young Italy formed by Giuseppe Mazzini
  • World-wide spread
  • Contact with Europeans introduced others to idea
    of nationalism
  • Nationalism often brought with it western ideas,
    structures
  • Strongest in Middle East, India, Japan

13
EMERGENCE OF IDEOLOGIES
  • Conservatism
  • Called the Ancien Regime
  • Resisted change, opposed revolutions
  • Importance of continuity, tradition, aristocracy
  • Edmund Burke
  • Viewed society as organism that changed slowly
    over time
  • American Revolution natural, logical outcome of
    history
  • French Revolution violent and irresponsible
  • Congress of Vienna was a Conservative restoration
  • Restored Balance of Power ruled through great
    powers
  • Monarchy was at heart of conservatism
  • Liberalism
  • Welcomed controlled change as an agent of
    progress
  • Strongly middle class, support economic reform,
    education to help industrialization
  • Wanted to reform political structure, increase
    electorate slightly
  • Championed freedom, equality, democracy, written
    constitutions
  • Limits on state power, interference in individual
    freedoms
  • John Stuart Mill championed individual freedom
    and minority rights
  • Radicalism

14
IMAGINED COMMUNITIES
  • Concert of Europe 1815 - 1860
  • Congress of Vienna, 1814-15
  • Conservative victory restore old order after
    defeat of Napoleon
  • Maintained balance of power in Europe for a
    century
  • Failed in repressing nationalist and
    revolutionary ideas
  • Concert of European great powers called Holy
    Alliance
  • UK, Russia, Prussia, Austria, France working in
    concert
  • Attempted to prevent revolutions, change
  • Intervened militarily to oppose change
  • Often forced to limit, control changes
  • Nationalist rebellions
  • Against old order throughout nineteenth century
  • 1800s Haiti, Latin America
  • 1820s
  • Greek Revolution rebels overcame Ottoman rule in
    1827
  • Mehmet Ali in Egypt, defeated by French, English,
    Russians
  • 1830/1848
  • Italy, Belgium, France, Spain, Portugal, Poland,
    Austria, Germany
  • Conservatism usually restored but revolutionary
    ideals persisted

15
THE SOCIALIST CHALLENGE
  • Socialism
  • Arose as an outgrowth of the Industrial
    Revolution
  • Accelerated by the horrible conditions of the
    workers in the cities
  • Utopian socialists
  • Charles Fourier, Robert Owen, and their followers
  • Established model communities based on principle
    of equality
  • Stressed cooperative control of industry,
    education for all children
  • Marxian Socialists (Communists)
  • Marx (1818-1883), Engels (1820-1895), leading
    socialists
  • Scorned the utopian socialists as unrealistic,
    unproductive
  • Critique of industrial capitalism
  • Unrestrained competition led to ruthless
    exploitation of working class
  • State, courts, police all tools of the
    capitalist ruling class
  • The Communist Manifesto, 1848
  • Claimed excesses of capitalism would lead to a
    communist revolution
  • Revolution would wipe away capitalism and
    establish a socialist society
  • Dictatorship of the proletariat" would destroy
    capitalism
  • Socialism would follow a fair, just, and
    egalitarian society
  • Ideas dominated European, international socialism
    throughout 19th century

16
UNIFICATION OF ITALY, GERMANY
  • Italy
  • After Congress of Vienna
  • Italy divided into small states all states
    except Sardinia, Papacy ruled by foreign
    dynasties
  • Austria was the preeminent power in Italy
  • Mazzini, Nationalist, formed Young Italy inspired
    uprisings against foreign rule
  • 1848 Nationalist revolution destroyed by Austrian
    troops
  • Sardinia and Cavour
  • Italian Sardinia only ethnic Italian state
  • Prime Minister of Sardinia becomes leader of
    nationalists
  • Expelled Austrian authorities in northern Italy,
    1859 with French aide
  • Garibaldi
  • Revolutionary nationalist, democrat
  • Staged revolutions, later seized control of
    Southern Italy
  • 1860-1870 Italian states united under Sardinia
  • Germany
  • After Congress of Vienna Dominated by Austrian
    von Metternich
  • German Confederacy a collection of independent
    states dominated by Austria
  • Prussia the largest German state but limited in
    action by Austria
  • Metternichs System preserved conservatism,
    persecuted liberalism, hated nationalism

17
MAPS OF UNIFICATION
18
THE UNITED STATES
  • Jacksonian Democracy
  • Expansion of electorate to include poorer,
    western Americans
  • By 1820s all adult white men could vote and hold
    office
  • Constant tension between states rights, federal
    powers
  • Rapid westward expansion after the revolution
  • Britain ceded lands east of Mississippi to US
  • 1803, US purchased France's Louisiana Territory
  • By 1840s, coast-to-coast expansion was claimed as
    manifest destiny
  • The Mexican-American War, 1845-1848
  • Conflict with indigenous peoples followed
  • 1830, Indian Removal Act forced eastern Indians
    to move west of Mississippi
  • Thousands died on the "Trail of Tears" to
    Oklahoma
  • Stiff resistance to expansion Battle of Little
    Big Horn, 1876, Sioux victory
  • U.S. massacre at Wounded Knee, 1890, ended Indian
    Wars
  • An Era of Compromise Avoided Conflict 1820-1854
  • North had the population, dominated House of
    Representatives
  • South wanted to preserve slavery but would lose a
    vote in House
  • Missouri Compromise in 1820 admitted one slave,
    one free state
  • South able to block abolition of slavery in
    Senate

19
USA IN MAPS
20
CANADIAN DOMINION
  • Independence came without war
  • Autonomy and division characterized Canadian
    history
  • Distance from England, isolation in north and
    interior led to self-government, autonomy
  • Always a contest between English speaking, French
    speaking groups
  • Immigrants and Amerindians dominated in the
    interior
  • Eastern Canada (Quebec, Ontario, Maritime
    Provinces) dominate Canada
  • French Quebec taken by Britain after the Seven
    Years' War
  • Quebec Act was a large cause of war with American
    colonies
  • British authorities made large concessions to
    French Canadians
  • After 1781, many British loyalists fled United
    States to seek refuge in Canada
  • The War of 1812 unified Canada against U.S.
    invaders
  • Anti-U.S. sentiments due to US invasions,
    pillaging
  • Created sense of unity among French and British
    Canadians
  • 1830s
  • Increased Irish, English, Scottish, German
    immigration
  • Tensions between French, growing English
    population
  • Metis Rebellion French Indians rebel in west
  • 1840-1867, British granted home rule to Canadians
  • Dominion of Canada created in 1867

21
CANADA IN IMAGES
22
EURASIAN SOCIETIES AT A CROSSROAD
  • Threatened Societies
  • SW Asia Ottoman Empire, Persia
  • Eastern Europe Russia, Austria-Hungary
  • East Asia China, Korea, and Japan
  • Southeast Asia Vietnam, Thailand
  • Common problems
  • Military weakness, vulnerability to foreign
    threats
  • Internal weakness especially from disaffected
    groups
  • Economic problems, financial difficulties
  • Corruption and unresponsive elites
  • Issues of westernization vs. modernization
  • Western interests often dominate government,
    economy
  • Reform efforts
  • Attempts at political and educational reform
  • Attempts at industrialization
  • Often turned to western models
  • Different results of reforms
  • Ottoman Empire, Austria, Russia, Iran, and China
  • Reforms unsuccessful

23
EURASIA IN 1871
24
OTTOMAN DECLINE
  • Military decline since the late seventeenth
    century
  • Ottoman forces behind European armies in
    strategy, tactics, weaponry, training
  • Janissary corps politically corrupt,
    undisciplined, unable to fight
  • Provincial governors gained power, private armies
  • Russia made war on Ottomans to divert domestic
    problems
  • Austria, other European powers support local
    Christians independence
  • Lost Caucasus and central Asia to Russia
  • Western frontiers to Austria
  • Balkan provinces to Greece and Serbia
  • Egypt gained autonomy after Napoleon's failed
    campaign in 1798
  • Egyptian general Muhammad Ali built a powerful,
    modern army
  • Ali's army threatened Ottomans, made Egypt an
    autonomous province
  • France annexes Muslim Algeria in 1830 and Tunisia
    in 1882
  • The State
  • Government was cumbersome, bureaucratized,
    medieval
  • State was multinational and not all Muslim
  • Power resided often with the provincial
    governors, elite
  • Unwilling to adopt modern European methods or
    reform infrastructure
  • Dominated by bureaucrats, landed elite unwilling
    to change

25
OTTOMAN REFORM, REORGANIZATION
  • Attempt to reform military
  • Led to violent Janissary revolt (1807-1808),
    suppression of Janissaries
  • Reformer Mahmud II (1808-1839) became sultan
    after revolt
  • Janissaries resisted, Mahmud had them killed
    reforms followed
  • He built an European-style army, academies,
    schools, roads, and telegraph
  • Legal, educational reforms
  • Called Tanzimat ("reorganization") era
    (1839-1876)
  • Ruling class sought sweeping restructuring to
    strengthen state
  • Broad legal reforms, modeled after Napoleon's
    civic code
  • State reform of education (1846), free and
    compulsory primary education (1869)
  • Undermined authority of the ulama, enhanced the
    state authority
  • Opposition to Tanzimat reforms
  • Religious conservatives critical of attack on
    Islamic law and tradition
  • Legal equality for minorities resented by some,
    even a few minority leaders
  • Young Ottomans wanted more reform freedom,
    autonomy, decentralization
  • High-level bureaucrats wanted more power, checks
    on the sultan's power
  • Cycles of reform and repression
  • 1876, coup staged by bureaucrats who demanded a
    constitutional government
  • New sultan Abd al-Hamid II (1876-1909)

26
MUSLIM RESISTANCE
  • Resistance
  • Muslim universities
  • Frequently organized education around western
    model
  • Educated several generations of students
  • Muslim Army Officers in Service of Europeans
  • Often educated in western style universities,
    learned western ideas
  • Become source of anti-Western activities even
    while supporting reform
  • Revolt in the Sudan
  • Egypt nominally ruled Sudan, attempted to enforce
    control
  • Egypt able to control Nile farmers opposition
    comes from nomads, herders
  • Rule greatly resented as it was corrupt,
    overtaxed peasants
  • British pressure Egyptians to eradicate slavery,
    upsetting Muslims (Koran allows)
  • Muhammad Achmad The Mahdi (1870s)
  • Direct descendant of the Prophet Muhammad
    proclaims jihad against Egyptians, British
    masters
  • Wahhabis Reformer A very puritanical form of
    Islam, seeks to purify Islam
  • Purge Islam of problems reform, modernize but
    not at expense to Islam
  • Overran all of Sudan, threatens Egypt, killed
    British commander at Khartoum
  • Khalifa Abdallahi and the Mahdist state
  • The Mahdi dies his successor builds an Islamic
    state under rule of Koran

27
QING (MANCHU) CHINA
  • Qing China (1622 1911)
  • Nomadic dynasty from Manchuria
  • To rule, maintained strict separation of Chinese,
    Manchu
  • Chinese not allowed to settle in Manchuria
  • Manchurians not allowed to marry Chinese
  • Retained much of Chinese political traditions,
    institutions
  • Retained examination system
  • Ruled through Confucian scholars
  • Qing Army
  • Manchurian nomadic army based on cavalry
  • Unwilling to use modern weapons
  • Rot from Within begins in 18th century
  • Emperor isolated, ineffective
  • Surrounded by eunuchs, advisors who kept him
    isolated
  • Lived in Forbidden City at center of Beijing
  • Extreme politics amongst bureaucrats, eunuchs,
    harem
  • Bureaucracy
  • Too large and cumbersome, corrupt and
    conservative
  • Examination system riddled with favoritism,
    elitism, cheating

28
CHINA UNDER PRESSURE
  • The Taiping rebellion
  • Internal turmoil in China in the later nineteenth
    century
  • Population grew by 50 percent land and food more
    slowly poverty strained resources
  • Other problems official corruption, drug
    addiction
  • Four major rebellions in 1850s and 1860s the
    most dangerous was the Taiping
  • The Taiping ("Great Peace") program proposed by
    Hong Xiuquan
  • Called for end of Qing dynasty resented Manchu
    rule
  • Radical social change no private property,
    footbinding, concubinage
  • Popular in southeast China seized Nanjing
    (1853), moved on Beijing
  • Taiping defeat by combined Qing and foreign
    troops
  • Gentry sided with government regional armies had
    European weapons
  • Taipings defeated in 1864 the war claimed twenty
    to thirty million lives
  • Reform frustrated
  • The Self-Strengthening Movement (1860-1895)
  • Blended Chinese cultural traditions with European
    industrial technology
  • Built shipyards, railroads, weapon industries,
    steel foundries, academies
  • Not enough industry to make a significant change
  • Powerful empress dowager Cixi opposed changes
  • The hundred-days reforms (1898)

29
JAPAN SHOGUN TO EMPEROR
  • Crisis and reform in early nineteenth century
  • Emperor isolated, secluded shogun military
    dictator
  • Centralized bureaucracy alliances with feudal
    lords
  • Japan not unaware of what was going on in wider
    world
  • Dutch allowed to visit Japan at Nagasaki once a
    year
  • Crisis
  • Crop failure, high taxes on agriculture, rising
    rice prices
  • All led to protests and rebellions
  • Reforms and ideas conflict
  • Government Neo-Confucian conservative reforms
  • Dutch Learning Support western studies, reforms,
    working with west anti-Chinese
  • National Studies praised Japanese traditions,
    emperor, Shinto led to ultranationalism
  • Foreign pressure on Japan
  • European wanted her to reverse long-standing
    closed door policy
  • Europeans wanted to trade, wanted safe ports for
    whaling fleets
  • 1844 requests by British, French, U.S. for the
    right of entry rebuffed
  • 1853
  • U.S. Commodore Perry sailed U.S. fleet to Tokyo
    Bay, demanded entry
  • Japan forced to accept unequal treaties with
    U.S., other western countries

30
JAPAN MEIJI ERA
  • Meiji government welcomed foreign expertise
  • Fukuzawa Yukichi studied western constitutions
    and education
  • Ito Hirobumi helped build Japanese constitutional
    government
  • Social Revolution 1873 - 1876
  • Abolition of the feudal order essential to new
    government
  • Daimyo and samurai lost status, privileges class
    abolished
  • Samurai issued bonds to pay for loss, but
    inflation led to impoverishment
  • Samurai rebelled but the new national conscript
    army put rebellion down
  • Some went into business, created western-style
    companies (Mitsubishi)
  • Districts reorganized to break up old feudal
    domains
  • Emperor created new nobility based on English
    style House of Peers
  • Revamping tax system
  • Converted grain taxes to a fixed money tax more
    reliable income for state
  • Assessed taxes on potential productivity of
    arable land
  • Constitutional government, the emperor's "gift"
    to the people in 1889
  • Emperor remained supreme, limited the rights of
    the people
  • Less than 5 percent of adult males could vote
  • Legislature, the Diet, was an opportunity for
    debate and dissent but limited powers
  • Remodeling the economy and infrastructure

31
AFRICA
  • Africa 1750 1850
  • North Africa nominally part of the Ottoman Empire
  • Sudan, Sahel Africa had most powerful, developed
    states
  • West Africa forest kingdoms part of the Atlantic
    slave trade
  • East Africa dominated by native kingdoms, Swahili
    trading states
  • South Africa population dispersal, state
    building of the Ngoni
  • Few European possessions in Africa
  • Atlantic (not Islamic) slave trade ended in early
    19th century
  • Age of Exploration leads to Imperialism
  • Europeans explore Africa, developed interest in
    Africa
  • Permitted by technology
  • Transportation, weaponry made it easy
  • Medicines made it possible
  • Africa was the center, objective of imperialism
  • Africa was partitioned between Europeans
  • Only Ethiopia and Liberia remained independent
  • Infrastructures and Changes
  • Political
  • Colonial powers ignored indigenous peoples almost
    totally

32
MAPPING AFRICA, 1830
33
AFRICA 1914
34
RUSSIA EMPIRE UNDER PRESSURE
  • Post-1812
  • Great concern with defense, liberal ideas as
    threat to old order
  • Government introduced reforms to improve
    bureaucracy
  • Made an alliance with the conservative powers of
    Europe to maintain order
  • December Uprising 1825
  • Death of Alexander I prompted some
    western-oriented officers to rebel
  • Suppressed mercilessly by new tsar
  • Nicholas I
  • Orthodoxy, autocracy and nationality
  • State became very repressive, secret police
  • Policeman of Europe used army to suppress
    revolutions
  • Suppressed rebellion in Poland
  • Policy of foreign wars to divert domestic
    problems
  • Serfdom Issue
  • Russia needed work force in order to industrial
  • Serfdom not efficient
  • Lack of workers in cities an obstacle to economic
    development
  • Gap between western, eastern Europe economic
    systems

35
RUSSIAN REPRESSION MARXISM
  • Cycles of protest and repression
  • Peasants
  • Often landless, no political power
  • Frustrated by lack of meaningful reform
  • Peasant uprisings become more common than serf as
    frustration heightened
  • Population increased as potato introduced,
    increasing pressures on society
  • Social Protest
  • Antigovernment protest and revolutionary activity
    increased in 1870s
  • Middle Class, some aristocrats advocated rights,
    political representation
  • Radical Intelligentsia advocated socialism and
    anarchism, recruited in countryside
  • Repression by tsarist authorities secret police,
    censorship
  • Russification sparked ethnic nationalism,
    attacks on Jews tolerated
  • Terrorism emerges as a tool of opposition
  • Radicals wanted solution to social issue from a
    Russian perspective
  • Young intellectuals went directly to the peasants
  • Most opposed westernization, autocracy,
    capitalism
  • Many became peasant anarchists
  • Alexander II, the reforming tsar, assassinated by
    a bomb in 1881
  • Nicholas II (1894-1917), more oppressive,
    conservative ruler

36
MARXISMWorkerswill stage arevolution and
overthrowcapitalism, stateLENINISMWill only
succeed withthe leadership of an elitegroup
ofrevolutionaries
37
RUSSIAN REVOLUTION OF 1905
  • Russian Revolution of 1905
  • Military defeat, humiliation in Russo-Japanese
    War was cause
  • Russia always diverted domestic tension by short,
    successful wars
  • In 1870s, 1880s had expanded against Ottoman
    Empire
  • Massive protests followed news of defeat
  • Workers mounted general strikes in St.
    Petersburg, Moscow
  • Peasant insurrections in countryside against
    landlords
  • Police repressions ineffective, just upset people
  • Bloody Sunday massacre
  • Poor workers of St. Petersburg march to palace to
    ask tsar for help
  • Unarmed workers shot down by government troops
  • Peasants seized landlords' property, killed
    landlords
  • Workers formed soviets (worker councils) in
    cities, factories
  • Workers tended towards non-Marxist socialists
    Marxists marginalized
  • Sought to achieve ends without full scale
    revolution
  • A Fizzled Revolution
  • Tsar forced to accept elected legislature, the
    Duma
  • Many parties elected with conflicting interests
  • Unable, unwilling to cooperate

38
A MULTINATIONAL EMPIRE
  • Austria 1750 1814
  • A collection of states ruled by the Hapsburg
    family who were also the Holy Roman Emperors
  • The Holy Roman Empire was neither holy, nor Roman
    nor an empire
  • No common government, few common institutions
    (save Catholicism)
  • Austria in 1815 1860
  • One of the victors against Napoleon extremely
    conservative and reactionary
  • The weakest, most threatened of Europes great
    powers
  • Prime Minister Metternich dominated German
    Confederation, Italy
  • Used force, coercion to prevent German, Italian
    nationalism
  • Opposed nationalism, liberalism, democracy
  • 1848 Revolution nearly destroyed state
  • Russia intervened to suppress revolutions
  • Austria then intervened in Germany, Italy to
    suppress revolutions
  • Prussia fights to isolate Austria, unify Germany
    w/o Austria
  • Austria in 1866 1870
  • Defeated in 1858 by French-Sardinian Alliance
    1866 by Prussia
  • Driven from German Confederation, Italy
  • Sees nationalism, German unification triumph
    under rival Prussia
  • Sees Italy united under Sardinia Papal states
    erased

39
MAP OF CONFUSION
40
NATIONALISM IMPERIALISM
  • Nationalism heavily involved in imperialism
  • Source of national pride, strength to acquire
    colonies
  • Non-Westerners soon learned to be nationalist
  • Many studied in Western schools, learned western
    knowledge to get ahead
  • Many defined their sense of nation as response to
    imperialism
  • India
  • Two types of state-structures in India
  • Princely States States ruled by Indian princes,
    assisted by British officials
  • British possessions States ruled directly by
    British
  • Ram Mohan Roy (1772-1833), "father of modern
    India"
  • Sought an Indian society based on European
    science and traditional Hinduism
  • Used press to mobilize educated Hindus and
    advance reform
  • The Indian National Congress, founded 1885
  • Educated Indians met, with British approval, to
    discuss public affairs
  • Congress aired grievances about colonial rule,
    sought Indian self-rule
  • 1906, All-India Muslim League
  • Formed to advance interests of Indian Muslims
  • Limited reform, 1909
  • Wealthy Indians could elect representatives to
    local councils

41
NATIONALIST RIVALRIES
  • Nationalism spread by the French Revolution and
    Napoleonic Wars
  • Self-determination each ethnic group had a right
    to a sovereign state
  • Concept was ignored or opposed by dynastic powers
  • Considerable nationalistic tensions in Ottoman,
    Hapsburg, and Russian empires
  • Slavic nationalism in the Balkans
  • Stressed kinship of all Slavic peoples
  • Pan-Slavism was a movement to unite all Slavs
    under the Russian tsar
  • Ottoman empire shrank as first Greece, then
    others, gained independence
  • Serbs of Austria-Hungary sought unification with
    independent Serbia
  • Russians promoted Pan-Slavism in
    Austria-Hungarian empire
  • Germany backed Austria-Hungary to fight ethnic
    nationalism
  • The naval race between Germany and Britain
    increased tensions
  • Germany's rapid industrialization threatened
    British economic predominance
  • Both states built huge iron battleships, called
    dreadnoughts
  • Colonial disputes of the late nineteenth century
  • Germany unified in 1871 came late to the
    colonial race
  • German resentment and antagonism toward both
    France and Britain
  • France and Germany nearly fought over Morocco in
    1905
  • Balkan wars (1912-13) further strained European
    diplomatic relations

42
IRANIAN REVOLUTION OF 1905-1911
  • Causes
  • Intellectuals feel that to save Iran they would
    have to limit Shahs power
  • Encroachment by Russians, British on Iranian
    territory upset Iranians
  • Initiated by the Majilis or Iranian Parliament
  • 1905 A year of demonstrations and strikes
  • Parliamentarians tended to be educated,
    merchants, clerics, young
  • Introduced the constitutional concept of
    government
  • People were sovereign and their representatives
    were delegated to enact the laws
  • Old Shah abdicates, new shah accepts
    constitutional limitations
  • 1906
  • Constitutionalists failed to protect victory
    against domestic, international threats
  • Trade Russian influence for British control
  • Took at face value Mohammed Ali Shah's pledges to
    respect constitution
  • 1907-1908
  • UK, Russia prepare to divide Iran into spheres
    of influence
  • Mohammed Ali Shah used opportunity to overthrow
    constitution
  • Shah attempts to kill constitutionalists, forced
    to abdicate, flees
  • Spheres of influence
  • Anglo-Russian convention signed on August 31,
    1907

43
MEXICAN REVOLUTION 1911- 1920
  • The Revolution (1910-1920)
  • Middle class joins peasants, workers overthrow
    Diaz
  • Class Factions
  • 1910-1914 all rebels vs. Diaz and Huerta
  • 1914-20 Carranza, Obregon vs. Zapata, Villa
  • Regional Revolutions North, South, Yucatan
  • Course of the Revolution
  • Liberal Middle Class Leaders
  • Francisco Madero rules at first
  • Seeks middle class constitutional democracy
  • Opposes land reform landless peasants attack
    large landowners
  • Peasant armies win pitched battles against
    government troops
  • General Huerta, army side with landowners, kills
    Madero
  • Venustiano Carranza
  • Organizes coalition with Villa, Zapata, Obregon
  • US troops sent by Wilson support Carranza, Huerta
    resigns
  • Peasant, Common Rebels
  • Pancho Villa led northern rebels, especially
    landless peasants
  • Emiliano Zapata initiates land reform in the
    Southern areas he controls

44
CHINESE REVOLUTION
  • Reform Fails
  • Chinese elites unwilling, unable to reform
  • Boxer Rebellion shows weakness of state,
    humiliating to Chinese
  • Chinese leaders
  • Leaders educated abroad, especially Japan, US
  • Sun Yat-sen
  • Founds United League in Tokyo using Chinese
    foreign funds
  • Wins support of many military officers, foreign
    exiles
  • Suns Three Principles of the People
  • Nationalism Overthrow Manchus, end foreign
    hegemony
  • Democracy Popularly elected republican form of
    government
  • People's Livelihood help people, regulate means
    of production, land
  • 1911 Revolution broke out in Hubei
  • Local army rebellion followed by many armies
  • Joined by United League members
  • 2/3 of provinces join rebels
  • 1912
  • Last Emperor abdicates
  • Sun Yat-sen inaugurated as first president
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