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The Rise of Medieval Europe

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Title: The Rise of Medieval Europe


1
The Rise of Medieval Europe
  • Chapter 12

Oh look a castle! I wonder why the castle was
built? How did the rise of Medieval (Middle Age)
Europe get its start?
2
Frankish Rulers
  • BY A.D. 500 Germanic invasions had all but
    destroyed the Western Roman Empire.
  • Much civilized way of life was gone. (roads,
    bridges, economy, law and order, education)
  • This led to the dark ages which later would be
    called the Middle Ages.

3
Merovingian Rulers
  • These were the Frankish leaders of the Germanic
    tribes that settled in what is now Western France
    and Germany.
  • In 481 A.D., Clovis becomes King of the Franks
    and accepts Catholicism.

4
Clovis
Crimson and Clovis, over and over! Ha , They
should have a song like that. It would rock!
5
Charles Martel
  • In 714, Martel became the mayor of a palace.
  • When Muslim forces threatened Europe in A.D. 732,
    Charles led the successful defense of Tours in
    France.
  • This victory won Charles great prestige and
    ensured that Christianity would remain the
    dominant religion of Europe.

6
Pepin the Short
  • In 752, Pepin the Short, the son of Charles
    Martel, became King of the Franks.
  • The Pope blessed the reign of Pepin.
  • In return, Pepin was expected to help the pope
    against his enemies.
  • In 754, Pepin forced the Lombards to withdraw
    from Rome.

7
Pepin the Short (cont)
  • In appreciation, the Pope cut his political ties
    to the Byzantine Empire and looked to the franks
    as his protector.
  • As result, the fortunes of western Europe and
    Catholicism were bound more closely together.

8
Before Pepin, the pope had political ties with the
  • Byzantine Empire.

9
Charlemagnes Empire
  • Pepins son, Charlemagne became on of Europe's
    greatest kings.
  • Nearly doubled the borders of his kingdom.
  • His domain became the Frankish Empire.
  • This was the first time people were ruled by one
    government since the fall of Rome.
  • Charlemagne started schools that helped revive
    education in W. Europe.

10
Hello, my name is Charles. I am so magnificent.
People should call me Charles the Magnificent (or
Charlemagne if you will)! And remember kids, it
is better to look good than to feel good! And I
look terrific!
Charlemagne
11
This means that the French were once ruled as a
powerful empire under Charlemagne. This, of
course, is before they invested all their time
and energies into making cheese and wine. By the
way,does the phrase shivering like a French
soldier,mean anything to you? (A joke the
French are a actually valued ally of the United
States )
12
A Christian Realm
  • Christmas day 800 A.D., Charlemagne was crowned
    Holy Roman Emperor protector of the church,
    creating a Holy (Christian) Roman Empire.
  • He utilized Counts-officials that helped with
    rule at the local level.
  • Charlemagne was known to travel his empire quite
    a bit.
  • During this time, the Christian Roman Church
    united western Europeans.

13
Charlemagne was also responsible for all of the
following
  • increasing scholarship and learning across
    Europe.
  • strengthening and enlarging the empire
  • instructing counts in their duties of office.

14
Collapse of Charlemagnes Empire
  • Charlemagnes forceful personality held his
    empire together.
  • Charlemagne died in 814 and his three sons fought
    for power.
  • In 843, the three sons divided the Carolinian
    lands among themselves.

15
Invasions Decrease Unity
  • Internal fighting weakened the Carolinian
    Kingdoms.
  • Outside invasions destroyed the kingdoms.
  • Muslims invaded southern Italy
  • The Slavs invaded from the east and took central
    Europe.
  • Magyars also invaded from Eastern Europe.

16
Viking Invasions
  • Vikings invaded Europe from Scandinavia with
    ships that were driven by oars.
  • Their boats were strong enough to cross the
    Atlantic, shallow enough to float rivers, and
    light enough to carry across a bridge.
  • Vikings were very fierce warriors.
  • In fact, to go a-Viking means to fight.
    (Medieval Scandinavian)

17
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18
Viking Invasions contd
  • Due to constant attacks by the Vikings, monarchs
    would lose central control
  • Local nobles were needed to control local
    defenses
  • Feudalism continues to rise.

19
Which helped the most in making the Vikings
successful in their invasions?
  • Magyars
  • ships
  • trade
  • sagas

20
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21
Viking Trade
  • The Vikings (aka Norsemen North men) were
    settlers and explorers that were skilled in
    sailing and trading.
  • The Norsemen (Norwegian) settled in Greenland,
    Iceland, and even reached N. America.
  • Vikings established the Viking states of Normandy
    in N.W. France

22
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23
Who dares wish to smell the armpits of Olaf of
the Hill People? You might want to scrape my
armpit sweat with a knife and spread it onto a
piece of bread for a tasty snack!!!! Yummy!!!
24
Viking Culture
  • Vikings worshiped many deities.
  • The Vikings told stories about their gods called
    eddas.
  • By A.D. 1000, the Vikings had converted to
    Christianity.
  • With this new Christian religion, the Vikings
    began to record their language with Latin letters.

25
The Vikings were responsible for which of the
following
  • monarchs losing control.
  • nobles controlling local defense.
  • the new political system known as feudalism.

26
A New Europe
  • People of W. Europe suffered at the hands of
    invading groups.
  • Invasions weakened the power of the Monarchs and
    trade declined.
  • As a result of royal weakness, nobles took over
    local defense.
  • Beginning in the 900s, a new political and
    social system brought stability to W. Europe.

27
Medieval Life
  • The new political and social system that
    developed in W. Europe was Feudalism.
  • Feudalism is a decentralized form of govt that
    stressed alliances between monarchs and nobles of
    varying degrees of power.
  • Feudalism is based on giving land to nobles in
    return for their loyalty and military aid.

28
Feudal Relationships
  • The relationship between military service and
    land ownership characterized feudalism.
  • Feudalism began with Charles Martel wanting to
    develop a cavalry to defeat the Muslims.
  • He would sell Fiefs or land estates (including
    the peasants on the land) so soldiers could raise
    horses.
  • In time, nobles would assume the power of raising
    armies and soldiers became knights.

29
The relationship between nobles and peasants was
known as
  • feudalism.

30
Feudal Obligations
  • Ties between a lord and a vassal were done in a
    ceremony known as Homage.
  • The Vassal agreed to provide his lord a military.
  • A Vassal was a noble who served a lord of the
    next higher rank.

31
(Lords)
32
Castles for Defense
  • The lack of a strong central allowed for constant
    warfare
  • defense was needed.
  • Every noble had a castle or a fortified manor
  • generally built from stone, with a small tower,
    and surrounded by a moat.

33
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34
Life of the Nobility
  • Lords, Ladies, and knights made up the nobility
    of the Middle Ages.
  • Within his fief (manor), a noble had all
    authority.
  • A lady had few if any rights and did domestic
    work (cooking, cleaning, washing).

35
A fief consisted of
  • peasants, land, and a castle.

36
Entertainment
  • Nobles were entertained at tournaments mock
    battles between knights.
  • Nobles loved to hunt and practice the art of
    archery.

37
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38
Becoming a Knight
  • Noble boys began training to be a knight at age 7
    (called a Page).
  • At age 15, a Page became a Squire and practiced
    using weapons.
  • Once a squire proved himself in battle, he was
    knighted.
  • A knights code was called Chivalry.

39
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40
The behavior of knights was governed by a code of
honor called
  • homage.
  • chivalry.
  • manorialism.
  • vassalage.

41
The Manorial System
  • The manorial system served as a means for
    agricultural production.
  • A manor provided serfs (peasants) with food,
    shelter and protection.
  • Manors needed Blacksmiths, Carpenters,
    Cobblers, Millers

42
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43
The self-sufficiency of the manor was important
during the feudal era because
  • carpenters and blacksmiths could not leave the
    manor without permission.
  • war and invasion made trade difficult.
  • heavy taxation made manufactured goods
    expensive.
  • few peasants were skilled as artisans.

44
Work on a Manor
  • In return for protection, peasants provided
    services for the lord.
  • Ex Farming and labor
  • Serfs peasants bound to the manor.

45
Those farmers who could not leave the manor
without permission were called
  • vassals.
  • squires.
  • peasants.
  • serfs.

46
Increased Production
  • Improvements in farming during this time period
    increased production.
  • Examples better plows, crop rotation (three
    field system)

47
The Three Field System  
 
48
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49
Increased productivity of manorial land was due to
  • harder-working peasants and more efficient
    management.
  • harder-working peasants and better soil.
  • a new kind of plow and different breeds of
    vegetables.
  • a new kind of plow and a different use of fields.

50
Peasant Life
  • Peasant life was full of poverty and hardship.
  • Few peasants lived past the age of 40.
  • In wartimes, peasants were the hardest hit,
    invading knights trampled crops and burned
    villages causing famine and loss of life.

You know being a serf is pretty back breaking
work!
Yeah, but it beats being a Gilbert Tiger. Those
guys are dorks!!
51
Which of the following do you think peasants
could do?
  • build houses, make shoes, or make candle
  • herd sheep, farm land, or work with iron.
  • sew clothing, grind their own grain, or fight in
    tournaments.
  • make wine and beer, shear sheep, or sing.

52
Poverty, famine, disease, and barely sufficient
living conditions characterized the lives of
  • serfs.
  • all people.
  • ladies.
  • pages.

53
The Medieval Church
  • The decline of Rome led the church to assume many
    political and social tasks.
  • It provided a central governing body during the
    medieval time period.
  • The patriarch of Rome became the Pope.
  • (patriarchfatherpapapope)

54
Religious Role
  • The Catholic Church taught that all people are
    sinners and needs Gods grace.
  • The only way to receive Gods grace was through
    various sacraments.
  • Ex Baptism, Communion, Marriage
  • Middle age masses (church gatherings) were said
    in Latin.
  • Many did not speak Latin or were illiterate and
    learned from paintings, statues or stained glass
    windows.

55
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56
Church Organization
  • Church hierarchy was the same as it is now.
  • Most people only came in contact with the priest
    of the local parish.
  • From time to time the bishop would pay visits to
    parishes in his diocese

57
The best word to describe the role of the
Catholic Church in the Middle Ages is
  • spiritual.
  • central.
  • isolated.
  • ritualistic.

58
Monastic Life
  • Monks dressed in long robes, ate one or two
    plain meals a day.
  • Many monasteries had a rule of silence.
  • Monastic women were/are called nuns
  • Nuns came under the direction of an Abbess

59
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60
Influence of Monastics
  • Monks and nuns played an influential role in
    medieval intellectual life.
  • Monasteries and convents provided schools,
    hospitals, and food for the poor.
  • Some monks and nuns became missionaries.
  • Scribes practiced the art of illumination.

61
Which of the following is the best description of
a monastery or convent?
  • a place where embroidered tapestries and fine
    needlework hung on the walls
  • a place where peasants could learn a trade and
    become true Christians
  • a kind of hotel or inn for missionaries and other
    travelers
  • a place governed by rules of silence, hard work,
    and few pleasures

62
Missionary Efforts
  • Missionaries spread Catholicism all over Europe,
    England, and Ireland.
  • By the mid 1000s, most Western Europeans were
    Catholic.

63
Power of the Church
  • Medieval Catholic Church helped govern Western
    Europe.
  • The church had its own laws and courts. Ex
    Marriages, divorce.
  • The church also had feudal ties, boosting its
    wealth.
  • Many high ranking church officials were nobles

64
Power of the Church (cont)
  • Nobles began using their influence to receive
    high ranking church positions with little
    devotion.

65
Which of the following most led to corruption in
the medieval Church?
  • an increase in women working and active in church
    life
  • poorly educated priests and illiterate
    congregations
  • the Albigensians, who believed the world was evil
  • nobles who appointed their own relatives, who had
    little devotion to their religious duties

66
Church Reform
  • By the 900s, many wanted to reform practices
    within the catholic church.
  • Many wanted to take control of the church out the
    hands of Feudal Lords.
  • In 1073, Pope Gregory III criticized lay
    investiture, the giving of church offices.

67
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68
Fighting Heresy
  • Heresy The denial of basic church teachings.
  • At first the church tried to convert heretics but
    failed.
  • Excommunication was the punishment for heretics.

69
The denial of basic church teachings is called
  • lay investiture.
  • heresy.
  • excommunication.
  • the Inquisition.

70
The Inquisition
  • This was a court set up to punish heretics, those
    brought before the court were urged to confess
    their heresy.
  • Often the courts accused people with out
    sufficient proof.
  • The church welcomed those back who confessed.
  • Punishment ranged from imprisonment to loss of
    property to death.

71
Friars Inspire Reform
  • Friars were wandering preachers.
  • At the time, church leaders were criticized for
    their wealth, friars depended on gifts and
    handouts to survive.
  • The best known friars were Franciscans and
    Dominicans.
  • Friars did not isolate themselves, rather they
    would stay in town and preach Christianity.

72
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73
The Jews
  • As the power of the church increased, the
    position of the Jews worsened.
  • Jews occupied positions as merchants, artisans
    and landowners.
  • At first Jews and Christians got along but by the
    1000s Jews were viewed as tyrants and were
    unfairly blamed for the plague, famine, Jesus'
    death, etc.
  • Anti-Semitism

74
Rise of European Monarchy
  • By the A.D. 1000s, many European Monarchs began
    to build strong states.

75
England
  • After the Romans, the British isles were invaded
    by Germanic tribes, Angels, Saxons, and Jutes.
  • Alfred the Great and his unification of
    Anglo-Saxons, defeated the Vikings and changed
    the name to Angleland or England.

76
The Anglo-Saxons
  • Alfred the Great ruled the Anglo-Saxons (who were
    from England).

77
The Norman Conquests
  • One claimant to the Norman throne William the
    Conqueror invaded England from N.W. France.
  • This is known as the Battle of Hastings in 1066.
  • William defeated the English ruler and became the
    King of England
  • With the rise of William, Englands racial makeup
    becomes mixed to a greater degree

78
Which of the following best describes the people
who made up England by the year A.D. 1100?
  • a pure and single people, who were unmistakably
    English
  • a united and patriotic people, who believed in
    their kings
  • a mixture of people from Celtic, Germanic, and
    French backgrounds
  • a predominantly middle-class people, who had
    their own Parliament

79
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80
Royal Power
  • Henry II, the great-grandson of William the
    Conqueror, set up a system of common law.
  • Traveling judges applied laws equally throughout
    the land.
  • This began a tradition of precedent (laws based
    on preceding judgments) in western law

81
Domesday Book
  • (add info)
  • The first census in Western Europe
  • Why?
  • To determine taxable wealth
  • All people, property, and animals were recorded.
  • NOT Doomsday Book

82
The contents of the Domesday Book detailed the
  • end of the world.
  • history of England.
  • English political system.
  • people, property, and animals in England.

83
The Magna Charta
  • Signed in 1215, by King John.
  • This is one of the most important documents in
    representative government.
  • The Magna Charta places clear limits on Royal
    Power.
  • The charter prevented the king from collecting
    without the consent of the Great Council.

84
Primarily intended to protect feudal rights, the
Magna Charta eventually
  • gave the king freedom to tax nobles without their
    consent.
  • eliminated the power of the monarchy.
  • guaranteed the rights of all English people.
  • placed all governing authority with the House of
    Commons.

85
Rise of Parliament
  • During the reign of King John, an increase in
    population encouraged the growth of towns.
  • A growing middle class did not fit in with the
    existing social order.
  • In 1295, a model parliament was called into
    session.
  • By 1400, Parliament had divided into two houses.

86
France
  • Like England, France developed a strong monarchy
    in the middle ages.

87
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88
Beginnings of Central Government
  • After Charlemagnes death, Frankish lands
    disintegrated into separate territories ruled by
    feudal lords.
  • The monarchy brought feudal lords under their
    control
  • As in England, the number of towns increased
    during the 1100s.

89
Strengthening the Monarchy
  • In 1180, Philip Augustus came to French throne.
  • During his reign, Philip Augustus doubled the
    area of the French kingdom.
  • Philips strengthened the power of the monarchy
    and weakened the power of feudal lords.
  • He did this by gaining territory through marriage
    and recapturing French lands from England.

90
The French king who strengthened the monarchy
during the period A.D. 1180 to A.D. 1223 was
  • Louis IX.
  • Louis VI.
  • Philip Augustus.
  • Otto the Great.

91
Holy Roman Empire
  • After Charlemagnes death, the Holy Roman Empire
    was ruled by a series of weak kings.
  • In 962, Pope John XII crowned Otto I of Germany
    Holy Roman Emperor.
  • The Holy Empire would exist along of the Monarchy
    of England and France

92
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93
Medieval Europe at its Height
  • Chapter 13

94
The Crusades
95
The Crusades
  • Life in the early Middle Ages was characterized
    by decentralized govt, warfare, cultural
    isolation, famine, and wretched living
    conditions.
  • By 1100 A.D. Some conditions in Europe had
    improved.
  • The transformation of medieval society began with
    a holy war over the city of Jerusalem.

96
Call for a Crusade
  • The city of Jerusalem was a holy city for three
    religions.
  • When Jerusalem and Palestine fell to the Arabs in
    the 600s A.D., Christians began a quest to get
    it back.
  • First Crusade
  • Second Crusade
  • Third Crusade

97
First Crusade
  • The First Crusade marked the onset of a long
    period of Christian persecution of Jews.
  • Three armies of crusaders knights traveled to the
    eastern Mediterranean.
  • Very successful

98
Second Crusade
  • The Second Crusade, launched in 1147 A.D. after
    the Seljuk Turks conquered part of the crusader
    state in Palestine
  • was unsuccessful.

99
Third Crusade
  • The Third Crusade was launched by the kings of
    Germany, France, and England.
  • The Third Crusade was also unsuccessful

100
Effects of the Crusades
  • Although western Europeans failed to gain control
    of Palestine, the Crusades helped break down
    feudalism and increase the authority of Kings.
  • The Crusades led to less isolation for W. Europe,
    more contact between Europe and the Muslims, and
    increased demand for luxury goods.

101
Economic and Cultural Revival
  • The crusades accelerated the transformation of
    Western Europe from backward, crude, and violent
    to a civilization that exhibited remnants of
    modern western civilization.
  • Expanding opportunities in trade encouraged the
    growth of towns.
  • A lively atmosphere stimulated innovation and
    thought.

102
Economic Expansion
  • During this period many advances were made in
    agriculture.
  • Better and more efficient tools were used,
    speeding up the production of agricultural goods.
  • The increase in agricultural production caused
    expansion in new trade and growth of towns.goods
    such as spices,silk and silver were more abundant
    due to increased trade.

103
Agricultural Advances
  • The invention of heavier plows made farming more
    efficient.
  • New plows made it easier to clear land for
    farming.
  • New collar harness allowed horses to pull plows
    at a faster pace

104
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105
Expansion of Trade
  • Revival of towns increased trade.
  • Sea lanes and river routes increased trade.
  • Italian towns of Venice, Pisa, and Genoa
    controlled Mediterranean trade

106
Banking
  • At first, the barter system was used for trade.
  • Some luxury goods could only be bought with
    money, so a common medium of exchange was needed.
  • With the rise of money, money changers (banks)
    were needed.

107
The Growth of Towns
  • The number of towns grew tremendously in the late
    middle ages.
  • Many towns grew next to roads, and had a wall for
    protection.
  • Medieval towns had no sanitation, causing
    diseases to spread.

108
Craft Guilds (Unions)
  • These unions regulated the work of its members.
  • In the 1100s, merchants and artisans organized
    into unions called guilds

109
Rise of the Middle Class
  • Medieval towns created a new class of people.
  • Bourgeoisie middle class made up of merchants,
    bankers, and artisans who didnt have to rely on
    land for income

110
Education
  • During the early middle ages most people were
    illiterate.
  • Education was controlled by the clergy, most of
    the educated were preparing for a church
    position.
  • The growth of towns called for more education

111
Universities
  • By the 1200s universities had spread through
    Europe.
  • Universities usually specialized in law,
    medicine, liberal arts, and theology.

112
New Learning
  • European contact with Islamic scientific thought
    sparked an interest in the physical world that
    eventually led to the rise of western science.
  • A.D. 1200s, Thomas Aquinas wrote Summa
    Theologica which provided answers to
    philosophical religious questions.
  • The Catholic Church would accept this way of
    thinking

113
Thomas Aquinas
114
Medieval Art and Literature
  • The spread of universities stimulated peoples in
    interest in art and literature.
  • A medieval romance could be described as a story
    about knights and ladies.
  • Buildings that had large, heavy arches were
    called Romanesque.

115
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116
The Hundred Years War
  • This was a series of conflicts between England
    and France over French lands.
  • War began when Englands Edward III laid claim to
    the French throne.
  • One of the last victories for the English and a
    low point for the French was the Battle of
    Agincourt.
  • England wanted to keep French lands inherited
    from the Normans

117
Major Battles
  • At first the English were victorious at Crecy and
    again Agincourt.

118
Joan of Arc
  • The French were at a low point when a young woman
    brought about change.
  • She told the King that heavenly voices had called
    her to save France.
  • With the kings support she inspired victory at
    Orleans.
  • Unfortunately, Joan was captured and burned at
    the stake for witchcraft by the English.

119
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120
France
  • During the 1400s, Frances monarchy gained
    prestige.
  • Monarchs kept nobles under royal control.
  • Promoted trade and agriculture.

121
Spain
  • In the late 1400s, Spain became a leading
    European power.
  • Christians had been fighting the reconquest in N.
    Spain.
  • By 1250, only Ft. Grenada in S. Spain, remained
    under Muslim control.

122
Spain (cont)
  • A.D. 1469, Ferdinand of Aragon and Isabella of
    Castile were married.
  • The only group to survive Ferdinand and
    Isabellas rule were the Catholics.
  • They wanted Spain to be Catholic.

123
Holy Roman Empire
  • During the middle ages, H.R.E. was Europes
    largest political unit.
  • The Holy Roman Emperor was elected by an
    assembly.
  • Royal families governed provinces

124
Holy Roman Empire (cont)
  • In the 1300s the papacy came under the influence
    of the French Monarchy.
  • Pope Clement V, then moved the papal court from
    Rome to Avignon France.
  • The pope did this because of wars that were going
    on Italy.

125
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126
Eastern Europe
  • The Middle Ages saw kingdoms rise in E. Europe.
  • The most well known are Poland and Hungary.

127
War of the Roses
  • During the Hundred years War.
  • The house of Lancaster would win this war because
    of the defeat of Richard III.

128
The Troubled Church
  • During the Middle Ages the churchs authority and
    power gradually weakened.
  • The churchs authority weakened because of
    powerful monarchs, a growing educated Middle
    Class, and simony.
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