World History - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Loading...

PPT – World History PowerPoint presentation | free to download - id: 6c2c19-Mjk5O



Loading


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

World History

Description:

World History Emergence of Modern Europe – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:11
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Date added: 6 September 2019
Slides: 106
Provided by: pha106
Learn more at: http://tphairr.typepad.com
Category:

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: World History


1
World History
  • Emergence of Modern Europe

2
(No Transcript)
3
What is a Viking?
4
Who were the Vikings?
  • Lifestyle based on sea
  • Viking is a pirate
  • Were known for going on overseas adventures.
  • They had tribal units ruled by jarl
  • They were a culture of war blood feuds were
    common
  • They were not educated most boys were illiterate.

5
(No Transcript)
6
Where did they raid and why?
  • Raided coastal villages throughout Europe,
    plundering, killing, burning, and taking
    prisoners.
  • Viking longships and weaponry intimidated people
    of Europe.
  • They were experienced sailors, traders, and
    explorers.

7
What was their impact on Europe?
  • Viking power of intimidation kept many Europeans
    in a state of terror
  • Europeans looked to local lords to protect them
  • Contributed to the development of feudalism
  • Viking culture influenced some aspects of life in
    Europe.

8
Charlemagnes Rise to Power
9
Background on the Franks
  • Germanic people
  • Lived along Rhine River
  • Loyal to kin
  • Clovis converted to Christianity in 481, and
    united the Franks.

10
Description of Charlemagne
  • He is described as large, heavy man, with a
    mustache, and bright eyes.

11
Steps to Charlemagne Rise
  1. Converted Germans to Christianity through war.
  2. Prevented Muslims from expanding into Europe.
  3. Brutally put down a Saxon revolt.

12
Charlemagnes
  • Created a large empire made of self-sufficient
    manors
  • Counts kept order in his kingdom
  • Made Aachen a new center for learning.

13
(No Transcript)
14
Division of Frankish Empire
  • Kingdom divided into three parts after
    Charlemagnes death
  • Division weakened Empires unity and caused the
    collapse of the Frankish Kingdom.

15
(No Transcript)
16
Emergence of Modern Europe
  • Life on the Manor

17
(No Transcript)
18
Monarchs
  • Became weaker after Charlemagne
  • Remained highest authority

19
Knights or Vassals
  • Trained warriors who studied warfare from age
    seven.
  • Followed code of chivalry
  • Exchanged military service for fief

20
Lords and Nobles
  • Lived on manors in castles
  • Included powerful clergy
  • Hunted, defended manor, oversaw serfs, and
    settled legal disputes

21
Peasants
  • Freeman paid lord for use of land and could move
    around
  • Serfs worked land for the lord
  • Serfs were poor and were prisoners of the manor.

22
Emergence of Modern Europe
  • The Church

23
Church in Medieval Society
  • The church bells were used to organize the day
    between worship and work
  • The bells were also used to alert villagers if
    enemies were sighted
  • The church provided the organization the people
    lacked since the fall of the Roman Empire

24
The Role of the Church
  • The religion was spread and maintained by both
    men and women who gave their lives for their
    religion
  • The church was the only place where people were
    able to get an education, therefore the church
    was a place that a peasant can go and try to rise
    to power
  • The men who lived in special communities called
    monasteries were known as monks
  • The women who lived in a special community lived
    in convents, and were called nuns
  • These two groups made up what is known as the
    clergy

25
Canon Law
  • The Age of Superstition makes the church a
    powerful.
  • Canon law, or church law pertained to kings and
    peasants alike.
  • Two of the harshest punishments were
    excommunication (banishment from church) and
    interdict (sacrament).

26
Emergence of Modern Europe
  • Salvation Damnation

27
Salvation
  • Salvationsaving
  • Salvation was gained through
  • Following the beliefs of the church
  • Performing good deeds
  • Living a moral life
  • Christians believed that salvation would help
    their souls enter heaven and live in paradise
    forever without desires or needs

28
Damnation
  • Damnation was the result of living a life of sin
    (turning away from God)
  • Souls that were damned were believed to be
    banished to hell.
  • Hell was ruled by Lucifer, who was cast out of
    heaven for showing false pride
  • Medieval view of hell souls tortured by fire and
    demons.

29
Emergence of Modern Europe
  • Conflict Between Church State

30
Lay Investiture
  • Who should appoint church officials?

31
The States Position
  • Angered by Pope Gregory actions because he needed
    church leaders to support him against powerful
    German lords.
  • Biggest opponent of Pope Gregory was Henry IV,
    the Holy Roman Emperor.

32
The Churchs Position
  • Wanted to reform corrupt church leaders who
    plotted with kings to increase their wealth and
    power.
  • In 1075 C.E., outlawed lay investiture (church
    officials being chosen by kings)
  • Threatened to excommunicate any king who
    disobeyed (thus taking away the means to gain
    salvation)

33
Key Events in the Conflict between Henry Gregory
34
1.
  • Henry demanded that Gregory VII resign as pope.
  • Henry IV was excommunicated by Pope Gregory VII.

35
2.
  • Henry realized he could not defeat the pope.
  • He begged for Gregorys forgiveness.
  • With the help of Countess Matilda, Henry was
    forgiven.

36
3.
  • Lay investiture issue was resolved with the
    Concordant of Worms.
  • Agreement that church officials could appoint
    church leaders.
  • Kings could also give titles and land grants to
    church officials.

37
Emergence of Modern Europe
  • The Rise of New Religious Orders

38
  • Peter Bernardone, a wealth Italian merchant, put
    his son on trial for stealing cloth.

39
  • Francis Assisi amused himself with parties and
    war as a young man.
  • Turned to God after recovery from battle
  • Francis stole clothneeded money to repair a
    church
  • Renounced his wealth and dedicated his life to
    caring for the poorest of the poor.
  • Founded a new order of monks called the
    Franciscans.

40
Some New Things We Do as Friars
  • Travel around to care for the poor and the sick.
  • Show others a humble cheerfulness and simple,
    pious life.
  • Work with orders of nuns, like the Little Sisters
    of the Poor (founded by Francis)
  • Educate Christians so they can more fully
    understand the word of God (as does the order
    founded by Dominic of Spain, the Dominicans).

41
Emergence of Modern Europe
  • Renaissance

42
What was the Black Death?
  • A deadly plague that spread across Europe from
    1346-1352
  • Caused by a form of bacteria
  • Appeared in three forms
  • Pneumonic attacked the lungs
  • Sepiticemic appeared in bloodstream
  • Bubonic caused buboes on the body

43
How did the Black Death spread throughout Europe?
  • Originated in Mongolia and spread to Black Sea
    along Silk Road
  • Bacteria carried by fleas who lived on black rats
  • Italian merchant ships brought rats to Europe
    along with trade goods
  • First appeared in Sicily and eventually spread

44
Why couldnt people stop the spread of the Black
Death?
  • People were ignorant about its cause they blamed
    the stars, Gods anger and the Jews
  • They tried ineffective cures such as pomanders,
    flagellation, and repentence of sins

45
How did the Black Death change life in Europe?
  • Killed one third of the population
  • Forced farmers to diversify their crops
  • Peasants revolted and demanded more freedom
  • Working class moved to cities to earn better
    wages
  • Reduced the power of feudal lords

46
Decline of Feudalism
  • Black death killed 1/3 of population
  • Peasants revolt demand more freedom
  • Hundred Years war monarchs to build huge armies
    reduce power of lords
  • People moved to cities to earn better wages
  • Status began to be determined by wealth
    ability, not birthright

47
Development of the Renaissance
  • Scholars and artists looked to art and writing
    from ancient Greek and Rome for guidance
  • Medici family of Florence used their profits to
    promote scholarship and the arts
  • Crusades made Europeans eager to learn about the
    world
  • Italian cities, with ties to Byzantine and Muslim
    merchants, became rich powerful
  • Middle class merchants gained control of great
    sums of money by organizing banks

48
Emergence of Modern Europe
  • Trade Commerce The Foundations of Town Life

49
Trade Commerce
  • Towns were centers for trade and shipping
  • Luxury goods such as silk, ivory, and porcelain
    could be bought in towns.
  • Guilds dominated the social and civic life of
    towns.
  • Guilds reflected importance of Christianity in
    towns
  • Contributed to the building of cathedrals
  • Adopted patron saints and sponsored parades in
    their honor.

50
Society
  • Middle Ages
  • Towns were small because society was based on
    agriculture and most people lived in the
    countryside
  • Renaissance
  • Towns grew because society began to be based on
    commerce and more people started to live in
    cities.

51
Power
  • Middle Ages
  • Nobles had most of the power
  • Lords owned the land where most towns were
    located
  • Towns needed protection from knights that lords
    could provide
  • Renaissance
  • Middle class had most of the power
  • Limited the power of feudal lords by forcing them
    to grant charters
  • Gained control of great sums of money by
    organizing banks

52
Status
  • Middle Ages
  • Status was determined by birthright
  • Renaissance
  • Status was determined by wealth and ability

53
Emergence of Modern Europe
  • Growth of Italian Cities

54
Why were Italian city-states so rich and powerful?
  • Had strong ties with Byzantine and Muslim
    merchants
  • Each city specialized in one commercial activity
  • Milan metal goods armor
  • Florence banking textiles
  • Venice Asian goods
  • European monarchs and nobles sought loans from
    merchants.

55
How did Florence become the most influential
city-state?
  • Maintained thriving industry in wool and silk
    trade
  • Purchased items from the East and sold them for a
    large profit
  • Sold insurance to sea traders to protect their
    overseas investments
  • Created numerous banks that made loans or
    exchanged currencies
  • Medici family promoted trade, banking, the arts,
    scholarship, and civic pride

56
What was the Renaissance and Why Italy?
  • Renaissance is a French word meaning rebirth
    refers to revival in arts and learning
  • Period when scholars became interested in ancient
    Greek and Roman culture
  • Italian city-states displayed their wealth by
    giving financial support to artists who created
    works with classical themes

57
(No Transcript)
58
Emergence of Modern Europe
  • The Spirit of the Renaissance

59
The Renaissance Man
  • Many Renaissance artists develop new techniques
    such as perspective.
  • Leonardo da Vinci typifies the true Renaissance
    man.
  • Raphael creates realistic masterpieces.
  • A few Italian women gain recognition as painters.

60
Why people like me became interested in Ancient
Culture
  • Knowledge of ancient Greece Rome was
    rediscovered by scholars
  • The Crusades made Europeans eager to learn about
    the world around them
  • Scholars thought ancient Greek and Roman writings
    would help solve problems

61
A Fascination with Classical Cultures
  • Artists used ancients art as models
  • Donatello created statues that copied the Roman
    ideal of the human body
  • Brunelleschi designed buildings after studying
    ruins in Rome
  • Revolutionary innovations were made

62
A New Type of Scholar Called a Humanist
  • Humanists devoted themselves to studying ancient
    writings
  • They tried to learn about many subjects such as
    Latin, Greek, history, and mathematics
  • Petrarch, a Florentine, was the first great
    humanist

63
A Belief in Human Potential
  • Believed each person could achieve greater things
  • Claimed that people educated in the classics
    could create a better world
  • Emphasized human achievement on earth, rather
    than the afterlife

64
Emergence of Modern Europe
  • Influence of Petrarch, Boccaccio, Dante,
    Shakespeare, Machiavelli

65
Petrarch
  • the "Father of Humanism." His ideas were far
    ahead of his time. He was the first to write in
    the humanists way. His works includes Latin
    poetry like, Canzoniere.

66
Erasmus
  • Famous teacher, writer, and scholar who travelled
    all over Europe. He wrote In the Praise of the
    Folly, which criticized the stupidities of men,

67
Boccaccio
  • was known for his book "The Decameron." It was
    written in Italian. The story takes place in
    during the Dark Ages during the Black Death.
  •  

68
Dante
  • was famous for "The Divine Comedy." It is
    basically a tour of the afterlife. When touring
    hell, the main character wants to see who is in
    the lowest part of hell that is reserved only for
    the worst sinners. There were only 2 people
    there Brutus (betrayed classical civilization)
    and Judas (betrayed Christianity). This shows
    that Renaissance thinkers valued Classical
    culture and Christianity.
  •  

69
Shakespeare
  • proved that the English language could be used
    for beautiful works of literature (before
    Shakespeare English was considered a barbaric
    language.)

70
Machiavelli
  • wrote The Prince. This work argues that honest
    people dont make the best rulers. The most
    successful rulers are those who do whatever needs
    to be done, regardless of whether its right or
    wrong.

71
Emergence of Modern Europe
  • Protestant Reformation

72
What forms of corruption existed within the
Church during the Late Middle Ages?
  • Popes used excommunication to force monarchs to
    obey the Church
  • Many priests were illiterate
  • Many clergy broke their vows of chastity
  • Some officials lead lives of luxury and leisure
  • Others sold church offices (simony), sold
    indulgences, and charged Christians to see holy
    remains and objects

73
How was the power of papacy weakened?
  • Babylonian Captivity (1305-1375)
  • Philip IV (France) quarreled with the pope over
    his power to tax the clergy.
  • Pope Boniface kidnapped in 1296, and replaces
    with Clement V
  • Seven popes ruled the Church from Avignon, France
  • Many Christians thought these popes were only
    puppets of the French king

74
How was the power of papacy weakened?
  • The Great Schism (1378-1417)
  • Papacy moved back to Rome in 1376
  • French cardinals elected a new pope, Clement VII
  • Both Urban VI and Clement VII claimed to be the
    rightful pope
  • Many Christians questioned the authority of the
    papacy.

75
Emergence of Modern Europe
  • Early Calls for Reform

76
John Wycliffe of England
  • Thought Christians didnt need Church or
    sacraments to achieve salvation
  • Regarded the Bible as most important source of
    religious completed first translation of Bible
    into English
  • Outcome
  • Church persecuted his followers as heretics

77
Catherine of Siena
  • Popularized mysticism
  • Believed people could experience God through
    intense prayer
  • Outcome
  • Maintained that Christians didnt need priests,
    rituals, or sacraments

78
Savonarola of Florence
  • Launched crusade against immortal society
  • Encouraged book burnings
  • Claimed Vatican was filled with sin and
    corruption
  • Outcome
  • Was burned at the stake by angry citizens of
    France

79
Renaissance Artist Practice
80
Emergence of Modern Europe
  • Martin Luther and the Beginning of the Reformation

81
Why did Luther question Church practices and
teachings
  • Troubled by idea that salvation was attainable
    through good works
  • Interpreted St. Paul to mean that path to
    salvation was by faith alone
  • Believed forgiveness for sins could come only
    from Gods mercy
  • Angered by Tetzels sale of indulgences

82
What was his early life like?
  • Son of middle class German parents
  • Studied law
  • Became a Catholic monk

83
How did his criticisms expand into an effort to
form a new church?
  • Wrote 95 Theses to start debate on Church abuses
  • Published books and pamphlets questioning Church
    teachings
  • Ideas for reform led to a new church
  • Congregations choose their own ministers
  • Worship of saints and holy days was considered
    sinful
  • Mass conducted in German instead of Latin
  • Clergy allowed to marry

84
Why did his reforms create widespread revolt in
Germany?
  • Peasants, believing everyone was equal under God,
    revolted against lords.
  • Princes, who wanted freedom from the pope, seized
    Church land
  • Peace of Augsburg forced many to move in order to
    worship freely.

85
Wanted Poster Assignment
  • You are member of the Catholic Church.
  • You have heard the rumors of Martin Luther and
    his 95 Theses.
  • You are angry want to see him brought to justice.
  • Using your notes and the notes taken from class
    and your textbook, create a WANTED POSTER on
    Martin Luther.

86
Emergence of Europe
  • The Reformation Spreads Throughout Europe

87
Why did Protestantism spread beyond Germany?
  • Political leaders looked for ways to escape power
    of Catholic Church
  • People were tired of Church abuses and corruption
  • Charismatic individuals questioned church
    teachings and provided leadership
  • Rising literacy rate allowed for rapid spread of
    new ideas.

88
Anabaptists (1525)
  • Founded by dissatisfied followers of Zwingli
  • Thought Christians should not be baptized until
    adulthood
  • Believed true Christians should form a separate
    community.

89
Anglicans (1534)
  • Founded by King Henry VIII of England
  • He was enraged by popes decision not to grant
    him a divorce
  • Believed the monarch, not the pope, was supreme
    religious authority of England
  • Broke away, but beliefs were almost the same as
    the Catholic Church

90
Emergence of Modern Europe
  • Story of Henry VIII

91
Henry VIII
  • The Tudors were the ruling monarchs of England
    during the Renaissance.
  • Wanted to have a male heir and was unable to have
    a child with his wife.
  • Devised a plan to divorce his wife, and remarry
    another woman

92
Catherine of Aragon
  • Was first married to Henrys brother Arthur who
    died.
  • They were married for 20 years.
  • When Henry was in France the Scottish King
    attacked England.
  • Catherine raised an army and defeated him.
  • She bore Henry several children only Mary
    survived.
  • Henry needed the Popes permission to divorce
    Catherine.
  • He refused so Henry became head of the church
    instead of the Pope.
  • Henry divorced Catherine because she was too old
    to give him a son.
  • His excuse was she was spending more time praying
    and less time dancing.

93
Anne Boleyn
  • Henry fell in love with Anne because she was
    young and pretty with flowing hair and black
    eyes.
  • The marriage lasted for three years. 1533 1536.
  • She gave Henry one child a daughter called
    Elizabeth.
  • She is accused of having lovers and put on trial.
  • The trial is not fair as people do what the king
    tells them. She is executed.

94
Jane Seymour
  • Henry marries Jane because she is a plain and
    simple girl.
  • They were married for one year 1536 1537.
  • She gives Henry a child. Edward the son he so
    wants.
  • Jane becomes ill and dies.
  • Henry is heartbroken at her death

95
Anne of Cleves
  • Henry marries Anne in 1540 to from a friendship
    (alliance) with Germany.
  • Anne is ugly and Henry does not like her.
  • The marriage only lasts for seven months.

96
Catherine Howard
  • Catherine was young and pretty and the King was
    old and fat.
  • They were married for two years, 1540 1542.
  • The King liked young and pretty women around him.
  • Catherine soon had a lover.
  • She is executed.

97
Bell Ringer(s)
  1. How many wives did Henry VIII divorce?
  2. What is the name of the wife who died?

98
Catherine Parr
  • Henry and Catherine are married for four years
    1543 1547.
  • The king is old and sick and needs somebody to
    look after him and his children.
  • In January 1547 Henry dies.

99
Calvinists (1546)
  • founded by John Calvin
  • Believed in predestination (God predetermined who
    would obtain salvation)
  • Thought disciplined, auestere life would prove
    who had been chosen

100
Emergence of Modern Europe
  • The Catholic Churchs Response to the Reformation

101
Pope Paul III (1534-1549)
  • Led the Counter, or Catholic Reformation.
  • Promoted reform-minded cardinals to Curia.
  • Had Church abuses catalogued.
  • Called meeting at Trent to deal with growth of
    Protestantism.

102
Council of Trent
  • Defined Catholic beliefs and corrected abuses.
  • Sale of indulgences prohibited.
  • Simony outlawed.
  • Seminaries established to train parish priests.
  • Monasteries and convents cleansed of immoral
    clergy.

103
Jesuits (1540)
  • Disciplined and well educated order of Catholic
    priests.
  • Won Poland and southern Germany back into the
    Catholic faith.
  • Spread Christian message across Africa, Asia, and
    the Americas.

104
Inquisition (1542)
  • Church court designed to judge and convict
    heretics.
  • Imprisoned, exiled, or executed those with
    unorthodox views.

105
Index of Forbidden Books (1559)
  • List of banned books which Catholics were
    forbidden to read.
  • List included Protestant Bibles and some
    scientific writings.
About PowerShow.com