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Chapter 11 The Nation Grows and Prospers 1790- 1825

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Title: Chapter 11 The Nation Grows and Prospers 1790- 1825


1
Chapter 11The Nation Grows and Prospers1790-
1825
  • Sections 1 2
  • The Industrial Revolution
  • Americans Move Westward

2
Objectives
  • Identify the Industrial Revolution and its
    effects on the United States
  • Describe early factories with focus on Lowell,
    Massachusetts
  • Describe how settlers traveled west
  • Explain new developments in transportation

3
I. The Industrial Revolution
  • A. New Technology
  • 1. Begins in Britain mid 1700s
  • 2. New machines for textile industry
  • 3. James Hargreaves invented Spinning jenny
    could spin several threads at once
  • 4. Water powered loom Edmund Cartwright
  • 5. Produced more cloth in a day than was
    possible before

4
Spinning Jenny
5
  • B. The Factory System
  • 1. New inventions required new systems of
    production
  • 2. Capitalist- a person who invests in a
    business in order to make a profit
  • 3. Factory system- brought workers and
    machinery together in one place to produce goods

6
Spinning Jenny Slaters Mill
7
II. A Revolution Crosses the Atlantic
  • A. Slater Breaks the Law
  • 1. British law forbid anyone to take plans for
    new machinery out of the country
  • 2. 1789 Slater left Britain
  • 3. Memorized the plans so he wouldnt get
    caught with them
  • B. The First American Mill
  • 1. 1793 Slater built the first successful
    textile mill in the US powered by water
  • 2. Pawtucket, RI

8
  • C. Interchangeable parts- all machine made parts
    are identical to each other
  • 1. Eli Whitney
  • 2. Earlier, everything made one at a time
  • 3. Saves time and money
  • 4. Idea spread rapidly

9
III. Lowell, Massachusetts A Model Factory Town
  • A. Had to produce more goods because of the
    blockade of ports during War of 1812
  • B. The Lowell Mills
  • 1. Francis Cabot Lowell
  • 2. Combine spinning and weaving under one roof
  • 3. Built a whole town of factories as a model
    of efficiency

10
Lowell and Lowell Girls
11
  • C. The Lowell Girls
  • 1. Young women from nearby farms
  • 2. Most sent wages home
  • 3. Boarding houses
  • 4. Rules
  • 5. Independence

12
IV. Daily Life During the Industrial Revolution
  • A. Child Labor
  • 1. As young as seven
  • 2. Not seen as cruel because farm work was just
    as hard or harder
  • 3. Childs wages needed to support the family
  • B. Long Hours
  • 1. 12 hour days, 6 days a week
  • 2. Conditions better than in Europe
  • 3. As competition increases, owners grew less
    interested in welfare of workers

13
  • C. Changes in Home Life
  • 1. More family members left home to earn a
    living
  • 2. Affected ideas about the role of women
  • 3. Poor women had to work

14
V. Growing Cities
  • A. Many people left farms to work in factories
  • B. Urbanization-movement of population from
    farms to cities
  • 1. Steady but gradual process
  • 2. Early cities were small but growing

15
Pros and Cons of Urban Living
  • C. Hazards
  • 1. Dirt streets turned to mud in rain
  • 2. No sewers, garbage in streets
  • 3. Disease spread easily
  • D. Attractions
  • 1. Theaters, museums, circuses
  • 2. Latest fashions, shopping

16
Americans Move Westward
17
VI. Traveling West
  • A. West -referred to the lands between the
    Appalachians and the Mississippi River
  • B. Population of some of 13 colonies declines as
    people move west
  • C. Need to improve transportation to the west is
    obvious

18
  • D. Western Routes
  • 1. Great Wagon Road through Pennsylvania
  • 2. Wilderness Road south and west by Daniel
    Boones route, led through Cumberland Gap
  • 3. Flatboats down Ohio River
  • 4. People from GA and SC followed routes to AL
    and MS
  • 5. People from NE pushed into NW territory

19
Flatboats
20
New States Enter the Union
  • E. New States
  • 1792 Kentucky
  • 1796 Tennessee
  • 1803 Ohio
  • 1812 Louisiana
  • 1816 Indiana
  • 1817 Mississippi
  • 1818 Illinois
  • 1819 Alabama

21
VII. Improvements to Roads
  • A. Turnpikes and Corduroy Roads
  • 1. Roads built by private companies
  • 2. Turnpikes for tolls
  • 3. Lancaster Turnpike the best of its time,
    linked Lancaster and Philadelphia
  • 4.Corduroy roads of logs
  • 5. Covered bridges lasted longer than
    plain wood

22
  • B. The National Road
  • 1. 1806 Congress sets aside funds
  • 2. Road to run from Cumberland, Maryland to
    Wheeling in western VA
  • 3. Work begins 1811 and is completed in
    1818
  • 4. Road later extended as needed

23
VIII. Steam Transport
  • A. Fitch and Fulton
  • 1. Fitch showed how a steam engine could power
    a boat (Constitutional Convention 1787)
  • 2. Few people used his ferry service
  • 3. Fulton launched a steamboat - the Clermont
    on the Hudson River
  • 4. 300 mile trip in 62 hours - record

24
What would be some of the advantages of the
steamships?
  • B. The Age of Steamboats
  • 1. Revolutionized travel in the west
  • 2. Gave farmers and merchants a cheap way to
    move goods
  • 3. Dangerous at times as sparks can explode
    high pressure boilers

25
IX. The Canal Boom
  • A. Building the Erie Canal
  • 1. Let farmers ship goods to port of New York
  • 2. Links Great Lakes with Hudson River
  • 3. DeWitt Clinton, governor of NY, instrumental
    in getting it built
  • 4. Clintons Ditch

26
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27
The Big Ditch
  • This painting shows the "Seneca Chief," the
    flagship of a flotilla making the maiden voyage
    down the Erie Canal. The 363-mile-long, 7
    million canal opened the shortest thoroughfare
    between the Atlantic Coast's factories and the
    natural bounty of the Great Lakes, helping to
    position New York City as America's leading
    metropolis.
  • The Canal did not greatly affect business for
    stagecoach companies, which were faster, and not
    limited by road capacity or ice, but it did
    bankrupt the Conestoga wagon freight carriers. By
    1841, however, the railroads had put stagecoach
    companies out of business. The Erie Canal still
    operates today.

28
The Erie Canal
  • I've got a mule,Her name is Sal,Fifteen years
    on the Erie Canal.She's a good old workerAnd a
    good old pal,Fifteen years on the Erie
    Canal.We've hauled some barges in our dayFilled
    with lumber, coal and hayAnd ev'ry inch of the
    way I knowFrom Albany to Buffalo.Low Bridge,
    ev'rybody down,For it's Low Bridge,We're coming
    to a town!You can always tell your neighbor,You
    can always tell your pal,If you've ever
    navigatedOn the Erie Canal.Low Bridge,
    ev'rybody down,For it's Low Bridge,We're coming
    to a town!You can always tell your neighbor,You
    can always tell your pal,If you've ever
    navigatedOn the Erie Canal. 
  • We better get alongOn our way, old gal,Fifteen
    miles on the Erie Canal.Cause you bet your
    lifeI'd never part with Sal,Fifteen miles on
    the Erie Canal.Git up there, mule, here comes a
    lock,We'll make Rome 'bout six o'clock.One more
    trip and back we'll goRight back home to
    Buffalo.Low Bridge, ev'rybody down,For it's
    Low Bridge,We're coming to a town!You can
    always tell your neighbor,You can always tell
    your pal,If you've ever navigatedOn the Erie
    Canal.Low Bridge, ev'rybody down,For it's Low
    Bridge,We're coming to a town!You can always
    tell your neighbor,You can always tell your
    pal,If you've ever navigatedOn the Erie Canal.

29
Chapter 11The Nation Grows and Prospers1790-
1825
  • Sections 3 4
  • Unity and Division
  • New Nations in the Americas

30
Objectives
  • Discuss the role played by sectionalism in the
    Era of Good Feelings
  • Explain how the Latin American nations won
    independence and became republics
  • Describe how the United States gained Florida
    from Spain
  • Discuss the purpose of the Monroe Doctrine

31
Era of Good Feelings
  • James Monroe (Republican) easily won the
    Presidency in 1816.
  • After inauguration, he toured the country and was
    well received even in New England.

32
I. Three Sectional Leaders
  • A. Calhoun of the South
  • 1. John C. Calhoun of South Carolina
  • 2. Supported War of 1812 and slavery
  • 3. Opposed policies that would strengthen the
    power of the federal government

33
  • B. Daniel Webster of the North
  • 1. New Hampshire
  • 2. Most skillful public speakers
  • 3. Opposed War of 1812 and slavery
  • 4. Wanted government to take a larger role in
    building the nations economy

34
  • C. Henry Clay of the West
  • 1. Leader of War Hawks in War of 1812
  • 2. VA- KY
  • 3. Favored a more active role for central
    government in promoting the countrys growth

35
National Bank
  • The National Bank was re-chartered in 1816.
    Americans wanted a central bank to loan money.

36
Flood of British Goods
  • After the War of 1812 the American Market was
    flooded with cheaper British Goods
  • This threatened the new Industrial USA.

37
Congress Passes Protective Tariff
  • To even the playing field with Great Britain, the
    US congress passed the Protective Tariff.

38
The American System
  • D. Sectionalism loyalty to ones state or
    section rather than to the country as a whole
  • E. Internal improvements improvements for
    roads, bridges, and canals

39
Henry Clays American System
  • Clay wanted economic growth for regions of the
    country.
  • High taxes on imports more for north to buy
    southern and western goods.

40
American System Definition
  • What is Henry Clays American System?
  • the policy of promoting industry in the U.S. by
    adoption of a high protective tariff and of
    developing internal improvements by the federal
    government (as advocated by Henry Clay from 1816
    to 1828)
  • House Speaker, Henry Clay coined the term
    American System in 1815, after President
    Madison created a plan to unite the Northern and
    Southern economies.

41
North Economy /-
  • Northern Economy Strengths
  • 1. The north had just experienced an Industrial
    Revolution, and was producing manufactured goods.
  • 2. New methods of transportation that brought
    goods to and from the manufacturing north.
  • 3. A new, national currency that enabled the
    north to trade with the south and west.
  • Northern Economy Weaknesses
  • 1. Poor soil, low crop production, few
    livestock.

42
Southern/Western Economy /-
  • Southern/Western Economy Strengths
  • 1. Good and rich soil for plantation farming.
  • 2. Increased slavery, increased productivity.
  • 3. Use of the Mississippi River for
    transportation of goods between the north and
    south economies.
  • Southern/Western Economy Weaknesses
  • 1. No factories for manufacturing goods.
  • 2. Heavy, intense labor needed to run the
    plantations smoothly in the south.

43
The Supreme Court Expands Federal Power
  • Chief Justice John Marshall
  • Under John Marshall, the Supreme Court would
    increase the power of the Federal governement.

44
McCulloch v. Maryland
  • In 1819, Maryland levied heavy taxes on a local
    branch of the National Bank to make it fail. It
    was declared unconstitutional.

45
Gibbons v. Ogden
  • Interstate Trade-trade between different states.
  • This case upheld the federal governments right to
    regulate trade between states.

46
New Nations in the Americas
47
Revolution in Latin America
  • By 1810 the people of the Spanish American
    colonies were eager for independence.

48
Mexican Independence
  • 1821 Mexican independence gained.
  • The leaders Hidalgo and Morelos were killed.
  • Even creoles-Latin born people of Spanish
    parents, joined the fight

49
The Liberator
  • A Venezuelan creole
  • Lead attack that defeated Spanish forces in 1819
  • Became President of Rep. of Great
    Columbia-Venezuela, Columbia, Ecuador, Panama

50
Other New Nations
  • In 1821 the people of Central American formed the
    United Provinces of Central American
  • Nicaragua, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Honduras, and
    Guatemala

51
The US gains Florida
  • Since the 1700s Spain protected runaway slaves.
  • Seminole Indians shared their lands
  • Andrew Jackson ordered the fort to be destroyed.

52
The US gains Florida
  • 1818 Jackson returns to FL with 3,000 soldiers
  • Spain cannot risk war with U. S,
  • Spain agreed to give U. S. Florida in exchange
    for 5 million dollars

53
The United States Gains Florida
  • Adams-Onis Treaty- an agreement between the US
    and Spain in which Spain gave all it claims in
    Florida up to the US.

54
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55
III. Monroe Doctrine - 1832
  • A. United States would not interfere in the
    affairs of European nations or existing colonies
    of the European nations
  • B. European nations are not to attempt to gain
    control of the new independent nations of Latin
    America

56
Monroe Doctrine
  • C. Stated that the U.S. would oppose any attempt
    to build new colonies in the Americas
  • D. Showed that the U.S. is determined to keep
    European powers out of the Western Hemisphere
  • E. England supported Monroe Doctrine with its
    navy
  • F. Has shaped U. S. foreign policy even now
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