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Shaping the New Nation...


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Title: Shaping the New Nation...

Shaping the New Nation...
  • Chapter 1 2

What got us here?
Review of American Revolution
Question Handout
Setting up Government
  • As states were developing their own
    constitutions, the delegates as the Continental
    Convention had to begin the process of developing
    a federal constitution.
  • Questions delegates had to consider
  • How would representation be determined?
  • By population or state (equal)?
  • Who has power?
  • Is the federal govt to be supreme or the state
  • Who gets control of western lands?

How would representation be determined?
  • States were independent units
  • Equal as a unit, but unequal in land size,
    wealth, and population
  • Do the delegates represent the people or the
  • Should each state elect the same of
    representatives regardless of population?
  • Should states with large populations have more
    representatives than small states?

The decision Each state would have one vote
regardless of population!
Does this decision last?
Ultimately, NO! They have to change it to please
the large states!
Supreme Power?
  • Without supreme powera govt could not function.
  • The solution The Articles of Confederation
    (Nov. 1777)
  • Which called for the sharing of powers.

Articles of Confederation
  • State and federal govt shared powers
  • State was supreme in some matters, federal govt
    in others.
  • Confederationalliance

Federal Powers
  • Declare war
  • Make peace
  • Sign treaties
  • Borrow money
  • Set standards for coins
  • Establish postal service
  • Deal with Native Americans

Top 3 were most important
  • No separate EXECUTIVE branch to enforce the acts
    of Congress.
  • No national COURT SYSTEM to decide the meaning of
    the laws.

Western Lands
  • Some states had claim to western lands because of
    their original charters.
  • While others were now making demands for partial
    claim to lands west of the Appalachian Mtns.
  • B/c of fear that states who already had claims
    might grow and overpower smaller states.
  • 1781all states gave up claims to western lands
    in order for the Articles to go into effect.

Western Lands
  • What do they do with them?
  • Land Ordinance of 1785 called for surveying of
    land in Ohio River Valley

Northwest Ordinance
  • Northwest Ordinance of 1787 land would be
    divided into no less than 3 nor more than five
    territories. Townships would be 6x6 miles.
  • Set up requirements for new state admission
  • Congress would appoint a territorial governor and
  • Territory must have 5,000 voting residents
  • Allowing settlers to write a temporary
    constitution and elect their own govt.
  • Upon reach 60,000 settlers the area could write a
    state constitution to submit to Congress for
    approval of statehood.

Northwest Ordinance
  • Rightsfreedom of religion, property rights, and
    the right to trial by jury
  • NO slavery in the territory

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The Confederation begins to encounter problems!
  • Lacked national unity
  • States pursued their own interest
  • Confederation did not acknowledge the power of
    the people, b/c everything was considered equal
    by state.
  • GA (25K ppl)MA (270K ppl)
  • Couldnt change w/o state approval

The Confederation begins to encounter problems!
  • DEBT!
  • Revolutionary War had cost the nation 160
  • Lacking the power to tax, Congress requested the
    states approval to impose a tariff.
  • States rejected, they argued that the
    Confederation Congress had no control over trade.

The Confederation begins to encounter problems!
  • Debts to the British could be collected in
    American courts
  • Problem Congress could not force states to
    follow this
  • Congress pledge to return property that had been
    seized from Loyalist during the war
  • Problem Congress could not compel the states to
    do this
  • Because Congress could not regulate trade or
    collect taxes, there was little they could do to
    force the British out

The Confederation begins to encounter problems!
  • Foreign relations
  • Spain controlled the Mississippi River closed
    it to American navigation.
  • Western farmers could not get crops to market.

Review of weaknesses under the Articles of
  1. Congress could not tax
  2. Congress could not regulate trade
  3. Each state received one vote, regardless of
  4. 9/13 states needed to pass new laws
  5. Articles could only be amended with approval of
    all states
  6. No executive
  7. No judicial
  8. No national unity

Shay's Rebellion
  • Started when the government of Massachusetts
    decided to raise taxes instead of issuing paper
    money to pay off its debts.
  • Farmers were most affected, and often lost their
  • Farmers decided to rebelthey closed down several
    county courthouses to prevent farm foreclosures,
    and then marched to the state Supreme Court

Shay's Rebellion
  • Daniel Shaysa former captain in the Continental
    Army emerged as one of the rebellions leaders.
  • Shays and about 1200 farmers headed to the state
    arsenal intending to seize weapons before
    marching on Boston, troops were ordered, before
    they could arrive, Shays and farmers had attacked
    the local militia
  • Four farmers died, next day troops arrive and the
    rebellion is ended

Call for change
  • Rebellion and inflation were viewed as signs of a
    republic at risk
  • Fear was that poor people would gain control with
    a democratic government, therefore, merchants,
    artisans, and creditors began to argue for a
    stronger central government

Constitutional Convention
  • People who supported a strong central government
    were called nationalist
  • Nationalist include G. Washington, John Adams,
    Ben Franklin, Alexander Hamilton, James Madison
    Robert Morris
  • James Madison member of the VA Assembly and
    head of its commerce committee, believed a
    stronger national government was greatly needed

Constitutional Convention
  • Madison called for a meeting to discuss taxation
    and trade
  • Discussed the weaknesses of the Articles
  • Alexander Hamilton called for a future meeting of
    delegates in Philadelphia in May 1787
  • Every state except for RI sent a delegate to
    Constitutional Convention

Constitutional Convention
  • 55 delegates, majority were lawyers, some
    planters and merchants
  • Had previous experience in colonial, state of
    national government
  • 39 had been members of the Confederation Congress
  • 8 signed the Dec. of Independence
  • Chose G. Washington as presiding officer

Constitutional Convention
  • Meetings were closed to the public as a means of
    insuring honest and open discussions
  • Notable delegates also included Franklin,
    Washington, Alexander Hamilton, Roger Sherman,
    and James Madison

Virginia Plan
  • VA delegates came to the Convention with their
    own plan, which proposed A nation government
    ought to be established consisting of a supreme
    Legislative, Executive, and Judicial body.
  • 2 house legislature, representatives reflect
    states population
  • Would benefit large states, because
    representatives was reflective of state population

Virginia Plan
  • Delegates accepted the idea for 3 branches of
  • Smaller states opposed the changes that would
    decrease their power, due to lack of
  • Smaller states, therefore, proposed their own
    planthe New Jersey Plan

New Jersey Plan
  • Did not abandon the Articles of Confederation
  • Modified them to make a stronger central
  • Single house in which each state was equally
  • Federal government would also be given the right
    to raise taxes and regulate trade

Which plan to go with???
  • Delegates voted to proceed with Virginia Plan
  • Decided to go beyond simply modifying the
    Articles, and moved to develop a new constitution

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How would they develop a new Constitution?
  • Big states wanted to remain powerful
  • Little states wanted protection from larger more
    powerful states
  • Northern states and Southern states were divided
    as to how to go about treating slavery
  • A compromise had to be developed

Connecticut Compromise
  • Smaller states were angered by the decision to
    move along with the VA plan
  • Delegates threatened to walk out of the
    Constitutional Convention in Philly
  • Pointed out that the Convention could not last
  • Decision to compromise over the issues of
    representation became known as the Connecticut
    Compromise, also known as the Great Compromise

Franklin's Proposal
  • Ben Franklin proposed that state representatives
    in the House would depend on the states
  • In the Senate there would be equal representation
  • Voters would elect the House, but state
    legislatures would elect senators

3/5 Compromise
  • Disagreement over counting slaves. Southern
    states wanted them counted, Northern states did
  • 3/5 Compromise reached, in which slaves would
    count as 3/5 of a person (every 5 slaves
    therefore counted as 3 persons)

Fearful Farmers
  • Farmers feared that more restrictions were to
  • Fears importation of slaves would be banned
  • Southern states argued that Congress did not have
    the power under the new constitution to restrict

  • Draft version of the Constitution was sent to
    Confederation Congress for approval
  • Nine of the thirteen states had to ratify in
    order for it to take effect
  • Created the principle of popular
    sovereigntyruled by the people
  • Constitution also created the concept of
    federalismgovernment was divided between the
    federal and state governments

New Government
  • Separation of powers
  • Legislature, executive, judicial
  • Checks and balances
  • Presidential veto
  • Impeachment
  • Amendments

Questions to consider
  • What were some of the problems with the Articles
    of Confederation? What was the solution to the
  • Who benefited from the VA plan, the NJ plan?
  • What were the important aspects of the
    Connecticut Compromise, aka Great Comp.?

Federalists vs. Anti-federalist
  • Federalistssupported Constitution
  • Wanted strong central govt promoted taxation
    and trade, opposed tariffs and duties
  • Anti-federalistopposed it
  • Wanted states to have equal control, tended to be
    lower to middle class people who could easily
  • Included John Hancock, Patrick Henry, and
    various state governors

Federalist Papers
Patrick Henry Anti-federalist
The Federalist Papers
  • Arguments in favor of the ratification of the
  • Written by James Madison, Alex. Hamilton, and
    John Jay
  • Helped to explain the Constitution and the laws
    that derive from it

  • Certain states were ready to accept the
    Constitution, while others called for the
    creation of a Bill of Rights.
  • 9 out of 13 states had to ratify the Constitution
    for it to take effect
  • By 1788 all states except NC and RI had ratified,
    they were only waiting for a Bill of Rights.

  • Washington sought to create various cabinet
    offices. Cabineta group of advisers to the
  • Judiciary Act of 1789established 13 district
    courts, 3 courts of appeals, and the Supreme

Bill of Rights
  • First 10 amendments to the Constitution.
  • Demanded by the Anti-federalists before they
    agreed to ratification.

Tariff of 1789
  • Tariffrequired importers to pay a percentage of
    the value of their cargo before the cargo could
    proceed into the US.
  • Harmed southern farmers!!!

Hamilton and Finances
Hamilton and Finances
  • Bondsnotes promising repayment of borrowed money
    with interest.
  • Hamilton felt the government needed to be able to
    borrow money in order to function.
  • Some argued that bonds harmed farmers, because
    they would not be paid back at value.
  • Speculatorspeople willing to take a risk in
    hopes of a future financial gain.

Bank of the United States
Bank of the United States
  • Source of constant conflict!!!
  • Madison argued against a Bank saying it was not a
    enumerated powerpower mentioned in the
  • Hamilton argued it was possible, because it was a
    implied powerpowers not mentioned, but implied
    as necessary and proper.

Bank of the United States
Bank of the United States
  • Bank was created for 20 years, after Washington
    signed the creation into law.

Whiskey Rebellion
  • Whiskey Rebellion was the result of a tax on
    whiskey, which prompted farmers to terrorize tax
    collectorsand destroy stills of those who paid
    the taxes.

Hamilton and Jefferson
  • Review chart on page 214

Group Assignment
  • Complete the quote assignment
  • Gather into groups, review the assignment.
  • Read the quotes, keep the chart on p. 214 in

Washington Foreign Politics
  • French Revolution in 1789
  • American sympathizers, until radicals seized
  • Radicals declared war on Britain leaving American
    leaders in the middle
  • Federalist opposed it, Republicans supported the
    fight for liberty
  • Proclamation of Neutrality the US would be
    friendly and impartial toward Britain and

Jays Treaty
  • American ships were being intercepted at French
    ports by the British
  • British were also inciting Native American
    attacks on western settlers
  • Washington sent John Jay to Britain in an attempt
    to find a solution
  • Trade would be harmed if war erupted again

Jays Treaty
  • British agreed to sign a treaty
  • Britain had the right to seize goods bound for
    French ports
  • Americans would not get compensated
  • Britain agreed to international arbitration by a
    neutral country
  • Most-favored nation status American merchants
    would not be discriminated against when they
    traded with Britain.
  • Republicans were angered by treaty and accused
    Federalists of being pro-British.
  • Treaty prevented WAR w/ GB.

Jays Treaty
Pinckneys Treaty
  • Jays Treaty also helped the US win concessions
    from Spain
  • Spanish and French were fearful that the British
    and Americans were going to attempt to seize
    Spains holdings in North America
  • Washington sent Thomas Pinckney to negotiate with

Pinckneys Treaty
  • 1795Spanish signed the Treaty of San
    Lorenzoalso known as Pinckneys Treaty
  • Granted US the right to navigate the Mississippi
    and deposit goods at in New Orleans
  • Was greatly approvedespecially by farmers who
    could get their goods to the market faster

Westward Expansion
  • Mississippi River areafastest growing
  • Abundant land, fertile soil, wide rivers, wide
    variety of fish and game
  • Increased western settlement led to numerous
    conflicts with Native Americans
  • Example Little Turtle and other Indian
    leaders sought to form an alliance to protect
    against invasions against settlers

Westward Movement
Westward Movement
Crossing the Plains
Future Maps of the West
Native American defenses
  • Fall 1790Little warriors defeated American
    troops led by Gen. Josiah Harmar
  • Nov. 1791ambushed American forces led by Gen.
    Arthur St. Clair, killing nearly half his men.
  • Anthony Wayne was sent to put down Native
    American resistance. Native Americans attacked
    at Battle of Fallen Timbers. Natives suffered
    heavy losses.

Native American resistance
  • 12 Native American nations signed the Treaty of
  • Agreed to give up part of what is today southern
    Ohio and Indiana in exchange for a yearly payment
    of 10,000 from the federal government
  • Settlement into the region, by settlers, had
    greatly increased

Washington Leaves
  • Decided to retire
  • Farewall Addresswarned Americans against
    sectionalismto avoid dividing the country into
    North against South or East against West.
  • Election of 1796first openly contested election.
    Federalist nominated John Adams, Republicans
    nominated Thomas Jefferson
  • John Adams won 71 to 68 in electoral votes

John Adams
Quasi-War with France
Quasi-War with France
  • French were anger by Jays Treaty and began
    seizing goods from American merchant ships
  • Adams did not want war. He sent Pinckney,
    Elbridge Gerry, and John Marshall to negotiate
    with France
  • French efforts to get bribes before beginning
    negotiations was known as the XYZ Affair

Quasi-War with France
  • Americans and the French were up and arms, and
    began an undeclared war at sea that came to be
    known as the Quasi War.
  • September 1800the two countries signed the
    Convention of 1800.
  • US gave up all claims against France
  • Affected domestic politics in the US

Alien and Sedition Acts
Alien and Sedition Acts
  • Federalist pushed four laws through
    Congressbecame known as Alien and Sedition Acts
  • First three laws were aimed at alienspeople
    living in the country who were not citizens
  • Fourth law was aimed at preventing seditionor
    incitement to rebellion

Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions
Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions
  • Resolutions criticized Alien and Sedition Acts
  • Resolutions argued that since the states had
    created the Constitution, they could declare
    federal laws unconstitutional
  • VA Resolutions introduced the theory of
  • Kentucky Resolutions advanced the theory of
  • States used these ideas in later decades to
    defend their regional interest

Election of 1800
Election of 1800
  • John Adams were up for reelection, Republicans
    had nominated Jefferson for president and Aaron
    Burr for VP.
  • Problem was that Jefferson and Burr had received
    the same number of votes, finally Jefferson got
    the extra vote, because of promises to keep
    Federalist leaders in powerful positions

Election of 1800
Election of 1800
  • Turning point in history
  • Federalists controlled the army, the presidency,
    and Congress
  • Demonstrated that power in the US could be
    peacefully transferred despite strong
    disagreements between the parties.

Spains control of the Mississippi
Challenges facing Washington
French Revolution
British interference with shipping
Challenges facing Adams
French interference with shipping
XYZ Affair
Launching a New Nation
  • Jeffersons reign

  • 1801Jefferson takes office
  • 1803 Marbury v. Madison case decided Louisiana
    Purchase expands nation
  • 1804 Lewis and Clark head west
  • 1807 Embargo Act
  • 1808 James Madison elected president
  • 1812War with Britain
  • 1814 Treaty of Ghent ended the war

Jefferson Takes Office
  • Finally won the election when Hamilton persuaded
    enough representatives to cast blank votes,
    giving Jefferson a two vote majority
  • Hamilton did not favor Jefferson, but he agreed
    with his ideas more so than he did with Burrs
  • Revolution of 1800Jeffersons term for his
    victory in the Election of 1800
  • Wanted to appeal more to the common man

Jeffersons Beliefs
  • Shrink and simplify govt
  • Reduced the size of military
  • Lowered expenses for government social functions
  • Jefferson eliminated all internal taxes reduced
    the influence of the Bank of the US

Jeffersons Beliefs
  • Felt that free trade would benefit the US because
    the raw materials and food that Americans were
    producing were in short supply in Europe

Southern Dominance in Politics
  • Jefferson was the first to take office in the new
    capital of Washington, D.C.
  • Location reflected the influence of the South
  • Federalists were unwilling to change their
    tactics, therefore giving the Republicans the
    backing of individuals in the South and western

Supreme Court decisions
  • Federalists were still influencing the judicial
    branch greatly
  • Adams had pushed through the Judiciary Act of
    1801 which increased the of federal judges by
    16. Adams filled these positions, leaving the
    judges to be called midnight judges.
  • Adams appointed John Marshall, who helped
    strengthen the power of the Supreme Court.

Marbury v. Madison
  • Appointment of midnight judges led to the case
  • Marbury was to be appointed to the Court, however
    Madison, a Republican never delivered the papers.
    He filed suit, however, John Marshall declared
    the Judiciary Act of 1789 unconstitutional.
  • Marbury never received his commission. This was
    a small victory for the Republicans
  • Case led to the creation of JUDICIAL
    REVIEWability of the Supreme Court to declare
    laws unconstitutional

Louisiana Purchase
  • American were fearful that the French were going
    to develop a great presence in the region
  • Jefferson sent James Monroe to join Robert
    Livingston in Paris. During negotiations with
    the French, Americans became aware of the fact
    that Napoleons hopes for advancement had
    diminished. In 1803, Napoleon offered up the
    entire Louisiana Territory to the United States.

Louisiana Purchase
  • No time to consult, Monroe and Livingston
    accepted the offer at 15 million dollars.
  • Senate approved the purchase treaty.
  • Territory included land in the western
    tributaries of the Mississippi River basin
  • More than doubled the size of the US
  • Jeffersons hopes of decentralizing the
    government and simplifying the presidency had be

Louisiana Purchase
Lewis and Clark Expedition
  • Explore the new territory
  • Appointed Meriwether Lewis to head the
    expedition, Lewis chose Clark as the second in
  • Kept detailed records of journey
  • Aided by SacajaweaIndian women who served as a
    guide and interpreter
  • Expedition took 2 years and 4 months

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Lewis and Clark
Lewis and Clark w/ Sacajewa
War of 1812 Erupts
Key Concepts
  • Blockade seal up ports and prevent ships from
    entering or leaving
  • Impressment the British practice of seizing
    Americans at sea and impressing, or drafting
    them into the British navy
  • Embargo a ban on exporting products to other
  • Believed the Embargo Act of 1807 would hurt
    Britain and the other European powers and force
    them to honor American neutrality

Grievances Against Native Americans
  • War Hawksa group young congressmen who
    encouraged warled by Clay and Calhoun
  • Outraged by the presence of Native Americans in
    the Indiana Territory
  • William Harrison got Indians to sign away 3
    million acres of tribal land to the US
    government. A confederacy of Native American
    warriors, led by Tecumseh, began fighting against
    the encroachment of settlers

War of 1812
  • Madison had achieve easy victory over Charles
  • He believed that Britain was trying to strangle
    American trade and cripple the American economy.
    Congress therefore approved the war declaration
    in June.
  • American forced were ill prepared because of cut
    backs made by Jefferson

War in Canada and America
  • Tecumseh was killed at the Battle of the Thames,
    and the confederacy collapsed.
  • British were still able to cripple the Americans
    by seizing ships
  • British burned the Capitol, White House, and
    other major buildings

Battle of New Orleans
  • Andrew Jackson was to protect New Orleans from
    the British attack to come.
  • As a result of the attack the British lost 100s
  • Peace TreatyTreaty of Ghentdeclared an
    armisticean end to fighting
  • The first 25 year of government under the
    Constitution had successfully came to an end

Battle of New Orleans song
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