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Chapter Introduction Lesson 1 Earth s Motion Lesson 2 Earth s Moon Lesson 3 Eclipses and Tides Chapter Wrap-Up Jason Reed/Photodisc/Getty Images – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Chapter Menu


1
Chapter Menu
Chapter Introduction Lesson 1 Earths
Motion Lesson 2 Earths Moon Lesson 3 Eclipses
and Tides Chapter Wrap-Up
Jason Reed/Photodisc/Getty Images
2
Chapter Introduction
  • What natural phenomena do the motions of Earth
    and the Moon produce?

3
Chapter Introduction
  • What do you think?

Before you begin, decide if you agree or disagree
with each of these statements. As you view this
presentation, see if you change your mind about
any of the statements.
4
Chapter Introduction
Do you agree or disagree?
  • 1. Earths movement around the Sun causes
    sunrises and sunsets.
  • 2. Earth has seasons because its distance from
    the Sun changes throughout the year.
  • 3. The Moon was once a planet that orbited the
    Sun between Earth and Mars.

5
Chapter Introduction
Do you agree or disagree?
  • 4. Earths shadow causes the changing appearance
    of the Moon.
  • 5. A solar eclipse happens when Earth moves
    between the Moon and the Sun.
  • 6. The gravitational pull of the Moon and the Sun
    on Earths oceans causes tides.

6
Lesson 1 Reading Guide - KC
Earths Motion
  • How does Earth move?
  • Why is Earth warmer at the equator and colder at
    the poles?
  • Why do the seasons change as Earth moves around
    the Sun?

7
Lesson 1 Reading Guide - Vocab
Earths Motion
  • orbit
  • revolution
  • rotation
  • rotation axis
  • solstice
  • equinox

8
Lesson 1-1
Earth and the Sun
  • The nearest star to Earth is the Sun.
  • The Sun is approximately 150 million km from
    Earth.

9
Lesson 1-1
Earth and the Sun (cont.)
  • Earth moves around the Sun in a nearly circular
    path.

10
Lesson 1-1
Earth and the Sun (cont.)
  • The path an object follows as it moves around
    another object is an orbit.
  • The motion of one object around another object is
    called revolution.
  • Earth makes one complete revolution around the
    Sun every 365.24 days.

11
Lesson 1-1
Earth and the Sun (cont.)
What produces Earths revolution around the Sun?
12
Lesson 1-1
Earth and the Sun (cont.)
  • Earth orbits the Sun because the Suns gravity
    pulls on the Earth.

13
Lesson 1-1
Earth and the Sun (cont.)
  • A spinning motion is called rotation.
  • The line on which an object rotates is the
    rotation axis.
  • The tilt of Earths rotation axis is always in
    the same direction by the same amount.
  • During half of Earths orbit, the north end of
    the rotation axis is toward the Sun and during
    the other half the north end of the rotation axis
    is away from the Sun.

14
Lesson 1-2
Temperature and Latitude
  • Because Earths surface is curved, different
    parts of Earths surface receive different
    amounts of the Suns energy.

15
Lesson 1-2
Temperature and Latitude (cont.)
  • Relative to the direction of a beam of sunlight,
    Earths surface tends to become more tilted as
    you move away from the equator.

Why is Earth warmer at the equator and colder at
the poles?
16
Lesson 1-2
Temperature and Latitude (cont.)
  • The energy in a beam of sunlight tends to become
    more spread out the farther you travel from the
    equator

17
Lesson 1-2
Temperature and Latitude (cont.)
  • Regions near the poles receive less energy than
    regions near the equator, which means Earth is
    colder at the poles and warmer at the equator.

18
Lesson 1-3
Seasons
  • During one half of Earths orbit, the north end
    of the rotation axis is toward the Sun.

19
Lesson 1-3
Seasons (cont.)
  • Due to Earths tilt, the northern hemisphere
    receives more solar energy.
  • Temperatures increase in the northern hemisphere
    and decrease in the southern hemisphere.
  • This is when spring and summer happen in the
    northern hemisphere, and fall and winter happen
    in the southern hemisphere.

20
Lesson 1-3
  • During the other half of Earths orbit, the north
    end of the rotation axis is away from the Sun.

21
Lesson 1-3
Seasons (cont.)
  • Due to Earths tilt, the southern hemisphere
    receives more solar energy.
  • Temperatures decrease in the northern hemisphere
    and increase in the southern hemisphere.
  • This is when fall and winter happen in the
    northern hemisphere, and spring and summer happen
    in the southern hemisphere.

22
Lesson 1-3
Seasons (cont.)
How does the tilt of Earths rotation axis affect
Earths weather?
23
Lesson 1-3
Seasons (cont.)
  • There are four days each year when the direction
    of Earths rotation axis is special relative to
    the Sun.

24
Lesson 1-3
Seasons (cont.)
  • A solstice is a day when Earths rotation axis is
    the most toward or away from the Sun.

25
Lesson 1-3
Seasons (cont.)
  • An equinox is a day when Earths rotation axis is
    leaning along Earths orbit, neither toward nor
    away from the Sun.

26
Lesson 1-3
Seasons (cont.)
equinox from Latin equinoxium, means equality of
night and day
27
Lesson 1-3
Seasons (cont.)
  • The Suns apparent path through the sky in the
    northern hemisphere is lowest on the December
    solstice and highest on the June solstice.

28
Lesson 1 - VS
  • The gravitational pull of the Sun causes Earth to
    revolve around the Sun in a near-circular orbit.

29
Lesson 1 - VS
  • Earths rotation axis is tilted and always points
    in the same direction in space.

30
Lesson 1 - VS
  • Equinoxes and solstices are days when the
    direction of Earths rotation axis relative to
    the Sun is special.

31
Lesson 1 LR1
Which bodys gravitational pull causes the Earth
to orbit the Sun?
A. Earth B. Sun C. Moon D. none of these
32
Lesson 1 LR2
Relative to the direction of a beam of sunlight,
what happens to Earths surface as you move away
from the equator?
A. The surface becomes less tilted. B. The
surface becomes flat. C. The surface becomes more
tilted. D. There is no change in the relationship.
33
Lesson 1 LR3
Which term refers to the motion of one object
around another object?
A. orbit B. rotation C. rotation
axis D. revolution
34
Lesson 1 - Now
Do you agree or disagree?
  • 1. Earths movement around the Sun causes
    sunrises and sunsets.
  • 2. Earth has seasons because its distance from
    the Sun changes throughout the year.

35
Lesson 2 Reading Guide - KC
Earths Moon
  • How does the Moon move around Earth?
  • Why does the Moons appearance change?

36
Lesson 2 Reading Guide - Vocab
Earths Moon
  • maria
  • phase
  • waxing phase
  • waning phase

37
Lesson 2-1
Seeing the Moon
  • You only see the Moon because light from the Sun
    reflects off the Moon and into your eyes.

38
Lesson 2-2
The Moons Formation
  • According to the giant impact hypothesis, shortly
    after Earth formed about 4.6 billion years ago,
    an object about the size of the planet Mars
    collided with Earth.

39
Lesson 2-2
The Moons Formation (cont.)
  • The impact ejected vaporized rock that formed a
    ring around Earth.

40
Lesson 2-2
The Moons Formation (cont.)
  • Eventually, the material in the ring cooled and
    clumped together and formed the Moon.

41
Lesson 2-2
The Moons Formation (cont.)
  • The surface of the Moon was shaped early in its
    history.
  • Moons craters were formed when objects from
    space crashed into the Moon.

42
Lesson 2-2
The Moons Formation (cont.)
  • The large, dark, flat areas on the Moon are
    called maria.

maria from Latin mare, means sea
43
Lesson 2-2
The Moons Formation (cont.)
  • When the maria formed, lava flowed up through the
    Moons crust and solidified, covering many of the
    Moons craters and other features.
  • The light-colored highlands are too high for the
    lava that formed the maria to reach.

44
Lesson 2-3
The Moons Motion
  • The Moon rotates as it revolves around Earth.
  • One complete rotation of the Moon takes 27.3
    days, meaning the Moon makes one rotation in the
    same amount of time that it makes one revolution
    around Earth.

45
Lesson 2-3
The Moons Motion (cont.)
What produces the Moons revolution around Earth?
46
Lesson 2-3
The Moons Motion (cont.)
  • Because the Moon takes the same amount of time to
    orbit Earth and make one rotation, the same side
    of the Moon is always facing Earth.
  • This side of the Moon is called the near side.
  • The side of the Moon that cannot be see from
    Earth is called the far side of the moon.

47
Lesson 2-3
The Moons Motion (cont.)
48
Lesson 2-4
Phases of the Moon
  • The lit part of the Moon or a planet that can be
    seen from Earth is called a phase.

phase Science Use how the Moon or a planet is lit
as seen from earth Common Use a part of something
or a stage of development
49
Lesson 2-4
  • The motion of the Moon around Earth causes the
    phase of the Moon to change.

Jason Reed/Photodisc/Getty Images
50
Lesson 2-4
51
Lesson 2-4
Phases of the Moon (cont.)
What produces the phases of the Moon?
52
Lesson 2-4
Phases of the Moon (cont.)
  • The sequences of phases is the lunar cycle.
  • During the waxing phases, more of the Moons near
    side is lit each night.
  • During the waning phases, less of the Moons near
    side is lit each night.

53
Lesson 2-5
Phases of the Moon (cont.)
54
Lesson 2 - VS
  • According to the giant impact hypothesis, a large
    object collided with Earth about 4.5 billion
    years ago to form the Moon.

55
Lesson 2 - VS
  • Features like maria, craters, and highlands
    formed on the Moons surface early in its
    history.
  • The Moons phases change in a regular pattern
    during the Moons lunar cycle.

Jason Reed/Photodisc/Getty Images
56
Lesson 2 LR1
What features of the moon were formed when
objects from space crashed into it?
A. maria B. craters C. highlands D. phases
57
Lesson 2 LR2
What term is given to the side of the Moon always
facing Earth?
A. far side B. phase C. near side D. maria
58
Lesson 2 LR3
Which of these is characterized by more of the
Moons near side being lit each night?
A. waxing phase B. waning phase C. lunar
cycle D. full moon
59
Lesson 2 - Now
Do you agree or disagree?
3. The Moon was once a planet that orbited the
Sun between Earth and Mars. 4. Earths shadow
causes the changing appearance of the Moon.
60
Lesson 3 Reading Guide - KC
Eclipses and Tides
  • What is a solar eclipse?
  • What is a lunar eclipse?
  • How do the Moon and the Sun affect Earths oceans?

61
Lesson 3 Reading Guide - Vocab
Eclipses and Tides
  • umbra
  • penumbra
  • solar eclipse
  • lunar eclipse
  • tide

62
Lesson 3-1
Shadowsthe Umbra and the Penumbra
  • Light from the Sun and other wide sources cast
    shadows with two distinct parts.

63
Lesson 3-1
Shadowsthe Umbra and the Penumbra (cont.)
  • The umbra is the central, darker part of a
    shadow where light is totally blocked.
  • The penumbra is the lighter part of a shadow
    where light is partially blocked.

64
Lesson 3-1
Shadowsthe Umbra and the Penumbra (cont.)
penumbra from Latin paene, means almost and
umbra, means shade, shadow
65
Lesson 3-2
Solar Eclipses
  • During the new moon phase, Earth, the Moon, and
    the Sun are lined up and the Moon casts a shadow
    on Earth's surface.
  • When the Moons shadow appears on Earths
    surface, a solar eclipse is occurring.

66
Lesson 3-2
Solar Eclipses (cont.)
Why does a solar eclipse occur only during a new
moon?
67
Lesson 3-2
  • During a total solar eclipse, the Moon appears
    to cover the Sun completely. You can only see a
    total solar eclipse from within the Moons umbra.

68
Lesson 3-2
Solar Eclipses (cont.)
  • You can see a partial solar eclipse from within
    the Moons much larger penumbra.
  • The Suns appearance changes during an eclipse as
    the moon moves in the sky.

69
Lesson 3-2
  • The Moons orbit is tilted slightly compared to
    Earths orbit. As a result, during most new
    moons, Earth is either above or below the Moons
    shadow.

70
Lesson 3-3
Lunar Eclipses
  • A lunar eclipse occurs when the Moon moves into
    Earths shadow.

71
Lesson 3-3
Lunar Eclipses (cont.)
  • When the entire Moon moves through Earths umbra,
    a total lunar eclipse occurs.

72
Lesson 3-3
Lunar Eclipses (cont.)
  • When only part of the Moon passes through Earths
    umbra, a partial lunar eclipse occurs.
  • Lunar eclipses can only occur during a full moon
    phase, when the Moon and the Sun are on opposite
    sides of Earth.

73
Lesson 3-3
Lunar Eclipses (cont.)
When can a lunar eclipse occur?
74
Lesson 3-4
Tides
  • A tide is the daily rise and fall of sea level.
  • It is primarily the Moons gravity that causes
    Earths oceans to rise and fall twice each day.
  • The Moons gravity is slightly stronger on the
    side of Earth closer to the Moon and slightly
    weaker on the side of Earth opposite the Moon.

75
Lesson 3-4
Tides (cont.)
  • The gravitational differences cause tidal bulges
    in the oceans on opposite sides of Earth.

76
Lesson 3-4
Tides (cont.)
  • High tides occur at the tidal bulges, and low
    tides occur between them.
  • Because the Sun is so far away from Earth, its
    effect on tides is about half that of the Moon.

77
Lesson 3-4
Tides (cont.)
  • Spring tides occur during the full moon and new
    moon phases, when the Suns and the Moons
    gravitational effects combine and produce higher
    high tides and lower low tides.

78
Lesson 3-4
Tides (cont.)
  • A neap tide occurs a week after a spring tide,
    when the Sun, Earth, and the Moon form a right
    angle and the Suns effect on tides reduces the
    Moons effect.

79
Lesson 3-4
Tides (cont.)
Why is the Suns effect on tides less than the
Moons effect?
80
Lesson 3 - VS
  • Shadows from a wide light source have two
    distinct parts.

81
Lesson 3 - VS
  • The Moons shadow produces solar eclipses.
    Earths shadow produces lunar eclipses.

82
Lesson 3 - VS
  • The positions of the Moon and the Sun in relation
    to Earth cause gravitational differences that
    produce tides.

83
Lesson 3 LR1
If the Moons shadow appears on Earths surface,
which of these is occurring?
A. lunar eclipse B. tide C. solar eclipse D. neap
tide
84
Lesson 3 LR2
What causes Earths tides?
A. the Moons gravity B. the Moons tilted
orbit C. Earths gravity D. the Moons umbra
85
Lesson 3 LR3
Which of these refers to the central, darker part
of a shadow where light is totally blocked?
A. umbra B. penumbra C. lunar eclipse D. tide
86
Lesson 3 - Now
Do you agree or disagree?
5. A solar eclipse happens when Earth moves
between the Moon and the Sun. 6. The
gravitational pull of the Moon and the Sun on
Earths oceans causes tides.
87
Chapter Review Menu
Key Concept Summary Interactive Concept
Map Chapter Review Standardized Test Practice
88
The BIG Idea
  • Gravity causes objects in space to impact each
    other. Earths motion around the Sun causes
    seasons. The Moons motion around Earth causes
    phases of the Moon. Earth and the Moons motions
    together cause eclipses and ocean tides.

89
Key Concepts 1
Lesson 1 Earths Motion
  • The gravitational pull of the Sun on Earth causes
    Earth to revolve around the Sun in a nearly
    circular orbit.
  • Areas on Earths curved surface become more
    tilted with respect to the direction of sunlight
    the farther you travel from the equator. This
    causes sunlight to spread out closer to the
    poles, making Earth colder at the poles and
    warmer at the equator.

90
Key Concepts 1
Lesson 1 Earths Motion
  • As Earth revolves around the Sun, the tilt of
    Earths rotation axis produces changes in how
    sunlight spreads out over Earths surface. These
    changes in the concentration of sunlight cause
    the seasons.

91
Key Concepts 2
Lesson 2 Earths Moon
  • The gravitational pull of Earth on the Moon makes
    the Moon revolve around Earth. The Moon rotates
    once as it makes one complete orbit around Earth.
  • The lit part of the Moon that you can see from
    Earththe Moons phasechanges during the lunar
    cycle as the Moon revolves around Earth.

Jason Reed/Photodisc/Getty Images
92
Key Concepts 3
Lesson 3 Eclipses and Tides
  • When the Moons shadow appears on Earths
    surface, a solar eclipse occurs.
  • When the Moon moves into Earths shadow, a lunar
    eclipse occurs.
  • The gravitational pull of the Moon and the Sun on
    Earth produces tides, the rise and fall of sea
    level that occurs twice each day.

93
Chapter Review MC1
The line on which an object rotates is called
what?
A. orbit B. surface C. revolution D. rotation
axis
94
Chapter Review MC2
What happens to temperatures in the northern
hemisphere when the north end of the rotation
axis is toward the Sun?
A. increase B. stay the same C. decrease D. cannot
be determined
95
Chapter Review MC3
Which is a day when Earths rotation axis is
leaning along Earths orbit, neither toward nor
away from the Sun?
A. equinox B. solstice C. spring D. winter
96
Chapter Review MC4
Which of these is characterized by less of the
Moons near side being lit at night?
A. lunar cycle B. waning phase C. waxing
phase D. lunar eclipse
97
Chapter Review MC5
Which of these refers to the lighter part of a
shadow where light is partially blocked?
A. umbra B. solar eclipse C. tide D. penumbra
98
Chapter Review STP1
What term refers to a day when Earths rotation
axis is the most toward or away from the Sun?
A. equinox B. fall C. spring D. solstice
99
Chapter Review STP2
What is the path an object follows as it moves
around another object?
A. revolution B. rotation axis C. orbit D. rotatio
n
100
Chapter Review STP3
Which refers to the part of the Moon or a planet
that can be seen from Earth?
A. waning B. waxing C. phase D. lunar cycle
101
Chapter Review STP4
Which term refers to the daily rise and fall of
sea level?
A. eclipse B. umbra C. penumbra D. tide
102
Chapter Review STP5
During which does the Moon appear to cover the
Sun completely?
A. solar eclipse B. high tide C. lunar
eclipse D. neap tide
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