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Chapter Menu

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Chapter Introduction Lesson 1 Forms of Energy Lesson 2 Energy Transformations Lesson 3 Energy Resources Chapter Wrap-Up Chapter Menu – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Chapter Menu


1
Chapter Menu
Chapter Introduction Lesson 1 Forms of
Energy Lesson 2 Energy Transformations Lesson
3 Energy Resources Chapter Wrap-Up
2
Chapter Introduction
  • What is energy and what are energy resources?

3
Chapter Introduction
  • What do you think?

Before you begin, decide if you agree or disagree
with each of these statements. As you view this
presentation, see if you change your mind about
any of the statements.
4
Chapter Introduction
Do you agree or disagree?
  • 1. A fast-moving baseball has more kinetic energy
    than a slow-moving baseball.
  • 2. A book sitting on a shelf has no energy.

5
Chapter Introduction
Do you agree or disagree?
  • 3. Energy can change from one form to another.
  • 4. If you toss a baton straight up, total energy
    decreases as the baton rises.

6
Chapter Introduction
Do you agree or disagree?
  • 5. Nuclear power plants release many dangerous
    pollutants into the air as they transform nuclear
    energy into electric energy.
  • 6. Thermal energy from within Earth can be
    transformed into electric energy at a power plant.

7
Lesson 1 Reading Guide - KC
Forms of Energy
  • What is energy?
  • What are potential and kinetic energy?
  • How is energy related to work?
  • What are different forms of energy?

8
Lesson 1 Reading Guide - Vocab
Forms of Energy
  • energy
  • kinetic energy
  • potential energy
  • work
  • mechanical energy
  • sound energy
  • thermal energy
  • electric energy
  • radiant energy
  • nuclear energy

9
Lesson 1-1
What is energy?
  • Energy is the ability to cause change.
  • Energy can cause changes in the motions of
    objects.

energy from Greek energeia, means activity
10
Lesson 1-1
What is energy? (cont.)
What is energy?
11
Lesson 1-2
Kinetic EnergyEnergy of Motion
  • Kinetic energy is energy due to motion.
  • All moving objects have kinetic energy.
  • The faster an object moves, the more kinetic
    energy it has.
  • If two objects move at the same speed, the object
    with more mass has more kinetic energy.

12
Lesson 1-2
  • The kinetic energy (KE) of an object depends on
    its speed and its mass. The vertical bars show
    the kinetic energy of each vehicle.

13
Lesson 1-2
Kinetic EnergyEnergy of Motion (cont.)
What is kinetic energy?
14
Lesson 1-3
Potential EnergyStored Energy
  • Potential energy is stored energy due to the
    interactions between objects or particles.
  • The gravitational potential energy stored between
    an object and Earth depends on the objects
    weight and height.
  • Elastic potential energy is energy stored in
    objects that are compressed or stretched.

15
Lesson 1-3
  • Chemical potential energy is energy stored in the
    chemical bonds between atoms.

16
Lesson 1-3
Potential EnergyStored Energy (cont.)
In what way are all forms of potential energy the
same?
17
Lesson 1-4
Energy and Work
  • Work is the transfer of energy that occurs when a
    force is applied over a distance.
  • Work depends on both force and distance.
  • You only do work on an object if that object
    moves.

18
Lesson 1-4
  • The girl does work on the box as she lifts it.
    The work she does transfers energy to the box.
    The colored bars show the work that the girl does
    (W) and the boxs potential energy (PE).

19
Lesson 1-4
Energy and Work (cont.)
How is energy related to work?
20
Lesson 1-5
  • All energy can be measured in joules (J).

21
Lesson 1-5
22
Lesson 1-5
23
Lesson 1-5
24
Lesson 1-5
Other Forms of Energy
Describe three forms of energy.
25
Lesson 1 - VS
  • Energy is the ability to cause change.
  • The gravitational potential energy between an
    object and Earth increases when you lift the
    object.
  • You do work on an object when you apply a force
    to that object over a distance.

26
Lesson 1 LR1
Which type of energy is described as the total
energy of an object or group of objects due to
large-scale motions and interactions?
A. electric energy B. mechanical
energy C. radiant energy D. thermal energy
27
Lesson 1 LR2
What is the transfer of energy that occurs when a
force is applied over a distance?
A. kinetic energy B. work C. potential
energy D. electric energy
28
Lesson 1 LR3
Which term refers to energy due to motion?
A. kinetic energy B. potential energy C. sound
energy D. stored energy
29
Lesson 1 - Now
Do you agree or disagree?
  • 1. A fast-moving baseball has more kinetic energy
    than a slow-moving baseball.
  • 2. A book sitting on a shelf has no energy.

30
Lesson 2 Reading Guide - KC
Energy Transformations
  • What is the law of conservation of energy?
  • How does friction affect energy transformations?
  • How are different types of energy used?

31
Lesson 2 Reading Guide - Vocab
Energy Transformations
  • law of conservation of energy
  • friction

32
Lesson 2-1
Changes Between Forms of Energy
  • The changes from one type of energy to another
    type of energy are called energy transformations.

33
Lesson 2-1
  • A microwave oven changes electric energy into
    radiant energy.

34
Lesson 2-1
Changes Between Forms of Energy (cont.)
radiant Science Use transmitted by
electromagnetic waves Common Use bright and
shining glowing
35
Lesson 2-2
Changes Between Kinetic and Potential Energy
  • Energy changes between kinetic energy (KE) and
    potential energy (PE) when a ball is thrown and
    moves upward and then downward.

36
Lesson 2-2
  • As the ball moves upward, its speed and kinetic
    energy decrease, but the potential energy is
    increasing because the balls height is
    increasing.
  • At the balls highest point, the gravitational
    potential energy is greatest, and the balls
    kinetic energy is the least.

37
Lesson 2-2
  • As the ball moves downward, potential energy
    decreases. At the same time, the balls kinetic
    energy increases.
  • When the ball reaches the players hand again,
    its kinetic energy is at the maximum value again.

38
Lesson 2-3
The Law of Conservation of Energy
  • According to the law of conservation of energy,
    energy can be transformed from one form into
    another or transferred from one region to
    another, but energy cannot be created or
    destroyed.

What is the law of conservation of energy?
39
Lesson 2-3
The Law of Conservation of Energy (cont.)
  • Friction is a force that resists the sliding of
    two surfaces that are touching.

friction from Latin fricare, means to rub
40
Lesson 2-4
Friction and the Law of Conservation of Energy
  • What happens to mechanical energy when you apply
    the bicycle brakes and the bicycle stops?
  • A moving bicycle has mechanical energy. When you
    apply the brakes, the bicycles mechanical energy
    is not destroyed.

41
Lesson 2-4
Friction and the Law of Conservation of Energy
(cont.)
  • The mechanical energy is transformed into thermal
    energy. Friction between the brake pad and the
    moving wheel transforms mechanical energy into
    thermal energy.
  • There is always friction between any two surfaces
    that are rubbing against each other.

42
Lesson 2-4
Using Energy
  • When you use energy, you usually change it from
    one form into another.
  • All forms of energy can be transformed into
    thermal energy.
  • During photosynthesis, a plant transforms the
    Suns radiant energy into chemical energy that it
    stores in chemical compounds.

43
Lesson 2-4
Using Energy (cont.)
What happens to energy when it is used?
44
Lesson 2-4
Using Energy (cont.)
  • When energy changes form, some thermal energy is
    always released.
  • Scientists often refer to thermal energy that
    cannot be used as waste energy.
  • Whenever energy is used, some energy is
    transformed into useful energy and some is
    transformed into waste energy.

45
Lesson 2 - VS
  • Energy can change form, but according to the law
    of conservation of energy, energy can never be
    created or destroyed.

46
Lesson 2 - VS
  • Friction transforms mechanical energy into
    thermal energy.
  • Different forms of energy, such as sound and
    radiant energy, are used when someone talks on a
    cell phone.

47
Lesson 2 LR1
All forms of energy can be transformed into what
form of energy?
A. electric energy B. radiant energy C. thermal
energy D. sound energy
48
Lesson 2 LR2
What term refers to the changes from one type of
energy to another type of energy?
A. law of conservation of energy B. friction C. po
tential energy D. energy transformations
49
Lesson 2 LR3
During photosynthesis, a plant transforms the
Suns radiant energy into what type of energy?
A. chemical energy B. electric energy C. kinetic
energy D. thermal energy
50
Lesson 2 - Now
Do you agree or disagree?
3. Energy can change from one form to
another. 4. If you toss a baton straight up,
total energy decreases as the baton rises.
51
Lesson 3 Reading Guide - KC
Energy Resources
  • What are nonrenewable energy resources?
  • What are renewable energy resources?
  • Why is it important to conserve energy?

52
Lesson 3 Reading Guide - Vocab
Energy Resources
  • nonrenewable energy resource
  • fossil fuel
  • renewable energy resource
  • inexhaustible energy resource

53
Lesson 3-1
Sources of Energy
  • Almost all the energy you use can be traced back
    to the Sun.
  • A small amount of energy that reaches Earths
    surface comes from inside Earth.

54
Lesson 3-2
Electric Power Plants
  • Most of the electric energy you use comes from
    electric power plants, which transform the energy
    in an energy source into electric energy.
  • One source of energy comes from burning fuels,
    such as coal.
  • Nuclear power plants use the nuclear energy in
    uranium and hydroelectric power plants convert
    the kinetic energy in falling water into electric
    energy.

55
Lesson 3-2
  • This coal-burning electric power plant transforms
    chemical energy stored in a fossil fuel into
    electric energy.

56
Lesson 3-3
Nonrenewable Energy Resources
  • A nonrenewable energy resource is an energy
    resource that is available in limited amounts or
    that is used faster than it is replaced in
    nature.
  • Fossil fuels are the remains of ancient organisms
    that can be burned as an energy source.

57
Lesson 3-3
Nonrenewable Energy Resources (cont.)
fossil from Latin fossilis, means dug up
58
Lesson 3-3
Nonrenewable Energy Resources (cont.)
Why are fossil fuels considered a nonrenewable
energy resource?
59
Lesson 3-3
Nonrenewable Energy Resources (cont.)
  • Petroleum and natural gas formed from
    microscopic ocean organisms that died and sank to
    the ocean floor.
  • The chemical potential energy stored in fossil
    fuels changes to thermal energy when fossil fuels
    burn.
  • Petroleum, coal, and natural gas are all examples
    of fossil fuels.

60
Lesson 3-3
Formation of Petroleum
  • Geologic processes buried these dead organisms
    under layers of sediment and rock. High
    temperature and pressure changed them into oil
    and natural gas.

61
Lesson 3-3
Nonrenewable Energy Resources (cont.)
  • Over the past 100 years, Earths surface has
    warmed by about 0.7C, which is due, in part, to
    the increasing amount of carbon dioxide produced
    by burning fossil fuels.
  • In nuclear power plants, breaking apart uranium
    nuclei transforms nuclear energy into thermal
    energy.

62
Lesson 3-3
  • A nuclear power plant transforms nuclear energy
    into electric energy.

63
Lesson 3-4
Renewable Energy Resources
  • A renewable energy resource is an energy resource
    that is replaced as fast as, or faster than, it
    is used.

Contrast renewable and nonrenewable energy
resources.
64
Lesson 3-4
Renewable Energy Resources (cont.)
  • The most widely used renewable energy resource is
    falling water.
  • A hydroelectric power plant transforms the
    kinetic energy in falling water into electric
    energy.

65
Lesson 3-4
  • A hydroelectric power plant converts the
    potential energy of the water stored behind the
    dam to electric energy.

66
Lesson 3-4
Renewable Energy Resources (cont.)
  • An inexhaustible energy resource is an energy
    resource that cannot be used up.
  • Because the Sun will produce energy for billions
    of years, solar energy is an inexhaustible energy
    resource.
  • Solar cells can be placed on the roof of a
    building to provide electric energy.

67
Lesson 3-4
Renewable Energy Resources (cont.)
  • Wind energy is another inexhaustible energy
    resource.
  • Modern wind turbines convert the kinetic energy
    in wind into electric energy.
  • Thermal energy from inside Earth is called
    geothermal energy.
  • In a few places, wells can be drilled to reach
    geothermal reservoirs.

68
Lesson 3-4
  • A geothermal power plant transforms the thermal
    energy from inside Earth into electric energy.

69
Lesson 3-5
Conserving Energy Resources
  • Fossil fuels provide about 85 percent of the
    energy used in the United States.
  • Because the supply of fossil fuels is decreasing,
    there could be shortages of fossil fuels in the
    future.
  • Conserving energy is one way to reduce the rate
    at which all energy resources are used.

70
Lesson 3-5
  • About 93 percent of the energy used in the United
    States comes from nonrenewable energy
    resources fossil fuels and nuclear energy.

71
Lesson 3-5
Conserving Energy Resources (cont.)
How does conserving energy affect the rate at
which energy resources are used?
72
Lesson 3-5
73
Lesson 3-5
74
Lesson 3-5
75
Lesson 3 - VS
  • Nonrenewable energy resources, such as fossil
    fuels, are used faster than they are replaced in
    nature.

76
Lesson 3 - VS
  • Renewable energy resources are replaced in nature
    as fast as they are used.

77
Lesson 3 - VS
  • Conserving energy, such as driving fuel-efficient
    cars, is one way to reduce the rate at which
    energy resources are used.

78
Lesson 3 LR1
What is the term for an energy resource that is
available in limited amounts or that is used
faster than it is replaced?
A. nonrenewable energy resource B. renewable
energy resource C. inexhaustible energy
resource D. alternative energy resource
79
Lesson 3 LR2
What is the name for thermal energy that comes
from inside Earth?
A. solar energy B. hydroelectric
power C. geothermal energy D. fossil fuels
80
Lesson 3 LR3
How much of the energy used in the United States
comes from fossil fuels?
A. about 15 percent B. about 35 percent C. about
55 percent D. about 85 percent
81
Lesson 3 - Now
Do you agree or disagree?
5. Nuclear power plants release many dangerous
pollutants into the air as they transform nuclear
energy into electric energy. 6. Thermal energy
from within Earth can be transformed into
electric energy at a power plant.
82
Chapter Review Menu
Key Concept Summary Interactive Concept
Map Chapter Review Standardized Test Practice
83
The BIG Idea
  • Energy is the ability to cause change. Energy
    resources contain energy that can be transformed
    into other, more useful forms of energy.

84
Key Concepts 1
Lesson 1 Forms of Energy
  • Energy is the ability to cause change.
  • Kinetic energy is the energy a body has because
    it is moving. Potential energy is stored
    energy.
  • Different forms of energy include thermal energy
    and radiant energy.

85
Key Concepts 2
Lesson 2 Energy Transformations
  • Any form of energy can be transformed into other
    forms of energy.
  • According to the law of conservation of energy,
    energy can be transformed from one form into
    another or transferred from one region to
    another, but energy cannot be created or
    destroyed.
  • Friction transforms mechanical energy into
    thermal energy.

86
Key Concepts 3
Lesson 3 Energy Resources
  • A nonrenewable energy resource is an energy
    resource that is available in a limited amount
    and can be used up.
  • A renewable energy resource is replaced in nature
    as fast as, or faster than, it is used.
  • Conserving energy, such as turning off lights
    when they are not needed, is one way to reduce
    the rate at which energy resources are used.

87
Chapter Review MC1
Which term describes the ability to cause change?
A. energy B. friction C. motion D. work
88
Chapter Review MC2
Which type of energy is due to the motion of
particles that make up an object?
A. thermal energy B. sound energy C. radiant
energy D. kinetic energy
89
Chapter Review MC3
What is a force that resists the sliding of two
surfaces that are touching?
A. friction B. kinetic energy C. waste
energy D. work
90
Chapter Review MC4
Most of the chemical energy used in cars ends up
as what kind of energy?
A. waste energy B. thermal energy C. radiant
energy D. electric energy
91
Chapter Review MC5
What term refers to an energy resource that
cannot be used up?
A. exhaustible energy resource B. renewable
energy resource C. inexhaustible energy
resource D. nonrenewable energy resource
92
Chapter Review STP1
What is another term for light energy carried by
electromagnetic waves?
A. electric energy B. mechanical
energy C. radiant energy D. thermal energy
93
Chapter Review STP2
Work depends on what two factors?
A. force and mass B. mass and distance C. force
and distance D. speed and mass
94
Chapter Review STP3
Which is true according to the law of
conservation of energy?
A. Energy can be created and destroyed. B. Energy
can be created, but not destroyed. C. Energy
cannot be created or destroyed. D. Energy cannot
be created, but can be destroyed.
95
Chapter Review STP4
Friction between a bicycles brake pads and the
moving wheels transforms mechanical energy into
what kind of energy?
A. chemical energy B. electric energy C. potential
energy D. thermal energy
96
Chapter Review STP5
What are the remains of ancient organisms that
can be burned as an energy source?
A. solar energy B. hydroelectric energy C. fossil
fuels D. inexhaustible energy resources
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