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Chapter Introduction Lesson 1 Transport and Defense Lesson 2 Structure, Movement, and Control Lesson 3 Reproduction and Development Chapter Wrap-Up – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Chapter Menu


1
Chapter Menu
Chapter Introduction Lesson 1 Transport and
Defense Lesson 2 Structure, Movement, and
Control Lesson 3 Reproduction and
Development Chapter Wrap-Up
CMCD/Getty Images
2
Chapter Introduction
  • What are the functions of the human body systems?

3
Chapter Introduction
  • What do you think?

Before you begin, decide if you agree or disagree
with each of these statements. As you view this
presentation, see if you change your mind about
any of the statements.
4
Chapter Introduction
Do you agree or disagree?
  • 1. A human body has organ systems that carry out
    specific functions.
  • 2. The body protects itself from disease.
  • 3. All bones in the skeletal system are hollow.
  • 4. The endocrine system makes hormones.

5
Chapter Introduction
Do you agree or disagree?
  • 5. The testes produce sperm.
  • 6. Puberty occurs during infancy.

6
Lesson 1 Reading Guide - KC
Transport and Defense
  • How do nutrients enter and leave the body?
  • How do nutrients travel through the body?
  • How does the body defend itself from harmful
    invaders?

7
Lesson 1 Reading Guide - Vocab
Transport and Defense
  • organ system
  • homeostasis
  • nutrient
  • Calorie
  • lymphocyte
  • immunity

8
Lesson 1-1
The Bodys Organization
  • Groups of organs that work together and perform a
    specific task are organ systems.
  • Organ systems provide movement, transport
    substances, and perform many other functions.

MedicalRF.com/Getty Images
9
Lesson 1-1
The Bodys Organization (cont.)
  • Organ systems work together and maintain
    homeostasis, or steady internal conditions when
    external conditions change.

10
Lesson 1-2
Digestion and Excretion
  • The human body breaks down food through the
    process of digestion.
  • Substances that are not used by the body are
    removed through the digestive system and by the
    excretory system.

11
Lesson 1-2
Digestion
  • Food enters the digestive system through the
    mouth.

Hutchings Photography/Digital Light Source
12
Lesson 1-2
Digestion (cont.)
  • The esophagus connects the mouth to the stomacha
    flexible baglike organ that contains enzymes that
    break down food into smaller parts to be used by
    the body.

Hutchings Photography/Digital Light Source
13
Lesson 1-2
Digestion (cont.)
  • The small intestine has two functionsdigestion
    and absorption.
  • Nutrients are absorbed by the body through the
    small intestine.

Hutchings Photography/Digital Light Source
14
Lesson 1-2
Digestion (cont.)
  • The liver makes bile and the pancreas makes
    enzymes, both of which break down food in the
    small intestine.

Hutchings Photography/Digital Light Source
15
Lesson 1-2
Digestion (cont.)
  • The large intestine receives solid waste from the
    small intestine.
  • The large intestine absorbs excess water from the
    waste material.
  • The rectum of the large intestine stores the
    solid waste until the waste is expelled from the
    body.

16
Lesson 1-2
Digestion (cont.)
  • Some foods, like insoluble fiber, that are not
    digested leave the body through the rectum.

Hutchings Photography/Digital Light Source
17
Lesson 1-2
Digestion (cont.)
  • Nutrients are the parts of food used by the body
    to grow and survive.
  • Proteins, fats, carbohydrates, vitamins, and
    minerals are all nutrients.
  • Calories are a measure of the amount of energy
    in food.

18
Lesson 1-2
Excretion
  • The excretory system removes liquid and gas
    wastes from the body. This system includes
  • lungs
  • skin
  • liver
  • kidneys
  • ureter
  • bladder
  • urethra

19
Lesson 1-2
Excretion (cont.)
  • When the liver breaks down proteins, urea forms.
    Urea is toxic if it stays in the body.
  • The kidneys remove urea from the body by making
    urine.

20
Lesson 1-2
Excretion (cont.)
  • Urine leaves each kidney through the ureter
    and is stored in a flexible sac, called the
    bladder.
  • Urine is removed from the body through the
    urethra.

21
Lesson 1-2
How does food enter and leave the body?
22
Lesson 1-3
Respiration
  • The respiratory system exchanges gases between
    the body and the environment.

23
Lesson 1-3
Respiration (cont.)
  • When you inhale, air enters the nostrils and
    passes through the pharynx to the trachea.
  • Inhaling and exhaling require the movement of
    a muscle under the lungs called the diaphragm.

24
Lesson 1-3
Respiration (cont.)
  • The trachea, or windpipe, connects the pharynx to
    the bronchi.

25
Lesson 1-3
Respiration (cont.)
  • There are two bronchi one enters the left lung
    and one enters the right lung.

26
Lesson 1-3
Respiration (cont.)
  • The bronchi divide into smaller tubes that end in
    tiny groups of cells called alveoli.

27
Lesson 1-3
Respiration (cont.)
  • The alveoli are surrounded by blood vessels
    called capillaries.

28
Lesson 1-3
Respiration (cont.)
Gas Exchange
29
Lesson 1-3
Respiration (cont.)
vessel Science Use a tube in the body that
carries fluids such as blood Common Use a ship
30
Lesson 1-3
Circulation
  • Oxygen in the alveoli enters the capillaries.
  • The blood inside capillaries transports oxygen to
    the rest of the body.

31
Lesson 1-3
Circulation (cont.)
  • The heart, blood, and blood vessels make up the
    circulatory system which transports nutrients,
    gases, wastes, and other substances through the
    body.

Image Source/Jupiterimages
32
Lesson 1-3
Image Source/Jupiterimages
33
Lesson 1-3
Circulation (cont.)
  • Blood vessels transport blood to all organs of
    the body.
  • Contractions of the hearts muscles pump blood to
    the rest of the body.
  • Blood travels through the body in tiny tubes
    called vessels.

34
Lesson 1-3
Circulation (cont.)
  • Arteries carry blood away from your heart.
  • Veins carry blood back to your heart.

35
Lesson 1-3
Circulation (cont.)
  • Capillaries are tiny vessels that allow gases and
    nutrients to move between the blood and the
    entire body.

36
Lesson 1-3
Circulation (cont.)
How do nutrients travel through the body?
37
Lesson 1-3
Circulation (cont.)
  • The liquid part of blood is called plasma and
    contains nutrients, water, and CO2.
  • Blood also contains red blood cells, which carry
    oxygen, and platelets, which help the body heal
    when a vessel is cut.
  • White blood cells help the body defend itself
    from toxins and diseases.

38
Lesson 1-3
  • Different people have different proteins on the
    surfaces of their red blood cells which
    scientists classify into groups called blood
    types.

39
Lesson 1-3
Lymphatic System
  • Tonsils, the spleen, the thymus, bone marrow, and
    lymph nodes are parts of the lymphatic system.

C Squared Studios/Getty Images
40
Lesson 1-3
Lymphatic System (cont.)
  • The lymphatic systems three main functions are
    removing excess fluids around organs, producing
    white blood cells, and absorbing and transporting
    fats.
  • The lymphatic system helps your body maintain
    fluid homeostasis.

41
Lesson 1-3
Lymphatic System (cont.)
  • Fluid that travels through the lymph vessels
    flows into organs called lymph nodes, which
    protect the body by removing toxins, wastes, and
    other harmful substances.
  • The lymphatic system makes white blood cells to
    help the body defend against infection.

42
Lesson 1-3
Lymphatic System (cont.)
  • Lymphocytes are a type of white blood cell that
    are made in the thymus, the spleen, and bone
    marrow.

lymphocyte from Latin lympha, means water and
Greek kytos, means hollow, as a cell or
container
43
Lesson 1-3
Immunity
  • Protection from infection or toxins is called
    immunity.
  • The skeletal system produces immune cells, which
    include lymphocytes and other white blood cells,
    and the circulatory system transports them
    throughout the body.
  • The immune cells attack and destroy viruses,
    bacteria, and other foreign substances.

44
Lesson 1-3
Immunity (cont.)
  • Humans make billions of different types of
    antibodies.
  • Infectious diseases are caused by pathogens, such
    as bacteria and viruses, and are usually
    contagious.
  • A noninfectious disease is caused by the
    environment or a genetic disorder.

45
Lesson 1-3
Immunity (cont.)
46
Lesson 1-3
Immunity (cont.)
  • The bodys first line of defense against viruses,
    bacteria, and harmful substances is the skin and
    mucus which prevent toxins and other substances
    from entering the body.
  • The second line of defense is the immune response
    in which white blood cells attack and destroy
    harmful substances.

47
Lesson 1-3
Immunity (cont.)
  • The third line of defense is immune cells which
    make antibodies that destroy harmful substances.

How does the body defend itself from harmful
invaders?
48
Lesson 1 - VS
  • The kidneys remove liquid wastes from the body.

49
Lesson 1 - VS
  • The circulatory system transports nutrients,
    gases, wastes, and other substances through the
    body.
  • Immune cells detect and destroy viruses,
    bacteria, and other foreign substances.

50
Lesson 1 LR1
Which does NOT help remove waste from the body?
A. kidneys B. liver C. lungs D. white blood cells
51
Lesson 1 LR2
The heart, blood, and vessels make up what system?
A. circulatory B. excretory C. lymphatic D. respir
atory
52
Lesson 1 LR3
Which term refers to maintaining steady internal
conditions as external conditions change?
A. calories B. homeostasis C. immunity D. nutr
ients
53
Lesson 1 - Now
Do you agree or disagree?
  • 1. A human body has organ systems that carry out
    specific functions.
  • 2. The body protects itself from disease.

54
Lesson 2 Reading Guide - KC
Structure, Movement, and Control
  • How does the body move?
  • How does the body respond to changes in its
    environment?

55
Lesson 2 Reading Guide - Vocab
Structure, Movement, and Control
  • compact bone
  • spongy bone
  • neuron
  • reflex
  • hormone

56
Lesson 2-1
Structure and Movement
  • The skeletal system protects internal organs,
    provides support, helps the body move, and stores
    minerals, such as calcium.
  • An adults skeleton has 206 bones.
  • The skeleton also contains ligaments, tendons,
    and cartilage.

57
Lesson 2-1
Structure and Movement (cont.)
  • Compact bone is the hard outer layer of bone.
  • Spongy bone is the interior region of bone that
    contains many tiny holes.

CMCD/Getty Images
58
Lesson 2-1
Structure and Movement (cont.)
  • The muscular system is made of three different
    types of muscle tissue.
  • Skeletal muscle works with the skeletal system
    and helps you move.

59
Lesson 2-1
Structure and Movement (cont.)
  • Cardiac muscle is only in the heart.
  • It continually contracts and relaxes and moves
    blood throughout your body.

60
Lesson 2-1
Structure and Movement (cont.)
  • Smooth muscle tissue is in organs such as the
    stomach and the bladder.
  • Blood vessels also have smooth muscle tissue.

61
Lesson 2-1
Structure and Movement (cont.)
What systems help the body move?
62
Lesson 2-2
Control and Coordination
  • The brain and the spinal cord form the central
    nervous system.
  • All other nerves are part of the peripheral
    nervous system that extends throughout the entire
    body.

Doug Pensinger/Getty Images
63
Lesson 2-2
Control and Coordination (cont.)
How does the body respond to changes in its
environment?
64
Lesson 2-2
Control and Coordination (cont.)
  • The nervous system is a group of organs and
    specialized cells that detect, process, and
    respond to information.

65
Lesson 2-2
  • Nerve cells, or neurons, are the basic unit of
    the nervous system.

Doug Pensinger/Getty Images
66
Lesson 2-2
Control and Coordination (cont.)
neuron from Greek neuron, means a nerve cell
with appendages
67
Lesson 2-2
Control and Coordination (cont.)
  • Information enters the nervous system through
    neurons in the peripheral nervous system.
  • Most of the information then is sent to the
    central nervous system for processing.
  • After the central nervous system processes
    information, it signals the peripheral nervous
    system to respond.

68
Lesson 2-2
Control and Coordination (cont.)
  • The body carries out both voluntary and
    involuntary functions that depend on the nervous
    system.
  • Automatic movements in response to a signal are
    called reflexes.

69
Lesson 2-2
70
Lesson 2-2
Control and Coordination (cont.)
  • Humans detect their external environment with
    five sensesvision, hearing, smell, touch, and
    taste.

71
Lesson 2-2
Control and Coordination (cont.)
  • Each of the five senses has specific neurons that
    receive signals from the environment.
  • Information detected by the senses is sent to the
    spinal cord and then to the brain for processing
    and a response.

72
Lesson 2-2
Endocrine System
  • The endocrine system, like the nervous system,
    sends signals to the body.

Mark Andersen/Getty Images
73
Lesson 2-2
Endocrine System (cont.)
  • Chemical signals released by the organs of the
    endocrine system are called hormones.
  • Hormones travel in blood through blood vessels
    and cause organ systems to carry out specific
    functions.
  • Some hormones work with other organ systems to
    maintain homeostasis and other hormones work with
    many organ systems to help you grow.

74
Lesson 2 - VS
  • The skeletal system protects organs, provides
    support, helps the body move, and stores
    minerals.

CMCD/Getty Images
75
Lesson 2 - VS
  • Skeletal muscle works with the skeletal system
    and helps you move.

76
Lesson 2 - VS
  • Reflex signals are received by the spinal cord
    but are not processed by the brain. This helps
    the body respond quickly.

77
Lesson 2 LR1
Which refers to the interior region of bone that
contains tiny holes?
A. compact bone B. hormone C. peripheral
bone D. spongy bone
78
Lesson 2 LR2
Which body system uses hormones to send signals
to the body?
A. endocrine B. muscular C. nervous D. skeletal
79
Lesson 2 LR3
What type of cell is a neuron?
A. blood B. muscle C. nerve D. skeletal
80
Lesson 2 - Now
Do you agree or disagree?
3. All bones in the skeletal system are
hollow. 4. The endocrine system makes hormones.
81
Lesson 3 Reading Guide - KC
Reproduction and Development
  • What do the male and female reproductive systems
    do?
  • How do humans grow and change?

82
Lesson 3 Reading Guide - Vocab
Reproduction and Development
  • reproduction
  • gamete
  • sperm
  • ovum
  • fertilization
  • zygote

83
Lesson 3-1
Reproduction and Hormones
  • Some of the organs of the endocrine system
    produce hormones that help humans reproduce.
  • Reproduction is the process by which new
    organisms are produced.

84
Lesson 3-1
Reproduction and Hormones (cont.)
  • Human reproductive cells, called gametes, are
    made by the male and female reproductive systems.
  • Male gametes are called sperm.
  • Female gametes are called ova, or eggs.
  • A sperm joins with an egg in a reproductive
    process called fertilization.

85
Lesson 3-1
Reproduction and Hormones (cont.)
  • The cell that forms when an egg and a sperm join
    together is called a zygote.

zygote from Greek zygoun, means to join
86
Lesson 3-1
  • The male reproductive system produces sperm in
    the testes and delivers it to the female
    reproductive system.

87
Lesson 3-1
Reproduction and Hormones (cont.)
  • Testosteronealso produced in the testeshelps
    sperm change from round cells to long, slender
    cells that can swim.
  • The penis is a tubelike structure that delivers
    sperm to the female reproductive system.
  • Sperm are transported in a fluid called semen
    which contains millions of sperm and nutrients
    that provide the sperm with energy.

88
Lesson 3-1
Reproduction and Hormones (cont.)
What does the male reproductive system do?
89
Lesson 3-1
  • The female reproductive system contains two
    ovaries where eggs grow and mature.

90
Lesson 3-1
Reproduction and Hormones (cont.)
  • Two hormones made by the ovaries, estrogen and
    progesterone, help eggs mature.
  • Mature eggs are released from the ovaries and
    enter the fallopian tubes, which connect the
    ovaries to the uterus.
  • If sperm are also present in the fallopian tube,
    fertilization can occur as the egg enters the
    fallopian tube, and a zygote forms.

91
Lesson 3-1
Reproduction and Hormones (cont.)
  • The endocrine system controls egg maturation and
    release and thickening of the lining of the
    uterus in a process called the menstrual cycle.
  • The menstrual cycle takes about 28 days and has
    three parts.

92
Lesson 3-1
Reproduction and Hormones (cont.)
What does the female reproductive system do?
93
Lesson 3-2
Human Development
  • During human development, the zygote develops
    into an embryo, which is a ball-shaped structure
    that attaches inside the uterus.
  • The embryo develops into a fetus, the last stage
    of birth.
  • During the developmental period, called
    pregnancy, the organ systems of the fetus will
    develop and the fetus will get larger.

94
Lesson 3-2
Pregnancy
Brand X Pictures/PunchStock
95
Lesson 3-2
  • During the first two years of life, called
    infancy, the muscular and nervous systems develop
    and an infant begins walking.

96
Lesson 3-2
Human Development (cont.)
  • During childhood, which is from about 2 years to
    about 12 years of age, bones in the skeletal
    system grow longer and stronger, and the
    lymphatic system matures.

Bananastock/AGE Fotostock
97
Lesson 3-2
Human Development (cont.)
  • During adolescence, growth of the skeletal and
    muscular systems continues, organs get larger,
    and the male and female reproductive systems
    mature.

Jack Hollingsworth/Getty Images
98
Lesson 3-2
Human Development (cont.)
  • During later adulthood, hair turns gray, wrinkles
    might form in the skin, and bones become weaker
    in a process called aging.

MedioImages
99
Lesson 3-2
Human Development (cont.)
How do humans change during adulthood?
100
Lesson 3 - VS
  • Sperm are produced in the testes and develop
    inside each testis in the seminiferous tubules.

101
Lesson 3 - VS
  • Eggs grow and mature in the ovaries.
  • During pregnancy, a zygote develops into an
    embryo and then into a fetus.

102
Lesson 3 LR1
Which is another name for female gametes or eggs?
A. hormones B. ova C. sperm D. zygotes
103
Lesson 3 LR2
Which connects a womans ovaries to the uterus?
A. zygote B. ureter C. fallopian tubes D. embryo
104
Lesson 3 LR3
Which refers to the first stage of life when the
muscular and nervous systems develop?
A. pregnancy B. infancy C. childhood D. adolescen
ce
105
Lesson 3 - Now
Do you agree or disagree?
5. The testes produce sperm. 6. Puberty occurs
during infancy.
106
Chapter Review Menu
Key Concept Summary Interactive Concept
Map Chapter Review Standardized Test Practice
107
The BIG Idea
  • Human body systems maintain life by various
    functions essential for growth, reproduction, and
    homeostasis, such as transporting materials and
    providing control.

108
Key Concepts 1
Lesson 1 Transport and Defense
  • Nutrients enter the body through the digestive
    system. Wastes and water leave the body through
    the excretory system. Oxygen enters the body and
    carbon dioxide leaves the body through the
    respiratory system.
  • Substances such as nutrients and oxygen reach the
    bodys cells through the circulatory system.
  • The lymphatic system helps the body defend itself
    against harmful invaders.

C Squared Studios/Getty Images
109
Key Concepts 2
Lesson 2 Structure, Movement, and Control
  • The muscular system and the skeletal system work
    together and help the body move. The skeletal
    system provides the body with structure and
    protects other organ systems.
  • The nervous system and the endocrine system work
    together and help the body respond to changes in
    the environment.

CMCD/Getty Images
110
Key Concepts 3
Lesson 3 Reproduction and Development
  • The male and female reproductive systems ensure
    survival of the human species.
  • Humans develop and grow both before and after
    birth.

111
Chapter Review MC1
The human body breaks down food through what
process?
A. respiration B. excretion C. digestion D. circ
ulation
112
Chapter Review MC2
Which removes carbon dioxide and water from your
body as you exhale?
A. bronchi B. kidneys C. lungs D. skin
113
Chapter Review MC3
Which system protects internal organs, provides
support, helps the body move, and stores minerals?
A. skeletal B. nervous C. muscular D. endocrine
114
Chapter Review MC4
Which refers to an automatic movement in response
to a signal?
A. homeostasis B. hormone C. neuron D. reflex
115
Chapter Review MC5
Which is the cell that forms when an egg and a
sperm join together?
A. zygote B. sperm C. egg D. embryo
116
Chapter Review STP1
What connects the mouth to the stomach?
A. small intestine B. lung C. large
intestine D. esophagus
117
Chapter Review STP2
What type of white blood cell is made in the
thymus, spleen, and bone marrow?
A. antibody B. lymph node C. lymphocyte D. ovum
118
Chapter Review STP3
Which describes the hard outer layer of bone?
A. cardiac muscle B. compact bone C. ligament D. s
pongy bone
119
Chapter Review STP4
What is the basic unit of the nervous system?
A. blood cell B. hormone C. lymphocyte D. neuron
120
Chapter Review STP5
What is the developmental period during which the
fetus develops and grows?
A. adolescence B. fertilization C. infancy
D. pregnancy
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