Chapter Menu - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

1 / 111
About This Presentation
Title:

Chapter Menu

Description:

Chapter Introduction Lesson 1 Climates of Earth Lesson 2 Climate Cycles Lesson 3 Recent Climate Change Chapter Wrap-Up Chapter Menu – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:153
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 112
Provided by: coastWaku48
Category:

less

Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: Chapter Menu


1
Chapter Menu
Chapter Introduction Lesson 1 Climates of
Earth Lesson 2 Climate Cycles Lesson 3 Recent
Climate Change Chapter Wrap-Up
2
Chapter Introduction
  • What is climate and how does it impact life on
    Earth?

3
Chapter Introduction
  • What do you think?

Before you begin, decide if you agree or disagree
with each of these statements. As you view this
presentation, see if you change your mind about
any of the statements.
4
Chapter Introduction
Do you agree or disagree?
  • 1. Locations at the center of large continents
    usually have the same climate as locations along
    the coast.
  • 2. Latitude does not affect climate.
  • 3. Climate on Earth today is the same as it has
    been in the past.

5
Chapter Introduction
Do you agree or disagree?
  • 4. Climate change occurs in short-term cycles.
  • 5. Human activities can impact climate.
  • 6. You can help reduce the amount of greenhouse
    gases released into the atmosphere.

6
Lesson 1 Reading Guide - KC
Climates of Earth
  • What is climate?
  • Why is one climate different from another?
  • How are climates classified?

7
Lesson 1 Reading Guide - Vocab
Climates of Earth
  • climate
  • rain shadow
  • specific heat
  • microclimate

8
Lesson 1-1
What is climate?
  • Climate is the long-term average weather
    conditions that occur in a particular region.
  • A regions climate depends on average temperature
    and precipitation, as well as how these variables
    change throughout the year.

9
Lesson 1-1
What is climate? (cont.)
What is climate?
10
Lesson 1-1
What affects climate?
  • The latitude of a location affects climate.

11
Lesson 1-2
What affects climate? (cont.)
  • The amount of solar energy per unit of Earths
    surface area depends on latitude.
  • Earths curved surface causes latitudes closer to
    the equator to receive more direct sunlight than
    latitudes farther north or south.

12
Lesson 1-2
What affects climate? (cont.)
  • Latitudes near the poles receive less solar
    energy and have lower average temperatures.

13
Lesson 1-2
What affects climate? (cont.)
  • Latitudes near the equator tend to have warmer
    climates than higher latitudes.

14
Lesson 1-2
  • Climate is influenced by altitude.
  • Temperature decreases as altitude increases in
    the troposphere.

15
Lesson 1-2
What affects climate? (cont.)
  • Mountains influence climate because they are
    barriers to prevailing winds.

16
Lesson 1-2
What affects climate? (cont.)
  • An area of low rainfall on the downwind slope of
    a mountain is called a rain shadow.

17
Lesson 1-3
What affects climate? (cont.)
  • The high specific heat of water causes the
    climates along coastlines to remain somewhat
    constant.
  • Specific heat is the amount of thermal energy
    needed to raise the temperature of 1 kg of a
    material by 1C.
  • Prevailing winds extend the moderate temperatures
    farther inland.

18
Lesson 1-3
What affects climate? (cont.)
  • Ocean currents modify climate.
  • The Gulf Stream is a warm, northward current
    along the east coast of North America.
  • The Gulf Stream brings warmer temperatures to
    portions of the United States and Europe.

19
Lesson 1-4
Classifying Climates
  • Climates are classified into five types based on
    their temperature, precipitation, and native
    vegetation.

20
Lesson 1-4
Classifying Climates (cont.)
How are climates classified?
21
Lesson 1-4
Classifying Climates (cont.)
  • A citys roads and buildings absorb solar
    radiation.
  • Cities are often warmer than the surrounding
    area.
  • This urban heat island is one form of
    microclimate.

22
Lesson 1-4
Classifying Climates (cont.)
  • A microclimate is a localized climate that is
    different from the climate of the larger area
    surrounding it.

microclimate from Greek mikros, means small
and klima, means region, zone
23
Lesson 1-4
Classifying Climates (cont.)
Why is one climate different from another?
24
Lesson 1-4
How Climate Affects Living Organisms
  • Climate influences how humans determine the crops
    they grow.
  • Climate influences how humans design buildings.

25
Lesson 1-4
  • Animals and plants have adapted to the climates
    in which they live.

CORBIS
Ingram Publishing/SuperStock
26
Lesson 1 - VS
  • Climate is influenced by several factors
    including latitude, altitude, and an areas
    location relative to a large body of water or
    mountains.

27
Lesson 1 - VS
  • Rain shadows occur on the downwind slopeof
    mountains.

28
Lesson 1 - VS
  • Microclimates can occur in urban areas, forests,
    and hilltops.

29
Lesson 1 LR1
Climate is the long-term average weather
conditions that occur where?
A. around the globe B. locally C. in a particular
region D. in the troposphere
30
Lesson 1 LR2
An area of low rainfall on the downwind slope of
a mountain is called what?
A. climate B. the Gulf Stream C. a
microclimate D. a rain shadow
31
Lesson 1 LR3
Which of these describes a coastline climate
compared to a continental climate?
A. cooler B. more constant C. more
erratic D. warmer
32
Lesson 1 - Now
Do you agree or disagree?
  • 1. Locations at the center of large continents
    usually have the same climate as locations along
    the coast.
  • 2. Latitude does not affect climate.

33
Lesson 2 Reading Guide - KC
Climate Cycles
  • How has climate varied over time?
  • What causes seasons?
  • How does the ocean affect climate?

34
Lesson 2 Reading Guide - Vocab
Climate Cycles
  • ice age
  • interglacial
  • El Niño/Southern Oscillation
  • monsoon
  • drought

35
Lesson 2-1
Long-Term Cycles
  • Much of our knowledge about past climates comes
    from natural records of climate.
  • ice cores from glaciers and ice sheets
  • fossilized pollen
  • ocean sediments
  • growth rings of trees

36
Lesson 2-1
Long-Term Cycles (cont.)
  • Ice ages are cold periods lasting from hundreds
    to millions of years when glaciers cover much of
    Earth.
  • Glaciers and ice sheets advance during cold
    periods and retreat during interglacialsthe warm
    periods that occur during ice ages.

37
Lesson 2-1
Long-Term Cycles (cont.)
interglacial from Latin inter, means among,
between and glacialis, means icy, frozen
38
Lesson 2-1
Long-Term Cycles (cont.)
  • The most recent ice age began about 2 million
    years ago.
  • At that time, about half the northern hemisphere
    was covered by ice.
  • About 10,000 years ago, Earth entered its current
    interglacial period, called the Holocene Epoch.

39
Lesson 2-1
Long-Term Cycles (cont.)
  • Earths orbit varies between elliptical and
    circular about every 100,000 years.
  • As Earths orbit changes shape, Earths climates
    change.

40
Lesson 2-1
Long-Term Cycles (cont.)
  • When Earths orbit is more circular, Earth
    averages a greater distance from the Sun,
    resulting in below-average temperatures on Earth.

41
Lesson 2-1
Long-Term Cycles (cont.)
  • Changes in the angle of Earths tilt affect the
    range of temperatures throughout the year.
  • The tilt of Earths axis changes in 41,000-year
    cycles.

42
Lesson 2-1
Long-Term Cycles (cont.)
  • Movement of Earths continents and changes in
    ocean circulation influence long-term climate
    cycles.

43
Lesson 2-1
Long-Term Cycles (cont.)
How has climate varied over time?
44
Lesson 2-2
Short-Term Cycles
  • In addition to long-term climate cycles, climate
    also changes in short-term cycles.

45
Lesson 2-2
Short-Term Cycles (cont.)
  • The changing seasons is an example of short-term
    climate change.

46
Lesson 2-2
  • Changes in the amount of solar energy received at
    different latitudes during different times of the
    year give rise the seasons.

47
Lesson 2-2
  • When the northern hemisphere is tilted toward the
    Sun, there are more daylight hours than dark
    hours, the temperatures are warmer, and it is
    summer.

48
Lesson 2-2
  • When the northern hemisphere is tilted away from
    the Sun, daylight hours are fewer than nighttime
    hours, temperatures are colder, and it is winter.

49
Lesson 2-2
Short-Term Cycles (cont.)
What causes seasons?
50
Lesson 2-2
Short-Term Cycles (cont.)
  • The seasons change as Earth makes a revolution
    around the Sun.

revolution Science Use the action by a celestial
body of going around in an orbit or an
elliptical course Common Use a sudden, radical,
or complete change
51
Lesson 2-2
  • In the northern hemisphere, summer begins when
    the northern hemisphere is tilted toward the Sun.

52
Lesson 2-2
  • In the northern hemisphere, fall begins when the
    neither hemisphere is tilted toward the Sun.

53
Lesson 2-2
  • In the northern hemisphere, winter begins when
    the northern hemisphere is tilted away from the
    Sun.

54
Lesson 2-2
  • In the northern hemisphere, spring begins when,
    once again, neither hemisphere is tilted toward
    the Sun.

55
Lesson 2-2
  • The El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) causes
    another type of short-term climate change.

56
Lesson 2-2
  • During ENSO, the trade winds weaken and warm
    water surges back toward South America.

57
Lesson 2-2
Short-Term Cycles (cont.)
  • A complete ENSO cycle occurs every three to eight
    years, with the following effects
  • lots of precipitation along the western coast of
    South America
  • droughts in normally wet regions
  • increased number of violent storms in California
    and southern U.S.

58
Lesson 2-2
Short-Term Cycles (cont.)
  • The North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) is another
    cycle that can change the climate for decades at
    a time.
  • The NAO affects the strengths of storms
    throughout North America and Europe by changing
    the position of the jet stream.

59
Lesson 2-2
Short-Term Cycles (cont.)
  • A third short-term climate change is a monsoon.
  • A monsoon is a seasonal change in wind direction
    caused by changing temperatures over the ocean
    and land.

60
Lesson 2-2
Short-Term Cycles (cont.)
How does the ocean affect climate?
61
Lesson 2-3
Other Short-term Climate Changes
  • A drought is a period with below-average
    precipitation that can lead to crop damage and
    water shortages.
  • Droughts are often accompanied by heat
    wavesperiods of unusually high temperatures.

62
Lesson 2-3
Other Short-term Climate Changes (cont.)
  • Droughts and heat waves occur when large hot-air
    masses remain in one place for weeks or months.
  • A cold wave occurs when a large polar air mass
    stays over a region for days or weeks.

63
Lesson 2 - VS
  • Scientists learn about past climates by studying
    natural records of climate, such as ice cores,
    fossilized pollen, and growth rings of trees.
  • Long-term climate changes, such as ice ages and
    interglacials, can be caused by changes in the
    shape of Earths orbit and the tilt of its axis.

64
Lesson 2 - VS
  • Short-term climate changes include seasons, El
    Niño/Southern Oscillation, and monsoons.

65
Lesson 2 LR1
Glaciers and ice sheets retreat during which of
these?
A. glacial periods B. ice ages C. interglacials
D. winter
66
Lesson 2 LR2
The tilt of Earths axis changes in cycles that
last how long?
A. 10 years B. 400 years C. 41,000
years D. 4,000,000 years
67
Lesson 2 LR3
Which marks the beginnings of winter and summer?
A. solstices B. seasons C. equinoxes
D. atmospheric cycles
68
Lesson 2 - Now
Do you agree or disagree?
3. Climate on Earth today is the same as it has
been in the past. 4. Climate change occurs in
short-term cycles.
69
Lesson 3 Reading Guide - KC
Recent Climate Change
  • How can human activities affect climate?
  • How are predictions for future climate change
    made?

70
Lesson 3 Reading Guide - Vocab
Recent Climate Change
  • global warming
  • greenhouse gas
  • deforestation
  • global climate model

71
Lesson 3-1
Regional and Global Climate Change
  • Average temperatures on Earth have been
    increasing for the past 100 years.

72
Lesson 3-1
Regional and Global Climate Change (cont.)
  • Temperature change has not been steady throughout
    the past 100 years.

73
Lesson 3-2
Human Impact on Climate Change
  • The rise in Earths average temperature during
    the past 100 years is often referred to as global
    warming.
  • In 2007, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate
    Change (IPCC) concluded that most of this
    temperature increase, or global warming, is due
    to human activities.

74
Lesson 3-2
Human Impact on Climate Change (cont.)
  • These activities include burning fossil fuels and
    the large-scale cutting and burning of forests,
    which release greenhouse gases into the
    atmosphere.
  • Gases in the atmosphere that absorb Earths
    outgoing infrared radiation are greenhouse gases.

75
Lesson 3-2
Human Impact on Climate Change (cont.)
  • Greenhouse gases help keep temperatures on Earth
    warm enough for living things to survivea
    phenomenon called the greenhouse effect.

76
Lesson 3-2
Human Impact on Climate Change (cont.)
  • Recently, global temperatures and carbon dioxide,
    CO2, concentration in the atmosphere have both
    increased.

77
Lesson 3-2
Human Impact on Climate Change (cont.)
  • Higher levels of greenhouse gases, like CO2,
    create a greater greenhouse effect.
  • Most scientists suggest that global warming is
    due to the greater greenhouse effect.
  • Humans use deforestation to obtain fuel or clear
    farm land.

78
Lesson 3-2
Human Impact on Climate Change (cont.)
  • Deforestation is the large-scale cutting and/or
    burning of forests.

deforestation from Latin de, means down from,
concerning and forestum silvam, means the
outside woods
79
Lesson 3-2
Human Impact on Climate Change (cont.)
  • Deforestation affects global climate because
    there are fewer living trees to help remove CO2
    from the air.
  • The burning of cut trees also adds more CO2 to
    the atmosphere.
  • Natural sources of CO2 include volcanic eruptions
    and forest fires.
  • Cellular respiration in organisms contributes
    additional CO2.

80
Lesson 3-2
Human Impact on Climate Change (cont.)
  • The burning of fossil fuels also releases tiny
    liquid or solid particles into the atmosphere
    called aerosols.
  • Most aerosols reflect sunlight back into space,
    preventing some of the Suns energy from reaching
    Earth and potentially cooling the climate over
    time.

81
Lesson 3-2
Human Impact on Climate Change (cont.)
  • When clouds form in areas with large amounts of
    aerosols, the cloud droplets are smaller and
    reflect more sunlight than clouds with larger
    droplets.

82
Lesson 3-2
Human Impact on Climate Change (cont.)
How can human activities affect climate?
83
Lesson 3-3
Climate and Society
  • Increasing temperatures can impact the
    environment in many ways.
  • Melting glaciers and polar ice sheets can cause
    sea levels to rise and coastal ecosystems to be
    disrupted.

84
Lesson 3-3
Climate and Society (cont.)
  • Extreme weather events can become more common.
  • Permanently higher temperatures and other
    ecosystem changes can affect migration patterns
    of insects, birds, fish, and mammals.

85
Lesson 3-4
Predicting Climate Change
  • Climate forecasts help governments decide how to
    respond to future climate changes.
  • A global climate model (GCM) is a set of complex
    equations used to predict future climates.
  • GCMs use math and science to predict future
    climate changes.

86
Lesson 3-4
Predicting Climate Change (cont.)
  • Summer arctic sea ice is expected to disappear by
    the end of this century.
  • Sea levels are expected to keep rising for
    several centuries.

87
Lesson 3-4
Predicting Climate Change (cont.)
How are predictions for future climate change
made?
88
Lesson 3-4
Predicting Climate Change (cont.)
  • Increasing populations can affect climate change.

89
Lesson 3-4
Predicting Climate Change (cont.)
  • It is predicted that by the year 2030, two of
    every three people on Earth will live in urban
    areas.
  • Large areas of forests are being cleared for
    expanding cities.
  • Significant amounts of greenhouse gases and other
    pollutants will be added to the atmosphere.

90
Lesson 3-4
Predicting Climate Change (cont.)
  • There are ways to reduce pollution and greenhouse
    gases.
  • developing alternative energy sources, such as
    solar and wind energy
  • building energy-efficient buildings
  • controlling greenhouse gases and pollution by
    conserving fuel and recycling

91
Lesson 3 - VS
  • Many scientists suggest that global warming is
    due to increased levels of greenhouse gases in
    the atmosphere.

92
Lesson 3 - VS
  • Human activities such as deforestation and
    burning fossil fuels, can contribute to global
    warming.
  • Ways to reduce greenhouse gas emissions include
    using solar and wind energy and creating
    energy-efficient buildings.

93
Lesson 3 LR1
The burning of fossil fuels releases tiny liquid
or solid particles into the atmosphere called
what?
A. aerosols B. carbon dioxide C. greenhouse
gases D. vapor
94
Lesson 3 LR2
What term refers to the set of complex equations
used to predict future climates?
A. global climate model B. meteorological
measurement C. supercomputer D. weather report
95
Lesson 3 LR3
Deforestation can lead to more of which of these
in the atmosphere?
A. oxygen B. GCMs C. fossil fuels D. carbon
dioxide
96
Lesson 3 - Now
Do you agree or disagree?
5. Human activities can impact climate. 6. You
can help reduce the amount of greenhouse gases
released into the atmosphere.
97
Chapter Review Menu
Key Concept Summary Interactive Concept
Map Chapter Review Standardized Test Practice
98
The BIG Idea
  • Climate is the long-term average weather
    conditions that occur in an area. It is
    influenced by the interactions between Earths
    systems. Living things have adaptations to the
    climate in which they live.

99
Key Concepts 1
Lesson 1 Climates of Earth
  • Climate is the long-term average weather
    conditions that occur in a particular region.
  • Climate is affected by factors such as latitude,
    altitude, rain shadows on the downwind slope of
    mountains, vegetation, and the specific heat of
    water.
  • Climate is classified based on precipitation,
    temperature, and native vegetation.

100
Key Concepts 2
Lesson 2 Climate Cycles
  • Over the past 4.6 billion years, climate on Earth
    has varied between ice ages and warm periods.
    Interglacials marked warm periods on Earth during
    ice ages.
  • Earths axis is tilted. This causes seasons as
    Earth revolves around the Sun.
  • The El Niño/Southern Oscillation and monsoons
    are two climate patterns that result from
    interactions between oceans and the atmosphere.

101
Key Concepts 3
Lesson 3 Recent Climate Change
  • Releasing carbon dioxide and aerosols into the
    atmosphere through burning fossil fuels and
    deforestation are two ways humans can affect
    climate change.
  • Predictions about future climate change are made
    using computers and general circulation models.

102
Chapter Review MC1
What term describes a localized climate that is
different from the climate of the larger area
surrounding it?
A. weather system B. rain shadow C. microclimate
D. Gulf stream
103
Chapter Review MC2
In the troposphere, temperature decreases as
altitude does what?
A. changes B. decreases C. increases
D. stabilizes
104
Chapter Review MC3
Which occurs in the northern hemisphere when it
is tilted toward the Sun?
A. fall equinox B. spring equinox C. summer
solstice D. winter solstice
105
Chapter Review MC4
Gases in the atmosphere that absorb Earths
outgoing infrared radiation are called what?
A. aerosols B. clouds C. fossil fuels
D. greenhouse gases
106
Chapter Review MC5
Which helps governments decide how to respond to
future climate changes?
A. weather reports B. greenhouse
effects C. climate forecasts D. climate cycles
107
Chapter Review STP1
Which refers to the long-term average weather
conditions that occur in a particular region?
A. weather B. specific weather C. rain
shadow D. climate
108
Chapter Review STP2
Which refers to the amount of thermal energy
needed to raise the temperature of 1 kg of a
material by 1C?
A. boiling point B. climate C. melting
point D. specific heat
109
Chapter Review STP3
A wind circulation pattern that changes direction
with the seasons is called what?
A. drought B. heat wave C. jet stream D. monsoon
110
Chapter Review STP4
Which occurs when a large continental polar air
mass stays over a region for days or weeks?
A. cold waves B. droughts C. heat
waves D. monsoons
111
Chapter Review STP5
What refers to the rise in Earths average
surface temperature during the past 100 years?
A. greenhouse effect B. global warming C. global
cooling D. deforestation
Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
About PowerShow.com