# Chapter Menu - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

PPT – Chapter Menu PowerPoint presentation | free to view - id: 771ea7-MmNkZ The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
Title:

Description:

### Chapter Introduction Lesson 1 Thermal Energy, Temperature, and Heat Lesson 2 Thermal Energy Transfers Lesson 3 Using Thermal Energy Chapter Wrap-Up – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:260
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 90
Provided by: fairl1
Category:
Tags:
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

1
Chapter Introduction Lesson 1 Thermal Energy,
Temperature, and Heat Lesson 2 Thermal Energy
Transfers Lesson 3 Using Thermal
Energy Chapter Wrap-Up
2
Chapter Introduction
• How can thermal energy be used?

3
Chapter Introduction
• What do you think?

Before you begin, decide if you agree or disagree
with each of these statements. As you view this
any of the statements.
4
Chapter Introduction
Do you agree or disagree?
• 1. Temperature is the same as thermal energy.
• 2. Heat is the movement of thermal energy from a
hotter object to a cooler object.
• 3. It takes a large amount of energy to
significantly change the temperature of an object
with a low specific heat.

5
Chapter Introduction
Do you agree or disagree?
• 4. The thermal energy of an object can never be
increased or decreased.
• 5. Car engines create energy.
• 6. Refrigerators cool food by moving thermal
energy from inside the refrigerator to the
outside.

6
Lesson 1 Reading Guide - KC
Thermal Energy, Temperature, and Heat
• How are temperature and kinetic energy related?
• How do heat and thermal energy differ?

7
Lesson 1 Reading Guide - Vocab
Thermal Energy, Temperature, and Heat
• thermal energy
• temperature
• heat

8
Lesson 1-1
Kinetic and Potential Energy
• Potential energy is stored energy due to the
interaction between two objects.
• The potential energy plus the kinetic energy of
an object is the mechanical energy of the object.

9
Lesson 1-2
What is thermal energy?
• Every solid, liquid, and gas is made up of
trillions of tiny particles that are constantly
moving.
• Because particles are in motion, they have
kinetic energy.
• The faster particles move, the more kinetic
energy they have.

10
Lesson 1-2
What is thermal energy? (cont.)
• The greater the average distance between
particles, the greater the potential energy of
the particles.
• Thermal energy is the sum of the kinetic energy
and the potential energy of the particles that
make up a material.

11
Lesson 1-2
• The potential energy of the soccer ball depends
on the distance between the ball and Earth. The
potential energy of the particles of matter
depends on their distance from one another.

12
Lesson 1-2
What is thermal energy? (cont.)
• Mechanical energy describes the energy of one
object.
• Thermal energy describes the energy of the
particles that make up a solid, liquid, or gas.

13
Lesson 1-3
What is temperature?
• Scientists define temperature in terms of
kinetic energy.
• Temperature represents the average kinetic energy
of the particles that make up a material.

14
Lesson 1-3
What is temperature? (cont.)
temperature from Latin temperatura, means
moderating, tempering
15
Lesson 1-3
What is temperature? (cont.)
• The greater the average kinetic energy of
particles, the greater the temperature.
• The particles in warmer air move at a greater
average speed than the particles in colder air.

16
Lesson 1-3
What is temperature? (cont.)
How are temperature and kinetic energy related?
17
Lesson 1-3
What is temperature? (cont.)
• Temperature and thermal energy are related, but
they are not the same.
• The particles that make up liquid and solid water
have different potential energies and, therefore,
different thermal energies.

18
Lesson 1-3
What is temperature? (cont.)
• Thermometers are used to measure temperature.
• Common temperature scales are Celsius (C),
Kelvin (K), and Fahrenheit (F).

19
Lesson 1-4
What is heat?
• The movement of thermal energy from a warmer
object to a cooler object is called heat.
• All objects have thermal energy however, you
heat something when thermal energy transfers from
one object to another.
• The rate at which heating occurs depends on the
difference in temperatures between the objects.

20
Lesson 1-4
What is heat? (cont.)
How do heat and thermal energy differ?
21
Lesson 1 - VS
• The greater the distance between two particles
or two objects, the greater the potential
energy.
• Heat is the movement of thermal energy from a
warmer object to a cooler object.

22
Lesson 1 - VS
• When thermal energy moves between a material and
its environment, the materials temperature
changes.

23
Lesson 1 LR1
Because particles are in motion, what type of
energy do they have?
A. thermal energy B. potential energy
C. mechanical energy D. kinetic energy
24
Lesson 1 LR2
Particles that make up liquid and solid water
have different potential energies, and therefore
also have which of the following?
A. different thermal energies B. different
temperatures C. different kinetic energies D. the
same thermal energy
25
Lesson 1 LR3
Which term refers to the average kinetic energy
of the particles that make up a material?
A. heat B. temperature C. potential
energy D. thermal energy
26
Lesson 1 - Now
Do you agree or disagree?
• 1. Temperature is the same as thermal energy.
• 2. Heat is the movement of thermal energy from a
hotter object to a cooler object.

27
Lesson 2 Reading Guide - KC
Thermal Energy Transfers
• What is the effect of having a small specific
heat?
• What happens to a material when it is heated?
• In what ways can thermal energy be transferred?

28
Lesson 2 Reading Guide - Vocab
Thermal Energy Transfers
• thermal expansion
• thermal contraction
• convection
• convection current
• conduction
• thermal conductor
• thermal insulator
• specific heat

29
Lesson 2-1
How is thermal energy transferred?
• Thermal energy is transferred in three ways.
• by conduction
• by convection

30
Lesson 2-2
• The transfer of thermal energy from one material
to another by electromagnetic waves is called
• Radiation is the only way thermal energy can
travel from the Sun to Earth, because space is a
vacuum.
• Radiation also transfers thermal energy through
solids, liquids, and gases.

31
Lesson 2-2
vacuum Science Use a space that contains little
or no matter Common Use a device for cleaning
carpets and rugs that uses suction
32
Lesson 2-3
Conduction
• When particles with different kinetic energies
collide, the particles with higher kinetic energy
transfer energy to particles with lower kinetic
energy.
• The transfer of thermal energy between materials
by the collisions of particles is called
conduction.
• Conduction continues until the thermal energy of
all particles in contact is equal.

33
Lesson 2-3
Conduction (cont.)
• The hot air transfers thermal energy to, or
heats, the cool lemonade by conduction.
• Eventually the kinetic thermal energy and
temperature of the air and the lemonade will be
equal.

34
Lesson 2-3
Conduction (cont.)
• A thermal conductor is a material through which
thermal energy flows easily.
• A thermal insulator is a material through which
thermal energy does not flow easily.

35
Lesson 2-3
Conduction (cont.)
• The amount of thermal energy required to increase
the temperature of 1 kg of a material by 1C is
called specific heat.
• Waters high specific heat helps prevent your
body from overheating.
• Changing the temperature of a material with a low
specific heat is easier than to change the
temperature of a material with a high specific
heat.

36
Lesson 2-3
• In a hot car, the temperature of thermal
conductors, such as the safety-belt buckles,
increases more quickly than the temperature of
thermal insulators, such as the seat material.

37
Lesson 2-3
Conduction (cont.)
What does it mean if a material has a low
specific heat?
38
Lesson 2-4
Thermal Expansion and Contraction
• Thermal contraction is a decrease in a materials
volume when its temperature decreases.
• Thermal expansion is an increase in a materials
volume when its temperature increases.
• Thermal expansion and contraction are most
noticeable in gases, less noticeable in liquids,
and the least noticeable in solids.

39
Lesson 2-4
Thermal Expansion and Contraction (cont.)
What happens to the volume of a gas when it is
heated?
40
Lesson 2-5
Convection
• Convection is the transfer of thermal energy by
the movement of particles from one part of a
material to another.
• Convection only occurs in fluids.

convection from Greek convectionem, means the
act of carrying
41
Lesson 2-5
• This cycle of cooler water sinking and forcing
warmer water upward is an example of convection.

42
Lesson 2-5
Convection (cont.)
What are the three processes that transfer
thermal energy?
43
Lesson 2-5
Convection (cont.)
• The movement of fluids in a cycle because of
convection is a convection current.
• Convection currents circulate the water in
Earths oceans and other bodies of water.

44
Lesson 2-5
Convection Currents in Earths Atmosphere
45
Lesson 2 - VS
• When a material has a low specific heat,
transferring a small amount of energy to the
material increases its temperature significantly.

46
Lesson 2 - VS
• Thermal energy can be transferred through

47
Lesson 2 - VS
• When a material is heated, the thermal energy of
the material increases and the material expands.

48
Lesson 2 LR1
Which term refers to a material through which
thermal energy flows easily?
A. convection current B. specific heat C. thermal
conductor D. thermal insulator
49
Lesson 2 LR2
Which describes an increase in a materials
volume when its temperature increases?
A. conduction B. thermal expansion C. thermal
conductor D. thermal contraction
50
Lesson 2 LR3
What term describes the transfer of thermal
energy by the movement of particles from one part
of a material to another?
A. convection B. conduction C. thermal
contraction D. thermal expansion
51
Lesson 2 - Now
Do you agree or disagree?
3. It takes a large amount of energy to
significantly change the temperature of an object
with a low specific heat. 4. The thermal energy
of an object can never be increased or decreased.
52
Lesson 3 Reading Guide - KC
Using Thermal Energy
• How does a thermostat work?
• How does a refrigerator keep food cold?
• What are the energy transformations in a car
engine?

53
Lesson 3 Reading Guide - Vocab
Using Thermal Energy
• heating appliance
• thermostat
• refrigerator
• heat engine

54
Lesson 3-1
Thermal Energy Transformations
• Thermostats transform thermal energy into
mechanical energy that switch heaters on and off.
• Even though many devices transform energy from
one form to another or transfer energy from one
place to another, the total amount of energy does
not change.

55
Lesson 3-2
Heating Appliances
• A device that converts electric energy into
thermal energy is a heating appliance.
• Curling irons, coffeemakers, and clothes irons
are some examples of heating appliances.

56
Lesson 3-3
Thermostats
• A thermostat is a device that regulates the
temperature of a system.

thermostat from Greek therme, meaning heat and
statos, meaning a standing
57
Lesson 3-3
Thermostats (cont.)
• Most thermostats contain a bimetallic coil made
of two types of metal joined together and bent
into a coil.
• The metal on the inside of the coil expands and
contracts more than the metal on the outside of
the coil.
• When a room warms or cools, the thermal energy
causes the bimetallic coil to uncurl slightly or
tighten, which turns the furnace off or on.

58
Lesson 3-3
Thermostats (cont.)
How does the bimetallic coil in a thermostat
respond to heating and cooling?
59
Lesson 3-4
Refrigerators
• A device that uses electric energy to transfer
thermal energy from a cooler location to a warmer
location is called a refrigerator.
• In a refrigerator, a coolant is pumped through
pipes on the inside and the outside of the
refrigerator.

60
Lesson 3-4
• Coolant in a refrigerator moves thermal energy
from inside to outside the refrigerator.

61
Lesson 3-4
• The coolant, which begins as a liquid, passes
through an expansion valve and cools.

62
Lesson 3-4
• As the cold gas flows through pipes inside the
refrigerator, it absorbs thermal energy from the
refrigerator compartment and vaporizes.

63
Lesson 3-4
Refrigerators (cont.)
How does a refrigerator keep food cold?
64
Lesson 3-5
Heat Engines
• A heat engine is a machine that converts thermal
energy into mechanical energy.
• When a heat engine converts thermal energy into
mechanical energy, the mechanical energy moves
the vehicle.
• Most cars, buses, boats, trucks, and lawn mowers
use a type of heat engine called an internal
combustion engine.

65
Lesson 3-5
Internal Combustion Engine
66
Lesson 3-5
Internal Combustion Engine
67
Lesson 3-5
Heat Engines (cont.)
What is one form of energy that is output from a
heat engine?
68
Lesson 3 - VS
• A bimetallic coil inside a thermostat controls a
switch that turns a heating or cooling device on
or off.

69
Lesson 3 - VS
• A refrigerator keeps food cold by moving thermal
energy from the inside of the refrigerator out to
the refrigerators surroundings.

70
Lesson 3 - VS
• In a car engine, chemical energy in fuel is
transformed into thermal energy. Some of this
thermal energy is then transformed into
mechanical energy.

71
Lesson 3 LR1
Curling irons, coffeemakers, and clothes irons
are some examples of what?
A. thermostats B. refrigerators C. heat
engines D. heating appliances
72
Lesson 3 LR2
Which is pumped through pipes on the inside and
the outside of a refrigerator?
A. water B. ice C. coolant D. bimetallic coil
73
Lesson 3 LR3
Which term refers to a device that regulates the
temperature of a system?
A. heat engine B. heating appliance
C. refrigerator D. thermostat
74
Lesson 3 - Now
Do you agree or disagree?
5. Car engines create energy. 6. Refrigerators
cool food by moving thermal energy from inside
the refrigerator to the outside.
75
Key Concept Summary Interactive Concept
Map Chapter Review Standardized Test Practice
76
The BIG Idea
• Thermal energy can be transferred by conduction,
radiation, and convection. Thermal energy also
can be transformed into other forms of energy and
used in devices such as thermostats,
refrigerators, and automobile engines.

77
Key Concepts 1
Lesson 1 Thermal Energy, Temperature, and Heat
• The temperature of a material is the average
kinetic energy of the particles that make up the
material.
• Heat is the movement of thermal energy from a
material or area with a higher temperature to a
material or area with a lower temperature.
• When a material is heated, the materials
temperature changes.

78
Key Concepts 2
Lesson 2 Thermal Energy Transfers
• When a material has a low specific heat,
transferring a small amount of energy to the
material increases its temperature significantly.
• When a material is heated, the thermal energy of
the material increases and the material expands.
• Thermal energy can be transferred by conduction,

79
Key Concepts 3
Lesson 3 Using Thermal Energy
• The two different metals in a bimetallic coil
inside a thermostat expand and contract at
different rates. The bimetallic coil curs and
uncurls, depending on the thermal energy of the
air, pushing a switch that turns a heating or
cooling device on or off.
• A refrigerator keeps food cold by moving thermal
energy from inside the refrigerator out to the
refrigerators surroundings.
• In a car engine, chemical energy in fuel is
transformed into thermal energy. Some of this
thermal energy is then transformed into
mechanical energy.

80
Chapter Review MC1
Which describes the sum of the kinetic energy and
the potential energy of the particles that make
up a material?
A. heat B. temperature C. thermal
energy D. mechanical energy
81
Chapter Review MC2
The transfer of thermal energy from one material
to another by electromagnetic waves is called
what?
A. conduction B. radiation C. specific heat
D. thermal expansion
82
Chapter Review MC3
Which refers to a decrease in a materials
volume when its temperature decreases?
A. conduction B. radiation C. thermal contraction
D. thermal expansion
83
Chapter Review MC4
Which describes the amount of thermal energy
required to increase the temperature of 1 kg of
a material by 1C?
A. thermal expansion B. specific
heat C. convection D. conduction
84
Chapter Review MC5
What term refers to the part of a thermostat
that expands and contracts to turn a furnace on
and off?
A. coolant B. piston C. bimetallic coil D. heat
engine
85
Chapter Review STP1
What term refers to the movement of thermal
energy from a warmer object to a cooler object?
A. temperature B. heat C. potential
energy D. kinetic energy
86
Chapter Review STP2
Which term refers to a material through which
thermal energy does not flow easily?
A. convection current B. thermal
contraction C. thermal conductor D. thermal
insulator
87
Chapter Review STP3
Which is the movement of fluids in a cycle
because of convection?
A. convection current B. thermal contraction
C. thermal expansion D. thermal conductor
88
Chapter Review STP4
Which term describes the transfer of thermal
energy between materials by the collisions of
particles?
A. convection B. conduction C. thermal
expansion D. thermal contraction
89
Chapter Review STP5
Which describes a machine that converts thermal
energy into mechanical energy?
A. piston B. thermostat C. heat
engine D. heating appliance