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Chapter Introduction Lesson 1 People and the Environment Lesson 2 Impacts on the Land Lesson 3 Impacts on Water Lesson 4 Impacts on the Atmosphere – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Chapter Menu


1
Chapter Menu
Chapter Introduction Lesson 1 People and the
Environment Lesson 2 Impacts on the Land Lesson
3 Impacts on Water Lesson 4 Impacts on the
Atmosphere Chapter Wrap-Up
2
Chapter Introduction
  • How do human activities impact the environment?

3
Chapter Introduction
  • What do you think?

Before you begin, decide if you agree or disagree
with each of these statements. As you view this
presentation, see if you change your mind about
any of the statements.
4
Chapter Introduction
Do you agree or disagree?
  • 1. Earth can support an unlimited number of
    people.
  • 2. Humans can have both positive and negative
    impacts on the environment.
  • 3. Deforestation does not affect soil quality.
  • 4. Most trash is recycled.

5
Chapter Introduction
Do you agree or disagree?
  • 5. Sources of water pollution are always easy to
    identify.
  • 6. The proper method of disposal for used motor
    oil is to pour it down the drain.
  • 7. The greenhouse effect is harmful to life on
    Earth.
  • 8. Air pollution can affect human health.

6
Lesson 1 Reading Guide - KC
People and the Environment
  • What is the relationship between resource
    availability and human population growth?
  • How do daily activities impact the environment?

7
Lesson 1 Reading Guide - Vocab
People and the Environment
  • population
  • carrying capacity

8
Lesson 1-1
Population and Carrying Capacity
  • A population is all the members of a species
    living in a given area.

population from Latin populus, means people
9
Lesson 1-1
Population and Carrying Capacity (cont.)
  • Today, about 6.7 billion people live on Earth.

10
Lesson 1-1
Population and Carrying Capacity (cont.)
  • The greatest increase in human population
    occurred during the last few centuries.
  • Population explosion describes the sudden rise in
    human population that has happened in recent
    history.

11
Lesson 1-1
Population and Carrying Capacity (cont.)
  • Carrying capacity is the largest number of
    individuals of a given species that Earths
    resources can support and maintain for a long
    period of time.
  • Earth has limited resources and cannot support a
    population of any species in a given environment
    beyond its carrying capacity.

12
Lesson 1-1
Population and Carrying Capacity (cont.)
  • If the human population continues to grow beyond
    Earths carrying capacity, eventually Earth will
    not have enough resources to support humans.

What is the relationship between the availability
of resources and human population growth?
13
Lesson 1-2
Impact of Daily Actions
  • Each of the 6.7 billion people on Earth uses
    resources in some way and the use of these
    resources affects the environment.

resource Science Use a natural source of supply
or support Common Use a source of information or
expertise
14
Lesson 1-2
Impact of Daily Actions (cont.)
What are three things you did today that impacted
the environment?
15
Lesson 1 - VS
  • Human population has exploded since the 1800s.
  • Every day billions of people use Earths
    resources.
  • The human population will eventually reach its
    carrying capacity.

16
Lesson 1 - VS
  • When humans use resources, they can have both
    negative and positive impacts on the environment.
  • It is important for humans to use resources
    wisely.

17
Lesson 1 LR1
About how many people live on Earth today?
A. about 100 million B. about 6.7
billion C. about 10 billion D. about 67 billion
18
Lesson 1 LR2
Which phrase describes the change in human
population in recent history?
A. decreasing carrying capacity B. decreased life
span C. increasing carrying capacity D. population
explosion
19
Lesson 1 LR3
If the human population grows beyond Earths
carrying capacity, which of the following will
likely be true?
A. Earth will be able to support humans for
several thousand years. B. Earth will continue
providing unlimited resources. C. Earth will not
have enough resources to support humans.
D. There will be a population explosion.
20
Lesson 1 - Now
Do you agree or disagree?
  • 1. Earth can support an unlimited number of
    people.
  • 2. Humans can have both positive and negative
    impacts on the environment.

21
Lesson 2 Reading Guide - KC
Impacts on the Land
  • What are the consequences of using land as a
    resource?
  • How does proper waste management help prevent
    pollution?
  • What actions help protect the land?

22
Lesson 2 Reading Guide - Vocab
Impacts on the Land
  • deforestation
  • desertification
  • urban sprawl
  • reforestation
  • reclamation

23
Lesson 2-1
Using Land Resources
  • Deforestation is the removal of large areas of
    forests for human purposes.
  • Deforestation affects soil and air quality.

Brand X Pictures/Punchstock
24
Lesson 2-1
Using Land Resources (cont.)
  • Scientists estimate that human activities have
    doubled the amount of nitrogen cycling through
    the ecosystems.
  • Excess nitrogen can kill plants adapted to low
    nitrogen levels and affect animals that depend on
    those plants for food.

25
Lesson 2-1
The Nitrogen Cycle
26
Lesson 2-1
Using Land Resources (cont.)
  • Desertification is the development of desert-like
    conditions due to human activities and/or climate
    change.
  • A region of land that undergoes desertification
    is no longer useful for food production.

27
Lesson 2-1
  • Though mines are essential for obtaining
    much-needed resources, digging mines disturbs
    habitats and changes the landscape.

Photodisc/Getty Images
28
Lesson 2-1
Using Land Resources (cont.)
What are some consequences of using land as a
resource?
29
Lesson 2-2
Construction and Development
  • The development of land for houses and other
    buildings near a city is called urban sprawl.
  • The impacts of urban sprawl include habitat
    destruction, loss of farmland, and an increase in
    runofff that can reduce the water quality of
    streams, rivers and groundwater.

30
Lesson 2-3
Waste Management
  • Landfills are areas where trash is buried.
  • A landfill is carefully designed to meet
    government regulations.
  • Hazardous waste cannot be placed in landfills
    because it contains harmful substances that can
    affect soil, air, and water quality.

31
Lesson 2-3
32
Lesson 2-3
Waste Management (cont.)
What is done to prevent the trash in landfills
from polluting air, soil, and water?
33
Lesson 2-4
Positive Actions
  • Governments, society, and individuals can work
    together to reduce the impact of human activities
    on land resources.
  • Protected forests and parks are important
    habitats for wildlife.
  • Reforestation involves planting trees to replace
    trees that have been cut or burned down.

34
Lesson 2-4
Positive Actions (cont.)
  • Reclamation is the process of restoring land
    disturbed by mining.

reclamation from Latin reclamare, means to call
back
35
Lesson 2-4
Positive Actions (cont.)
  • Green spaces are areas that are left undeveloped
    or lightly developed.
  • Individuals can have a big impact on land-use
    issues by practicing the three Rsreusing,
    reducing, and recycling.

36
Lesson 2-4
Positive Actions (cont.)
What can you do to help lessen your impact on the
land?
37
Lesson 2 - VS
  • Deforestation, agriculture, and mining for useful
    rocks and minerals all can affect land resources
    negatively.
  • People use land for living space, which can lead
    to urban sprawl, an increase in roadways, and the
    need for proper waste disposal.

38
Lesson 2 - VS
  • Creating national parks, preserves and local
    green spaces, reforestation, and practicing the
    three Rs are all ways people can positively
    impact land resources.

39
Lesson 2 LR1
Landfills do which of the following to control
pollution?
A. cover the landfill with clay and dirt B. line
the landfill with sand or gravel C. monitor the
quality of underground oxygen D. use groundwater
to dilute liquid wastes
40
Lesson 2 LR2
Which of these describes areas where trash is
buried?
A. runoff B. landfill C. urban sprawl D. none of
these
41
Lesson 2 LR3
Which of these is NOT an impact of urban sprawl?
A. loss of farmland B. increase in
runoff C. habitat destruction D. fewer cars on
highways
42
Lesson 2 - Now
Do you agree or disagree?
3. Deforestation does not affect soil quality. 4.
Most trash is recycled.
43
Lesson 3 Reading Guide - KC
Impacts on Water
  • How do humans use water as a resource?
  • How can pollution affect water quality?
  • What actions help prevent water pollution?

44
Lesson 3 Reading Guide - Vocab
Impacts on Water
  • point-source pollution
  • nonpoint-source pollution

45
Lesson 3-1
Water as a Resource
  • Most water use in the United States is by power
    plants to generate electricity and to cool
    equipment.

46
Lesson 3-1
Water as a Resource (cont.)
How do humans use water as a resource?
47
Lesson 3-2
Sources of Water Pollution
  • Point-source pollution is pollution from a single
    source that can be identified.

pollution from Latin polluere, means to
contaminate
48
Lesson 3-2
Sources of Water Pollution (cont.)
  • Pollution from several widespread sources that
    cannot be traced back to a single location is
    called nonpoint-source pollution.
  • Most of the water pollution in the United States
    comes from nonpoint sources and is therefore
    harder to control.

49
Lesson 3-2
Sources of Water Pollution
50
Lesson 3-2
Sources of Water Pollution
51
Lesson 3-2
Sources of Water Pollution (cont.)
How can pollution affect water quality?
52
Lesson 3-3
Positive Actions
  • Efforts to reduce water pollution focus on
    prevention, rather than clean-up.
  • The U.S. works with other countries and has its
    own laws to help maintain water quality.

Creatas Images/Jupiterimages
53
Lesson 3-3
Positive Actions (cont.)
  • Individuals can help reduce water pollution by
    reducing their use of harmful chemicals, like
    household cleaners, and disposing of waste
    containing pollutants safely.

54
Lesson 3-3
Positive Actions (cont.)
How can individuals help prevent water pollution?
55
Lesson 3 - VS
  • Water is an important resource all living things
    need water to survive. Water is used for
    agriculture, for electricity production, and in
    homes and businesses every day.

56
Lesson 3 - VS
  • Water pollution can come from many sources,
    including chemicals from agriculture and
    industry and oil spills.

57
Lesson 3 - VS
  • International cooperation and national laws help
    prevent water pollution. Individuals can help
    conserve water by reducing water use and
    disposing of wastes properly.

58
Lesson 3 LR1
How is most of the water in the United States
used?
A. irrigation of agricultural crops B. livestock
C. power plants D. public supply
59
Lesson 3 LR2
Which is an example of point-source pollution?
A. construction sites B. factory discharge
pipes C. farms D. urban developments
60
Lesson 3 LR3
Which term refers to pollution from a source that
can be identified?
A. groundwater runoff B. nonpoint-source
pollution C. point-source pollution D. source
pollution
61
Lesson 3 - Now
Do you agree or disagree?
5. Sources of water pollution are always easy to
identify. 6. The proper method of disposal for
used motor oil is to pour it down the drain.
62
Lesson 4 Reading Guide - KC
Impacts on the Atmosphere
  • What are some types of air pollution?
  • How are global warming and the carbon cycle
    related?
  • How does air pollution affect human health?
  • What actions help prevent air pollution?

63
Lesson 4 Reading Guide - Vocab
Impacts on the Atmosphere
  • photochemical smog
  • acid precipitation
  • particulate matter
  • global warming
  • greenhouse effect
  • Air Quality Index

64
Lesson 4-1
Importance of Clean Air
  • Your body, and the bodies of other animals, uses
    oxygen in air to produce some of the energy it
    needs.
  • The air you breath must be clean or it can harm
    your body.

65
Lesson 4-2
Types of Air Pollution
  • smog
  • acid precipitation
  • chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs)
  • carbon monoxide

66
Lesson 4-2
Types of Air Pollution (cont.)
  • Photochemical smog forms when nitrogen and carbon
    compounds in the air react in sunlight.
  • Ozone close to the ground is a major component of
    smog.

67
Lesson 4-2
Types of Air Pollution (cont.)
  • Acid precipitation is rain or snow that has a
    lower pH than that of normal rainwater.
  • Acid precipitation forms when gases containing
    nitrogen and sulfur react with water, oxygen, and
    other chemicals in the atmosphere.
  • Many living things cannot survive if the pH of
    water or soil becomes too low.

68
Lesson 4-2
Types of Air Pollution (cont.)
  • The mix of both solid and liquid particles in the
    air is called particulate matter.

particulate from Latin particula, means small
part
69
Lesson 4-2
Types of Air Pollution (cont.)
  • Solid particles including smoke, dust, and dirt
    enter the air from natural processes and human
    activities, such as burning fossil fuels.

70
Lesson 4-2
Types of Air Pollution (cont.)
  • Appliances, such as air conditioners and
    refrigerators made before 1996, contain
    chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) coolants.
  • In the atmosphere, CFCs thin the ozone, allowing
    more UV rays to reach Earths surface.

71
Lesson 4-2
  • Breathing carbon monoxide, a gas released from
    vehicles and industrial processes, reduces the
    amount of oxygen that reaches the bodys tissues
    and organs.

Getty Images
72
Lesson 4-2
Types of Air Pollution (cont.)
What are some types of air pollution?
73
Lesson 4-3
Global Warming and the Carbon Cycle
  • An increased concentration of carbon dioxide in
    the atmosphere can lead to global warming, an
    increase in Earths average surface temperature.
  • Burning fossil fuels releases carbon dioxide into
    the atmosphere.

74
Lesson 4-3
The Carbon Cycle
75
Lesson 4-3
Global Warming and the Carbon Cycle (cont.)
  • Warmer temperatures can cause ice to melt,
    making sea levels rise, which can cause flooding
    along coastal areas.
  • Warmer ocean waters could lead to an increase in
    the intensity and frequency of storms.

76
Lesson 4-3
Global Warming and the Carbon Cycle (cont.)
How are global warming and the carbon cycle
related?
77
Lesson 4-3
  • The greenhouse effect is the natural process that
    occurs when certain gases in the atmosphere
    absorb and reradiate thermal energy from the
    Sun.

78
Lesson 4-4
Health Disorders
  • Air pollution can cause respiratory problems,
    including triggering asthma attacks.

79
Lesson 4-4
Health Disorders (cont.)
How can air pollution affect human health?
80
Lesson 4-4
  • The Air Quality Index (AQI) is a scale that ranks
    levels of ozone and other air pollutants.

81
Lesson 4-5
Positive Actions
  • Countries around the world are working together
    to reduce air pollution.
  • In the United States, the Clean Air Act, which
    was passed in 1970, sets limits on the amount of
    certain pollutants that can be released into the
    air.

82
Lesson 4-5
Positive Actions (cont.)
  • Using renewable energy resources such as solar
    power, wind power, and geothermal energy reduces
    air pollution.
  • People can purchase more energy-efficient
    appliances and vehicles, such as hybrid cars,
    which emit less pollution.

83
Lesson 4-5
Positive Actions (cont.)
How can people help prevent air pollution?
84
Lesson 4 - VS
  • Burning fossil fuels releases nitrogen and carbon
    compounds and particulate matter into the air.

85
Lesson 4 - VS
  • Air pollution can affect human health, causing
    eye, nose, and throat irritation, increased
    asthma, and headaches.

86
Lesson 4 - VS
  • Certain laws and international agreements require
    people to reduce air pollution. Individuals can
    reduce air pollution by using alternative forms
    of energy to heat homes and power vehicles.

87
Lesson 4 LR1
What term refers to both solid and liquid
particles in the air?
A. acid precipitation B. CFCs C. particulate
matter D. photochemical smog
88
Lesson 4 LR2
What is the natural process that occurs when
certain gases in the atmosphere absorb and
reradiate thermal energy from the Sun?
A. acid precipitation B. global warming
C. greenhouse effect D. photochemical smog
89
Lesson 4 LR3
Which of these is NOT a type of air pollution?
A. acid precipitation B. global
warming C. particulate matter D. smog
90
Lesson 4 - Now
Do you agree or disagree?
7. The greenhouse effect is harmful to life on
Earth. 8. Air pollution can affect human health.
91
Chapter Review Menu
Key Concept Summary Interactive Concept
Map Chapter Review Standardized Test Practice
92
The BIG Idea
  • Human activities can impact the environment
    negatively, including deforestation, water
    pollution, and global warming, and positively,
    such as through reforestation, reclamation, and
    water conservation.

93
Key Concepts 1
Lesson 1 People and the Environment
  • Earth has limited resources and cannot support
    unlimited human population growth.
  • Daily actions can deplete soil, water, and air.

94
Key Concepts 2
Lesson 2 Impacts on the Land
  • Deforestation, desertification, habitat
    destruction, and increased rates of extinction
    are associated with using land as a resource.
  • Landfills are constructed to prevent
    contamination of soil and water by pollutants
    from waste. Hazardous waste must be disposed of
    in a safe manner.
  • Positive impacts on land include preservation,
    reforestation, and reclamation.

95
Key Concepts 3
Lesson 3 Impacts on Water
  • Humans use water in electricity production,
    industry, and agriculture, as well as for
    recreation and transportation.
  • Point-source pollution and nonpoint-source
    pollution can reduce water quality.
  • International agreements and national laws help
    prevent water pollution. Other positive actions
    include disposing of waste safely and conserving
    water.

96
Key Concepts 4
Lesson 4 Impacts on the Atmosphere
  • Photochemical smog, CFS, and acid precipitation
    are types of air pollution.
  • Human activities can add carbon dioxide to the
    atmosphere. Increased levels of carbon dioxide in
    the atmosphere can lead to global warming.
  • Air pollutants such as ozone can irritate the
    respiratory system, reduce lung function, and
    cause asthma attacks.
  • International agreements, laws, and individual
    actions such as conservingenergy help decrease
    air pollution.

97
Chapter Review MC1
Which term refers to all the members of a species
living in a given area?
A. carrying capacity B. environment C. population
D. species distribution
98
Chapter Review MC2
What term refers to the development of land for
houses and other buildings near a city?
A. deforestation B. desertification C. urban
sprawl D. waste management
99
Chapter Review MC3
Which of these is the process of restoring land
disturbed by mining?
A. composting B. deforestation C. desertification
D. reclamation
100
Chapter Review MC4
Most efforts to reduce water pollution focus on
which of these?
A. cleaning up pollution B. increasing nonpoint
sources C. increasing point sources D. preventing
pollution
101
Chapter Review MC5
Which of the following is produced when nitrogen
and carbon compounds in the air react in sunlight?
A. acid precipitation B. CFCs C. particulate
matter D. photochemical smog
102
Chapter Review STP1
Which of these is the largest number of
individuals an areas resources can support and
maintain?
A. carrying capacity B. conservation limit
C. population D. resource limit
103
Chapter Review STP2
Which term describes the removal of large areas
of forests for human purposes?
A. deforestation B. desertification C. reclamation
D. reforestation
104
Chapter Review STP3
What term refers to planting trees to replace
trees that have been cut or burned down?
A. deforestation B. desertification C. reclamation
D. reforestation
105
Chapter Review STP4
Which term refers to pollution from several
widespread sources that cannot be traced back to
a single location?
A. climate change B. nonpoint-source pollution
C. point-source pollution D. runoff
106
Chapter Review STP5
Rain or snow that has a lower pH than that of
normal rainwater is referred to as which of the
following?
A. acid precipitation B. chlorofluorocarbons C. pa
rticulate matter D. photochemical smog
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