Chapter Menu - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

About This Presentation
Title:

Chapter Menu

Description:

Chapter Introduction Lesson 1 Earth s Atmosphere Lesson 2 Energy Transfer in the Atmosphere Lesson 3 Air Currents Lesson 4 Air Quality Chapter Wrap-Up – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:240
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 133
Provided by: AmyH79
Category:

less

Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: Chapter Menu


1
Chapter Menu
Chapter Introduction Lesson 1 Earths
Atmosphere Lesson 2 Energy Transfer in the
Atmosphere Lesson 3 Air Currents Lesson 4 Air
Quality Chapter Wrap-Up
2
Chapter Introduction
  • How does Earths atmosphere affect life on Earth?

3
Chapter Introduction
  • What do you think?

Before you begin, decide if you agree or disagree
with each of these statements. As you view this
presentation, see if you change your mind about
any of the statements.
4
Chapter Introduction
Do you agree or disagree?
  • 1. Air is empty space.
  • 2. Earths atmosphere is important to living
    organisms.
  • 3. All the energy from the Sun reaches Earths
    surface.
  • 4. Earth emits energy back into the atmosphere.

5
Chapter Introduction
Do you agree or disagree?
  • 5. Uneven heating in different parts of the
    atmosphere creates air circulation patterns.
  • 6. Warm air sinks and cold air rises.
  • 7. If no humans lived on Earth, there would be no
    air pollution.
  • 8. Pollution levels in the air are not measured
    or monitored.

6
Lesson 1 Reading Guide - KC
Earths Atmosphere
  • How did Earths atmosphere form?
  • What is Earths atmosphere made of?
  • What are the layers of the atmosphere?
  • How do air pressure and temperature change as
    altitude increases?

7
Lesson 1 Reading Guide - Vocab
Earths Atmosphere
  • atmosphere
  • water vapor
  • troposphere
  • stratosphere
  • ozone layer
  • ionosphere

8
Lesson 1-1
Importance of Earths Atmosphere
  • The atmosphere is a thin layer of gases
    surrounding Earth.
  • The atmosphere contains the oxygen and water
    necessary for life on Earth.
  • The atmosphere provides insulation and helps
    keep temperatures on Earth within a range in
    which living organisms can survive.

9
Lesson 1-1
Importance of Earths Atmosphere (cont.)
  • The atmosphere helps protect living organisms
    from some of the Suns harmful rays and
    meteorites.

atmosphere from Greek atmos, means vapor and
Latin sphaera, means sphere
10
Lesson 1-2
Origins of Earths Atmosphere
  • Erupting volcanoes emitting hot gases from
    ancient Earths interior surrounded the planet to
    form an atmosphere.
  • Ancient Earths atmosphere was thought to be
    water vapor with a little carbon dioxide and
    nitrogen, but not enough oxygen to support life.
  • Water vapor is water in gaseous form.

11
Lesson 1-2
Origins of Earths Atmosphere (cont.)
  • As Earth and its atmosphere cooled, the water
    vapor condensed into liquid, rain fell, and then
    evaporated from Earths surface for thousands of
    years.
  • Eventually water began to accumulate on Earths
    surface, forming oceans.
  • Earths first organisms could undergo
    photosynthesis, which changed the atmosphere.

12
Lesson 1-2
Origins of Earths Atmosphere (cont.)
  • The organisms removed CO2 from the atmosphere and
    released oxygen into it.
  • Eventually the levels of CO2 and oxygen supported
    the development of other organisms.

13
Lesson 1-2
Origins of Earths Atmosphere (cont.)
How did Earths present atmosphere form?
14
Lesson 1-3
Composition of the Atmosphere
  • Todays atmosphere is mostly made up of invisible
    gases, including nitrogen, oxygen, and carbon
    dioxide.
  • About 78 percent of the atmosphere is nitrogen,
    and about 21 percent is oxygen.
  • The amounts of water vapor, carbon dioxide, and
    ozone vary.

15
Lesson 1-3
  • Acids in the air are formed when sulfur dioxide
    and nitrous oxide combine with water vapor.

PhotoLink/Getty Images
16
Lesson 1-3
Composition of the Atmosphere (cont.)
  • Many tiny solid particles, such as pollen, dust,
    and salt, can enter the atmosphere through
    natural processes.
  • Solid particles of ash from volcanic eruptions
    and exhaust soot from cars are also present in
    the atmosphere.

17
Lesson 1-3
  • One way solid particles enter the atmosphere is
    from volcanic eruptions.

C. Sherburne/PhotoLink/Getty Images
18
Lesson 1-3
Composition of the Atmosphere (cont.)
  • The most common liquid particles in the
    atmosphere are water droplets.
  • Though microscopic in size, water particles are
    visible when they form clouds.
  • Other atmospheric liquids include acids that
    result when volcanoes erupt and fossil fuels are
    burned.

19
Lesson 1-3
Composition of the Atmosphere (cont.)
  • Acids in the air are formed when sulfur dioxide
    and nitrous oxide combine with water vapor.

What is Earths atmosphere made of?
20
Lesson 1-4
Layers of the Atmosphere
  • The atmosphere has several different layers, each
    with its own unique properties.

21
Lesson 1-4
Layers of the Atmosphere (cont.)
  • The atmospheric layer closest to Earths surface
    is called the troposphere.
  • The troposphere extends from Earths surface to
    altitudes between 8-15 km.
  • The temperature of the troposphere decreases as
    you move away from Earth.

22
Lesson 1-4
Layers of the Atmosphere (cont.)
  • Sunlight passes through the atmosphere, warms
    Earths surface, and the warmth is radiated to
    the troposphere, causing weather.
  • The stratosphere is the atmospheric layer
    directly above the troposphere.

23
Lesson 1-4
Layers of the Atmosphere (cont.)
  • The stratosphere extends from about 15 km to
    about 50 km above Earths surface.
  • The area of the stratosphere with a high
    concentration of ozone is referred to as the
    ozone layer.
  • The presence of the ozone layer causes the
    stratospheric temperatures to increase with
    altitude.

24
Lesson 1-4
Layers of the Atmosphere (cont.)
  • Ozone has three oxygen atoms and absorbs the
    Suns ultraviolet rays more effectively than
    oxygen.
  • Ozone protects Earth from ultraviolet rays that
    can kill plants, animals, and other organisms and
    cause skin cancer in humans.

25
Lesson 1-4
Layers of the Atmosphere (cont.)
  • Combined, the mesosphere and thermosphere are
    much thicker than the troposphere and the
    stratosphere, yet only 1 percent of the
    atmospheres gas molecules are found in the
    mesosphere and thermosphere.
  • Most meteors burn up in the mesosphere and
    thermosphere instead of striking Earth.

26
Lesson 1-4
  • The ionosphere is a region within the mesosphere
    and thermosphere containing ions.
  • The ionospheres ions reflect AM radio waves
    transmitted at ground level.

27
Lesson 1-4
  • Auroras occur in the ionosphere when ions from
    the Sun strike air molecules, causing them to
    emit vivid colors of light.

Per Breiehagen/Getty Images
28
Lesson 1-4
Layers of the Atmosphere (cont.)
  • The exosphere is the atmospheric layer farthest
    from Earths surface where pressure and density
    are so low that individual gas molecules rarely
    strike one another.
  • The molecules move at incredibly fast speeds
    after absorbing the Suns radiation and can
    escape the pull of gravity and travel into space.

29
Lesson 1-4
Layers of the Atmosphere (cont.)
What are the layers of the atmosphere?
30
Lesson 1-5
Air Pressure and Altitude
  • Gravity pulls the atmosphere toward Earth,
    creating air pressure.
  • At higher altitudes, the air is less dense and
    air pressure is lower.
  • At lower altitudes, the air is denser and air
    pressure is higher.

31
Lesson 1-6
Temperature and Altitude
  • Temperature changes in different ways as altitude
    increases in the different layers of the
    atmosphere.
  • In the troposphere, temperature decreases as
    altitude increases.
  • In the stratosphere, temperature increases as
    altitude increases because of the high
    concentration of ozone.

32
Lesson 1-6
Temperature and Altitude (cont.)
  • In the mesosphere, as altitude increases,
    temperature again decreases.
  • In the thermosphere and exosphere, temperatures
    increase as altitude increases.

33
Lesson 1-6
34
Lesson 1-6
Temperature and Altitude (cont.)
How does temperature change as altitude increases?
35
Lesson 1 - VS
  • Earths atmosphere consists of gases that make
    life possible.

PhotoLink/Getty Images
36
Lesson 1 - VS
  • Layers of the atmosphere include the troposphere,
    the stratosphere, the mesosphere, the
    thermosphere, and the exosphere.

Per Breiehagen/Getty Images
37
Lesson 1 - VS
  • The ozone layer is the area in the stratosphere
    with a high concentration of ozone.

38
Lesson 1 LR1
Where did hot gases that created Earths
atmosphere come from?
A. the Sun B. erupting volcanoes C. the
air D. the ocean
39
Lesson 1 LR2
What is about 78 percent of Earths atmosphere
made of?
A. nitrogen B. oxygen C. ozone D. carbon dioxide
40
Lesson 1 LR3
What is the region within the mesosphere and
thermosphere containing ions?
A. exosphere B. stratosphere C. ozone
layer D. ionosphere
41
Lesson 1 - Now
Do you agree or disagree?
  • 1. Air is empty space.
  • 2. Earths atmosphere is important to living
    organisms.

42
Lesson 2 Reading Guide - KC
Energy Transfer in the Atmosphere
  • How does energy transfer from the Sun to Earth
    and the atmosphere?
  • How are air circulation patterns within the
    atmosphere created?

43
Lesson 2 Reading Guide - Vocab
Energy Transfer in the Atmosphere
  • radiation
  • conduction
  • convection
  • stability
  • temperature inversion

44
Lesson 2-1
Energy from the Sun
  • Radiation is the transfer of energy by
    electromagnetic waves.
  • Ninety-nine percent of the radiation from the Sun
    consists of visible light, ultraviolet light, and
    infrared radiation.
  • The majority of sunlight is visible light that
    passes through the atmosphere to Earths surface,
    where it is converted to heat.

45
Lesson 2-1
Energy from the Sun (cont.)
  • The wavelengths of ultraviolet (UV) light and
    infrared radiation (IR) are just beyond the range
    of visibility to human eyes.
  • UV light is harmful to human skin and IR can be
    sensed as thermal energy or warmth.
  • As energy from the Sun is absorbed by Earth, it
    is radiated back as IR.

46
Lesson 2-2
Energy on Earth
  • As Suns radiation passes through the atmosphere,
    some of it is absorbed and some of it is
    reflected back into space.

reflect Science Use to return light, heat, sound,
etc., after it strikes a surface Common Use to
think quietly and calmly
47
Lesson 2-2
Energy on Earth (cont.)
  • Gases and particles in the atmosphere absorb
    about 20 percent of incoming solar radiation.
  • Oxygen, ozone, and water vapor all absorb
    incoming ultraviolet radiation.
  • Water and carbon dioxide in the troposphere
    absorb some infrared radiation from the Sun.

48
Lesson 2-2
Energy on Earth (cont.)
  • About 30 percent of incoming radiation is
    reflected into space.
  • Bright surfaces, especially clouds, reflect
    incoming radiation, and some is reflected at
    Earths surface.
  • Earths surface only receives and absorbs about
    50 percent of incoming solar radiation.

49
Lesson 2-3
Radiation Balance
  • The amount of radiation Earth receives from the
    Sun is the same as the amount Earth radiates into
    the atmosphere.
  • This radiation balance maintains an overall
    temperature on Earth.

50
Lesson 2-4
The Greenhouse Effect
  • Some of the gases in the atmosphere, called
    greenhouse gases, act like the glass of a
    greenhouse, allowing sunlight to pass through but
    preventing some of Earths IR energy from
    escaping.
  • When gases in Earths atmosphere direct radiation
    back toward Earths surface, this warms Earths
    atmosphere more than normal, creating a heat
    surplus.

51
Lesson 2-4
The Greenhouse Effect (cont.)
  • The gases that trap IR best are water vapor,
    carbon dioxide, and methane.

52
Lesson 2-5
Thermal Energy Transfer
  • Conduction occurs when the atmosphere touches
    Earth.
  • Conduction is the transfer of thermal energy by
    collisions between particles of matter.
  • Thermal energy always moves from an object with a
    higher temperature to an object with a lower
    temperature.

53
Lesson 2-5
Thermal Energy Transfer (cont.)
conduction from Latin conducere, means to bring
together
54
Lesson 2-5
  • Energy is transferred through conduction,
    convection, and radiation.

55
Lesson 2-5
Thermal Energy Transfer (cont.)
  • The transfer of thermal energy by the movement of
    matter from one place to another is called
    convection.
  • As molecules of air close to Earths surface are
    heated by conduction, they spread apart, becoming
    less dense.
  • Less dense air rises, transferring thermal energy
    to higher altitudes.

56
Lesson 2-5
Thermal Energy Transfer (cont.)
  • Latent heat is exchanged when water changes from
    one phase to another.
  • Water is the only substance that can exist as a
    solid, a liquid, and a gas at the temperature
    ranges on Earth.
  • Latent heat energy is transferred from Earths
    surface to the atmosphere.

57
Lesson 2-5
  • Water releases or absorbs heat energy during
    phase changes.

58
Lesson 2-5
Thermal Energy Transfer (cont.)
How does energy transfer from the Sun to Earth
and the atmosphere?
59
Lesson 2-6
Circulating Air
  • Air is constantly moving and circulating.
  • On a hot day, air that is heated becomes less
    dense, creating a pressure difference.
  • Cool, denser air pushes the warm air out of the
    way and the warm air is replaced by the more
    dense air.
  • The warm air is often pushed upward.

60
Lesson 2-6
Circulating Air (cont.)
  • Warmer, rising air is always accompanied by
    cooler, sinking air.
  • Circulating air affects weather and climate
    around the world.

How are air circulation patterns within the
atmosphere created?
61
Lesson 2-6
Circulating Air (cont.)
  • Stability describes whether circulating air
    motions will be strong or weak.
  • When air is unstable, circulating motions are
    strong, and during stable conditions, circulating
    motions are weak.
  • During unstable conditions, ground-level air is
    much warmer than higher-altitude air.

62
Lesson 2-6
Circulating Air (cont.)
  • As warm air rises rapidly in the atmosphere, it
    cools to form large, tall clouds.
  • Latent heat, released as water vapor, changes
    from a gas to a liquid, adds to the instability,
    and produces a thunderstorm.
  • A temperature inversion occurs in the troposphere
    when temperature increases as altitude increases.

63
Lesson 2-6
Circulating Air (cont.)
  • During a temperature inversion, a layer of cooler
    air is trapped by a layer of warmer air above it.

64
Lesson 2 - VS
  • Not all radiation from the Sun reaches Earths
    surface.
  • Thermal energy transfer in the atmosphere
    occurs through radiation, conduction, and
    convection.

65
Lesson 2 - VS
  • Temperature inversions prevent air from mixing
    and can trap pollution in the air close to
    Earths surface.

66
Lesson 2 LR1
The transfer of thermal energy by the movement of
matter from one place to another is called what?
A. latent heat B. conduction C. convection D. the
greenhouse effect
67
Lesson 2 LR2
When air is unstable, circulating motions can
usually be described how?
A. strong B. weak C. absent D. warm
68
Lesson 2 LR3
Which is exchanged when water changes from one
phase to another?
A. water vapor B. convection C. latent
heat D. cool air
69
Lesson 2 - Now
Do you agree or disagree?
3. All of the energy from the Sun reaches Earths
surface. 4. Earth emits energy back into the
atmosphere.
70
Lesson 3 Reading Guide - KC
Air Currents
  • How does uneven heating of Earths surface result
    in air movement?
  • How are air currents on Earth affected by Earths
    spin?
  • What are the main wind belts on Earth?

71
Lesson 3 Reading Guide - Vocab
Air Currents
  • wind
  • trade winds
  • westerlies
  • polar easterlies
  • jet stream
  • sea breeze
  • land breeze

72
Lesson 3-1
Global Winds
  • Wind patterns can be global or local.
  • There are great wind belts that circle the globe,
    and the energy that causes this massive movement
    of air originates at the Sun.
  • Not all areas of Earth receive the same amount of
    energy from the Sun.

73
Lesson 3-1
Global Winds (cont.)
  • The differences in pressure between areas with
    low temperatures and high temperatures create
    wind.
  • Wind is the movement of air from areas of high
    pressure to areas of low pressure.

74
Lesson 3-1
Global Winds (cont.)
How does uneven heating of Earths surface result
in air movement?
75
Lesson 3-2
Global Wind Belts
  • Three cells in each hemisphere move air through
    the atmosphere.

76
Lesson 3-2
Global Wind Belts (cont.)
  • In the first cell, hot air at the equator moves
    to the top of the troposphere then moves toward
    the poles until it cools and moves back to
    Earths surface near the 30 latitude.

77
Lesson 3-2
Global Wind Belts (cont.)
  • The second cell, between 30 and 60 latitude, is
    not a convection cell because its motion is
    driven by the other two cells.

78
Lesson 3-2
Global Wind Belts (cont.)
  • The third cell, at the highest latitudes, is
    also a convection cell. Air from the poles moves
    toward the equator along Earths surface, and
    warmer air is pushed upward by the cooler air
    near the 60 latitude.

79
Lesson 3-2
Global Wind Belts (cont.)
  • The three cells exist in both the Northern and
    Southern Hemispheres.
  • Most of the air in this convection cell returns
    to the equator near Earths surface.

80
Lesson 3-2
Global Wind Belts (cont.)
  • The Coriolis effect occurs when the rotation of
    Earth causes moving air and water to move to the
    right in the Northern Hemisphere and to the left
    in the Southern Hemisphere.
  • The contrast between high and low pressure and
    the Coriolis effect creates distinct wind
    patterns, called prevailing winds.

81
Lesson 3-2
Global Wind Belts (cont.)
How are air currents on Earth affected by Earths
spin?
82
Lesson 3-2
Global Wind Belts (cont.)
  • The trade winds are steady winds that flow from
    east to west between 30N latitude and 30S
    latitudes.
  • The prevailing westerlies are steady winds that
    flow from west to east between latitudes 30N and
    60N, and 30S and 60S.

83
Lesson 3-2
Global Wind Belts (cont.)
  • The polar easterlies are cold winds that blow
    from the east to the west near the North Pole and
    the South Pole.

What are the main wind belts on Earth?
84
Lesson 3-2
Global Wind Belts (cont.)
  • Located near the top of the troposphere is a
    narrow band of high winds called the jet stream.
  • Jet streams influence weather as they move cold
    air from the poles toward the tropics and warm
    air from the tropics toward the poles.

85
Lesson 3-3
Local Winds
  • Local winds occur whenever air pressure is
    different from one location to another.
  • A sea breeze is wind that blows from the sea to
    the land due to local temperature and pressure
    differences.
  • A land breeze is a wind that blows from the land
    to the sea due to local temperature and pressure
    differences.

86
Lesson 3-3
  • Sea breezes and land breezes are created as part
    of a large reversible convection current.

87
Lesson 3 - VS
  • Wind is created by pressure differences between
    one location and another.
  • Prevailing winds in the global wind belts are
    the trade winds, the westerlies, and the polar
    easterlies.

88
Lesson 3 - VS
  • Sea breezes and land breezes are examples of
    local winds.

89
Lesson 3 LR1
What does the difference in pressure between
areas with low temperatures and those with high
temperatures create?
A. wind B. low pressure C. stability D. the
Coriolis effect
90
Lesson 3 LR2
What term refers to steady winds that flow from
east to west between 30N latitude and 30S
latitudes?
A. prevailing westerlies B. jet streams C. polar
easterlies D. trade winds
91
Lesson 3 LR3
Which type of global winds move cold air from the
poles toward the tropics and warm air from the
tropics toward the poles?
A. trade winds B. jet streams C. prevailing
westerlies D. polar easterlies
92
Lesson 3 - Now
Do you agree or disagree?
5. Uneven heating in different parts of the
atmosphere creates air circulation
patterns. 6. Warm air sinks and cold air rises.
93
Lesson 4 Reading Guide - KC
Air Quality
  • How do humans impact air quality?
  • Why do humans monitor air quality standards?

94
Lesson 4 Reading Guide - Vocab
Air Quality
  • air pollution
  • acid precipitation
  • photochemical smog
  • particulate matter

95
Lesson 4-1
Sources of Air Pollution
  • The contamination of air by harmful substances
    including gases and smoke is called air
    pollution.
  • Point-source pollution is pollution that comes
    from an identifiable source such as large
    factories.
  • An example of natural point-source pollution is
    an erupting volcano.

C. Sherburne/PhotoLink/Getty Images
96
Lesson 4-1
Sources of Air Pollution (cont.)
  • Nonpoint-source pollution is pollution that comes
    from a wide-spread area, such as a large city.
  • Some bacteria found in swamps and marshes are
    examples of natural sources of nonpoint-source
    pollution.

97
Lesson 4-1
Sources of Air Pollution (cont.)
Compare point-source and nonpoint-source
pollution.
98
Lesson 4-2
Causes and Effects of Air Pollution
  • Acid precipitation occurs when sulfur dioxide and
    nitrogen oxides combine with moisture in the
    atmosphere and create acids that fall as
    precipitation.
  • Acid precipitation can be in the form of rain,
    snow, and fog.
  • It affects the chemistry of water in lakes and
    rivers and can harm organisms living in the water.

99
Lesson 4-2
Causes and Effects of Air Pollution (cont.)
  • Natural sources of sulfur dioxide include
    volcanoes and marshes.
  • The most common sources of sulfur dioxide and
    nitrogen oxides are automobile exhausts and
    factory and power plant smoke.
  • Photochemical smog is air pollution that forms
    from the interaction between chemicals in the air
    and sunlight.

100
Lesson 4-2
Causes and Effects of Air Pollution (cont.)
  • Smog forms when nitrogen dioxide, released in
    gasoline engine exhaust, reacts with sunlight.
  • A series of chemical reactions produces ozone and
    other compounds that form smog.
  • Ground-level ozone is the main component of smog.

101
Lesson 4-2
Causes and Effects of Air Pollution (cont.)
How do humans impact air quality?
102
Lesson 4-3
Particulate Pollution
  • Particulate matter is a mixture of dust, acids,
    and other chemicals that can be hazardous to
    human health.
  • Particulate matter in the atmosphere absorbs and
    scatters sunlight, which can create haze.

103
Lesson 4-3
Particulate Pollution (cont.)
particulate from Latin particularis, means of a
part
104
Lesson 4-4
Movement of Air Pollution
  • Because air carries pollution with it, some wind
    patterns cause more pollution problems than
    others.
  • Weak winds or no wind prevents pollution from
    mixing with the surrounding air, which can create
    high pollution levels and dangerous conditions.

105
Lesson 4-5
  • At night, cool air sinks down the mountain sides,
    trapping pollution in the valley below.

106
Lesson 4-5
Maintaining Healthful Air Quality
  • Preserving the quality of Earths atmosphere
    requires the cooperation of government officials,
    scientists, and the public.
  • The Clean Air Act gives the U.S. government the
    power to set air quality standards which protect
    humans, animals, crops, and buildings from the
    harmful effects of air pollution.

107
Lesson 4-5
Maintaining Healthful Air Quality (cont.)
  • Pollution levels are continuously monitored by
    hundreds of instruments in all major U.S. cities.

108
Lesson 4-6
Air Quality Trends
  • Air quality in U.S. cities has improved over the
    last several decades.
  • Ground-level ozone has not decreased much,
    however, because as the number of cars on the
    road increases, air quality standards have not
    kept up with all pollutant levels.

109
Lesson 4-6
  • Pollution emissions have declined, even though
    the population is increasing.

110
Lesson 4-6
Air Quality Trends (cont.)
  • The air inside homes and other buildings can be
    as much as 50 times more polluted than outdoor
    air and can impact human health much more than
    outdoor air quality.
  • Indoor air pollution can come from tobacco smoke,
    cleaning products, pesticides, fireplaces, and
    radonan odorless gas given off by some soil and
    rocks.

111
Lesson 4-6
Air Quality Trends (cont.)
Why do humans monitor air quality standards?
112
Lesson 4 - VS
  • Air pollution comes from point sources, such as
    factories, and nonpoint sources, such as
    automobiles.
  • Photochemical smog contains ozone, which can
    damage tissues in plants and animals.

C. Sherburne/PhotoLink/Getty Images
113
Lesson 4 LR1
What is pollution that comes from a wide-spread
area, such as a large city?
A. smog B. haze C. nonpoint-source
pollution D. point-source pollution
114
Lesson 4 LR2
Which is a mixture of dust, acids, and other
chemicals that can be hazardous to human health?
A. photochemical smog B. acid precipitation C. sul
fur dioxide D. particulate matter
115
Lesson 4 LR3
What describes what has happened to air quality
in U.S. cities over the last several decades?
A. it has declined dramatically B. it has
declined slightly C. it has improved D. it has
remained the same
116
Lesson 4 - Now
Do you agree or disagree?
7. If no humans lived on Earth, there would be no
air pollution. 8. Pollution levels in the air are
not measured or monitored.
117
Chapter Review Menu
Key Concept Summary Interactive Concept
Map Chapter Review Standardized Test Practice
118
The BIG Idea
  • The gases in Earths atmosphere, some of which
    are needed by organisms to survive, affect
    Earths temperature and the transfer of thermal
    energy to the atmosphere.

119
Key Concepts 1
Lesson 1 Earths Atmosphere
  • Earths atmosphere formed as Earth cooled and
    chemical and biological processes took place.
  • Earths atmosphere consists of nitrogen, oxygen,
    and a small amount of other gases, such as CO2
    and water vapor.
  • The atmospheric layers are the troposphere, the
    stratosphere, the mesosphere, the thermosphere,
    and the exosphere.
  • Air pressure decreases as altitude increases.
    Temperature either increases or decreases as
    altitude increases, depending on the layer of
    atmosphere.

PhotoLink/Getty Images
120
Key Concepts 2
Lesson 2 Energy Transfer in the Atmosphere
  • The Suns energy is transferred to Earths
    surface and the atmosphere through radiation,
    conduction, convection, and latent heat.
  • Air circulation patterns are created by
    convection currents.

121
Key Concepts 3
Lesson 3 Air Currents
  • Uneven heating of Earths surface creates
    pressure differences. Wind is the movement of air
    from areas of high pressure to areas of low
    pressure.
  • Air currents curve to the right or to the left
    due to the Coriolis effect.
  • The main wind belts on Earth are the trade
    winds, the westerlies, and the polar easterlies.

122
Key Concepts 4
Lesson 4 Air Quality
  • Some human activities release pollution into the
    air.
  • Air quality standards are monitored for the
    health of organisms and to determine if
    anti-pollution efforts are successful.

C. Sherburne/PhotoLink/Getty Images
123
Chapter Review MC1
Which is the atmospheric layer directly above the
troposphere?
A. stratosphere B. ionosphere C. exosphere D. atmo
sphere
124
Chapter Review MC2
Which describes the air at higher altitudes?
A. more dense B. hot C. layered D. less dense
125
Chapter Review MC3
Which term refers to the transfer of thermal
energy by collisions between particles of matter?
A. conduction B. convection C. radiation D. circu
lation
126
Chapter Review MC4
The contamination of air by harmful substances
including gases and smoke is called what?
A. photochemical smog B. particulate
matter C. air pollution D. ground-level ozone
127
Chapter Review MC5
Which describes air pollution that forms from
interaction between chemicals in the air and
sunlight?
A. acid rain B. photochemical smog C. particulate
matter D. nonpoint-source pollution
128
Chapter Review STP1
Which term refers to water in gaseous form?
A. ozone B. nitrogen C. acid D. water vapor
129
Chapter Review STP2
Which term describes the thin layer of gases
surrounding Earth?
A. ozone layer B. atmosphere C. troposphere D. st
ratosphere
130
Chapter Review STP3
The transfer of energy by electromagnetic waves
is called what?
A. convection B. conduction C. radiation D. circul
ation
131
Chapter Review STP4
Which term refers to the movement of air from
areas of high pressure to areas of low pressure?
A. temperature inversion B. stability C. air
pollution D. wind
132
Chapter Review STP5
Which describes air pollution that comes from an
identifiable source such as large factories?
A. point-source air pollution B. nonpoint-source
air pollution C. photochemical smog D. acid
precipitation
Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
About PowerShow.com