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MEDIEVAL EUROPE

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Title: MEDIEVAL EUROPE


1
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2
MEDIEVAL EUROPE
  • World History

3
LEARNING TARGETS
  • To describe the characteristics of the MEDIEVAL
    PERIOD in world history
  • To explain the RISE of the CHURCH as a dominant
    institution during the medieval times

4
Definitions Medieval Times
  • The period between the Fall of Rome in 476 AD and
    the age of exploration in the 15th Century
  • Also known as the Middle Ages Dark Ages
  • Comes from Latin word medius (middle) and aevum
    (age or period)

5
UPDATING OUR TIMELINE
Age of Exploration
Ancient Period
Fall of Rome
Middle Ages
Western Cvilization Rome and Greece
Dark Ages
476 AD
15th Century
AD
6
WHY WAS IT CALLED THE DARK AGES?
  • What are the characteristics of the dark ages?

7
Characteristics
  • A period of DISORDER and CHAOS
  • A period of BARBARIC INVASIONS burning and
    plundering towns and cities

8
Who were these barbaric groups?
  • Germanic/Teutonic Tribes (ancestors of the
    Germans, Dutch, Swedes, Norwegians, French,
    English, etc.)
  • 1. Goths (Visigoths/Ostrogoths)
  • 2. Vandals, Burgundians, Lombards
  • 3. Franks
  • 4. Angles and Saxons
  • 5. Vikings
  • 6. Magyars
  • 7. Huns

9
Why were they called Barbaric?
  • Most of these tribes were rough and ignorant -
    uncivilized as compared to the citizens of the
    Roman empire
  • Laws were based on superstitious and tribal
    customs
  • They were fierce and warlike still worship gods
    such us Odin (chief Scandinavian god) and Thor
    (god of Thunder)
  • Most couldnt read and write

10
e Western Civilization Begins
11
continuation of characteristics
  • Agricultural activities practically ceased
  • Roads and bridges were ruined
  • Travel became very difficult with robbers
    infesting the highways

12
  • Trade and commerce were seriously affected by the
    chaotic conditions
  • Schools and libraries and temples were destroyed.
  • There was cultural stagnation and social upheaval
    everywhere

13
  • The series of Germanic invasions led to the
    weakening and decline of the Roman Empire
  • The people of Europe needed an institution which
    will serve as a means of SOCIAL CONTROL and
    PROTECTION

14
Thus the Rise of the Church!
  • Emperor Constantine made Christianity the
    official religion of the empire
  • The Roman empires seat of government was then
    transferred to Constantinople (present day
    Turkey) named as THE BYZANTINE EMPIRE headed by
    Emperor Constantine

15
The Western Roman Empire collapses.
The rest of the Roman Empire carries on.
Eventually, we will call it the Byzantine Empire
(but they always called themselves Romans).
16
Brief overview
  • Christianity was introduced throughout the empire
    by the disciples of Christ specifically St. Peter
    (the chief Apostle of Christ), even before the
    fall of Rome.
  • The spread of the belief became widespread
    because the Roman gods could no longer provide
    security, hope and comfort during the dark ages

17
THE RISE OF THE CHURCH(The Roman Catholic Church)
  • Why did it become the dominant institution during
    the medieval period?

18
Dominance of the Church 4 factors
  • It taught that salvation depended on its
    sacraments
  • It had the only strong authority in the empire
  • It controlled education
  • It controlled land ownership

19
  • Medieval people, jaded in the chaos and disorder
    of their societies found little joy in their
    physical world and so they became spiritual.
  • The bishops and priests provided moral guidance
    and practical leadership in the population

20
  • The church fed the poor and took care of the
    sick, the widows and the orphans
  • The people looked up to the church for order,
    authority and help only the church could
    provide at that time

21
The Organization of the Church
  • POPE - office of
    the Papacy
  • CARDINALS
  • ARCHBISHOP
  • BISHOP
  • PARISH PRIEST

Popes were more powerful than Kings The church
was very Hierarchical
22
The church as an organization
  • like that of an empire own system of laws,
    courts and taxes - it collects 10 of all farm
    produce
  • Its clergy is exempt from paying taxes to the
    kings and emperors
  • It gives direction on how men should behave

23
  • The ultimate power of the church was to
    EXCOMMUNICATE to cut a man off from God and
    condemn his soul to eternal torment
  • (recall the movie, Season of the Witch)
  • What were the scenes depicting the authority of
    the Church?

24
  • The medieval churches acquired much land in
    Europe most of these have been donated by rich
    landowners.
  • Many gave land to the church in hopes of
    increasing their chances of being spiritually
    saved.

25
THE MONASTERY
  • A self-supporting organization in support of the
    churchs missionary activities.
  • Served as school, hospital and place of worship-
    run by monks
  • Center of scholarship most of the educated men
    at that time were the church men

26
  • MONASTICISM the way of life of the monks and
    nuns seclusion from the worldly life
  • famous St. Benedict and the Benedictine order
  • We owe our knowledge of the past to the monks
    because they developed a system of writing
    manuscripts and documented the medieval way of
    life

27
RECAP
MEDIEVAL PERIOD
THE DARK AGES
DOMINANCE OF THE CHURCH AS AN INSTITUTION
28
Part 2 MEDIEVAL LIFEFeudalism, Manorialism,
The Castle Knighthood
29
Learning Targets
  • To discuss the feudal set up during the medieval
    times
  • To describe the manorial lifestyle
  • To explain knighthood and chivalry

30
Definitions FEUDALISM
A political, economic, and social system based on
loyalty and military service through a system of
land ownership
A land-based economy the political, economic
and social security of the people is based on
land
31
Feudalism
32
Life in Medieval Europe
Feudal pyramid
Fiefs and peasants What are fiefs
?
Class lines between the upper and lower levels
were clear and sharp
33
THE FEUDAL PYRAMID OF POWER
KING
LAND
LOYALTY AND SERVICE
POWERFUL NOBLES
LAND AND PROTECTION
LOYALTY AND MILITARY SERVICE
LESSER NOBLES (KNIGHTS)
LABOR
PROTECTION
SERFS AND FREEMEN
33
34
Definitions The manorial system
  • MANOR The territorial unit in a feudal society
  • System of landlord-tenant relationship
  • Medieval life was centered on a manor

35
Obligations of the tenants to the lords
  • Gives the large proportion of his harvest to his
    lord
  • Labors 3x a week in the fields
  • Required to build bridges and repair roads for
    the lord
  • Gives farm products to the lord cheese, pork,
    eggs and wood

36
Life in Medieval Europe
The Manor a self-sufficient economic unit
37
III. Life in Medieval Europe
What does fallow mean
e Western Civilization Begins
?
The Manor a self-sufficient economic unit
IMAGINE FARMVILLE
38
III. Life in Medieval Europe
A well-off peasants hut after the invention of
the fireplace
39
III. Life in Medieval Europe
Pieter Brueghel. The Wheat Harvest New York,
Metropolitan Museum
e Western Civilization Begins
40
Growth of Towns
41
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42
THE CASTLE
  • For fortification and protection purposes
  • Usually overlooks the owners farmlands and the
    villages where the serfs live
  • Usually where the lords and nobles live

43
  • The interior of the castle had heavy walls and
    small windows, making them cold, damp and dark.
  • It is equipped with water and emergency food
    supplies to sustain the lord and his family, the
    villagers and the knights and soldiers through
    sieges that often lasted for weeks.

44
III. Life in Medieval Europe
Towns need an economic basis. What is the
basis for this town
?
e Western Civilization Begins
45
Parts of a Medieval Castle
46
Carcassonne A Medieval Castle
47
Definitions Knighthood
  • Knighthood was grounded in the feudal ideal of
    loyalty. A famous medieval profession
  • Composed of high born fighting men or soldiers
    during the middle ages
  • Usually the sons of the nobility and the
    landlords

48
The Road to Knighthood
At age 20, reaches the final phase of his
training, He has to be knighted, takes a bath of
purification And is dressed in a special attire,
prays in the chapel, Kneels before his lord who
hits him with a sword on his shoulder
KNIGHT SQUIRE PAGE
At age 14, he learns how to fight on horseback,
Serves his knight for some years,
accompanying Him in battle
At age 7, he learns horsemanship, care of arms
and armor and trains to be courteous and humble
49
A knight in shining armor!
  • Typical attire of a knight
  • St. Ignatius was once an
  • aspiring knight before
  • he was hit by a canon ball
  • and founded the Jesuits

50
  • Pads worn under the armor to help ease the
    weight. They were called gambesons.

51
  • A helmet of the type worn by knights during the
    crusades. One can see the holes cut in the front.
    This made it easier for the knight to breathe.

52
  • These are two examples of medieval shields made
    of either wood or metal. Normally these would
    have the knight's emblem or family seal on them.

53
  • An example of a more ornate piece of armor, used
    more for show.

54
Medieval weaponry
sword
dagger
mace
55
Definitions Chivalry
  • Chivalry was a system of ideals and social codes
    governing the behaviors of knights and
    gentlewomen.
  • The Code of Chivalry dictated that a Knight
    should be brave and fearless in battle but would
    also exhibit cultured Knightly qualities showing
    themselves to be devout, loyal, courteous and
    generous.

56
IN CONCLUSION
The feudal society was constructed for one
reason security economic and social The
nobles wanted the security of maintaining control
over their far-reaching kingdoms, so they were
forced to delegate power to local control. The
peasants wanted security from marauders and
barbarians from neighboring lands. They also
wanted security from invading armies.
57
THE DARK AGES
DOMINANCE OF THE CHURCH
AFTER THE FALL OF ROME
MEDIEVAL PERIOD
MANORIALISM
KNIGHTHOOD
FEUDALISM
58
Part 3 The Crusades, Bubonic Plague, and
Contributions of the Middle Ages
59
I. CRUSADES
  • SERIES OF HOLY WARS BY WESTERN EUROPEAN
    CHRISTIANS TO RECAPTURE THE HOLY LAND FROM THE
    MUSLIMS (aka Saracens, Turks).
  • FIRST UNDERTAKEN IN 1096 AND ENDED IN THE LATE
    13TH CENTURY

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What was the cause of the Crusades?
  • The City of Jerusalem held a Holy significance to
    the Christian and Muslim religion.
  • Bethlehem, Calvary Hill, etc.

62
  • In 1065 Jerusalem was taken by the Turks and 3000
    Christians were massacred starting a chain of
    events which contributed to the cause of the
    crusades.
  • Supported by Pope Clairmont, Pope Urban and Pope
    Innocent

63
How many crusades were there?
  • A total of 9 including the Childrens crusade
  • For a period of 200 years, Europe and Asia were
    engaged in almost constant warfare

64
What were the effects of the crusades?
  • Increased the wealth and power of the Catholic
    church
  • Cultural exchange among the Europeans and the
    Asians. Asia was introduced to Europe
  • Feudalism weakened
  • Trade and commerce was strengthened

65
  • The crusaders enjoyed the advantages which come
    from travel in strange lands and among unfamiliar
    peoples. They went out from their castles or
    villages to see great cities, marble palaces,
    superb dresses, and elegant manners they
    returned with finer tastes, broader ideas, and
    wider sympathies. 

66
TAKE NOTE
  • The East at the time of the Middle Ages surpassed
    the West in civilization. 
  • The elegance of the Orient, with its silks,
    tapestries, precious stones, perfumes, spices,
    pearls, and ivory, was so enchanting that an
    enthusiastic crusader called it "the vestibule of
    Paradise."
  • http//www.middle-ages.org.uk/the-crusades.htm

67
Issues
  • Christians, not just Muslims were also
    terrorists. Agree? History has it. ?
  • Can the US-led war on terror a modern-day
    crusade? Or
  • Islamic terrorist attacks be likened to the
    medieval crusade?

68
II. BUBONIC PLAGUE
  • 1347 A.D (Lasted 3-4 years)
  • Started in China spread to European Countries
    such as England and Italy through trade routes.
  • 25 million killed Roughly 1/3 of Europe's
    Population.
  • Caused by unsanitary increase in population
    (Rats, Mice, Fleas etc.)
  • Very fast spreading, cruel and inhumane terms of
    treatment (not much they could do but ostracize
    the person ex. Italy, Poveglia).

69
  • The term Bubonic Plague is derived from Greek
    word Bubo swollen gland ? a sign and side
    effect of the sickness.
  • Used in Biological Warfare 1940 Japan
  • Caused by Yesirnia pestis

70
Yersinia pestis
  • Gram- Negative rod-shaped bacterium
  • Three main forms bubonic plagues
  • pneumonic, and
  • septicemic,
  • Facultative anaerobic (Grow best when oxygen is
    present but can grow without. )
  • Discovered in 1894 by Alexandre Yersin epidemic
    in Hong Kong.
  • Family Enterobacteriaceae- other members
    include pathogens, such as Salmonella and
    Escherichia coli

71
The Culprits
72
The Symptoms
Bulbous
Septicemic Formalmost 100 mortality rate.
73
Attempts to Stop the Plague
Leeching
A Doctors Robe
74
What were thepolitical,economic,and social
effectsof the Black Death?
75
3. CONTRIBUTIONS OF THE MEDIEVAL PERIOD
76
1. ARCHITECTURE
  • The BASILICA
  • CHURCH

The Roman basilica is the Greek temple turned
inside out. Arnold Toynbee
77
Medieval architecture
1. The basilica church
The Roman basilica was a political, legal, and
cultural center.
. . . basilica ceilings are wooden
78
Medieval architecture
2. Romanesque Church
The Romanesque church added a heavy, stone
ceiling.
Walls must now be very heavy.
Romanesque ceilings are stone
79
Medieval architecture
2. Romanesque Church
Walls were heavy, but still required buttressing.
80
Medieval architecture
The bell tower is a separate structure in Italian
churches.
2. Romanesque
Pisa Cathedral
81
Medieval architecture
It leans because the foundation is uneven.
2. Romanesque
. . . so is the baptistry!
Pisa Cathedral from the air
82
Medieval architecture
3. The Gothic revolution
new idea
old way
The Romanesque problem not enough light. new
Gothic idea ribbed vaults allow larger
windows.
Ribbed vaults transfer the weight of the roof
from the walls to piers. The stone walls can be
replaced with glass.
83
VI. Medieval architecture
3. The Gothic revolution
L
et there be light! St. Denis choir, whose
rebuilding by Abbot Suger started the Gothic
Revolution
84
3. The Gothic revolution
Rose windows on the side entrances and front
entrance were common in Gothic churches 
85
3. The Gothic revolution
In St. Chapelle, Paris, the walls are no longer
stone.
86
3. The gothic revolution
Paris
Vienna
Chartres
Ribbed vaults, flying buttresses, lots of glass
87
3. The gothic revolution
Gargoyles
88
  • An easy way to recognize a Gothic Church look
    for pointed arches. For reasons not discussed
    here, all gothic arches are pointed.
  • Inhabitants of medieval Europe built hundreds
  • of churches

89
Style identifierWhat style is that medieval
church?
  • Flat ceiling
  • Round arches, stone barrel vaulted ceiling
  • Pointed arches, bigger windows, flying
    buttresses

90
3. The Gothic revolution
Style identifier What style is that medieval
church
?
?
Flat ceiling Round arches, stone barrel
vaulted ceiling Pointed arches, bigger
windows, flying buttresses
Basilica
?
Romanesque
?
Gothic
91
VI. Medieval architecture
Stone castle
92
MEDIEVAL LIFE
93
MOLDBOARD PLOW
Invention of the Middle Ages
The moldboard plow turning the soil upwards and
to the right.
94
Another invention of the Dark Age
The stirrup
95
The horseshoe
96
Eyeglasses
  • Invented in Pisa 13th century
  • By 15th century Italy making thousands spectacles
  • Eyeglasses encouraged invention of fine
    instruments
  • Gauges
  • Micrometers
  • Fine wheel cutters
  • Precision tools

97
Mechanical Clock
  • Undermined Church authority
  • equal hours for day and night a new concept
  • Resisted by the church for a century
  • Every town wanted one
  • Public clocks installed in towers
  • Conquerors seized as spoils of war
  • Allowed individual autonomy
  • Work now measured by time
  • increased productivity

Bern, Switzerland
98
Gunpowder
  • Europeans improved gunpowder to siege castles
  • Europeans focused on range and weight of
    projectiles siege warfare
  • With improved metal casting, made worlds best
    cannon

99
THE DARK AGES
DOMINANCE OF THE CHURCH
AFTER THE FALL OF ROME
MEDIEVAL PERIOD
MANORIALISM
KNIGHTHOOD
FEUDALISM
CRUSADES
BUBONIC PLAGUE
100
REVIEW QUESTIONS
101
1. WHAT SIGNALED THE BEGINNING OF THE MEDIEVAL
PERIOD?
  • FALL OF ROME

102
2. Another term for MEDIEVAL PERIOD
  • Middle Ages and Dark Ages

103
3. Why was it called the DARK AGES?
  • Enumerate the characteristics
  • PERIOD OF CHAOS, DISORDER and BARBARIC INVASION

104
4. WHO WERE THESE BARBARIC GROUPS and WHY WERE
THEY CALLED BARBARIC?
  • Germanic/Teutonic Tribes

105
WHY DID THE ROMAN CATHOLIC CHURCH BECOME A
DOMINANT INSTITUTION?
it provided stability, peace and order, and
salvation of the weary, troubled souls in a
society of constant threat, turmoil and stagnation
106
What was the dominant political, economic and
social system during the middle ages?
  • FEUDALISM

107
Explain how feudalism works
108
Describe the MANOR
109
Who are knights?
110
Why were the crusades launched?
111
What caused the bubonic plague?
112
Cite some contributions of the medieval period.
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