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Medieval Europe

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Medieval Europe S* As the Catholic Church grew in popularity and worshippers, Popes worked to increase the Church s power as a political entity. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Medieval Europe


1
Medieval Europe
2
Defining the Medieval Period
  • The time period has also been called the Middle
    Ages and the Dark Ages

3
Medieval Europe Stages
4
The Fall of the Roman Empire
  • Beginning of the Middle Ages
  • Invasions
  • End of the Roman emperors

5
The Barbarian Invasions
  • From Asia Huns and Magyars
  • From the Germanic north Saxons, Angles, and Goths

Europe in 814
6
Rise of the Germanic Peoples
  • Ostrogoths Italian peninsula
  • Visigoths modern-day Spain
  • Angles and Saxons modern-day Britain
  • Franks central Europe

Invasion of the Goths into the Roman Empire, a
19th-century painting
7
Clovis (466511)
  • Established a Frankish kingdom in central Europe
  • Conquered many competing tribes and regional
    Roman political leaders
  • Converted to Christianity

8
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9
Charlemagne (742814)
  • Powerful leader, strong Christian
  • Created the Carolingian Empire
  • Crowned by Pope Leo III as the first Holy Roman
    Emperor

10
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11
The Vikings
  • Warrior culture from Scandinavia
  • Raided Europe
  • Established settlements throughout Europe and
    even in North America

A Viking longboat
12
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13
Feudalism
  • A political, economic, and social system in which
    land was allocated in exchange for services
    roles and obligations were clearly defined for
    all participants
  • Grew out of Roman practices of clientage/patronage
  • Originally developed as a means of protection and
    defense

A French vassal receiving a feudal grant from the
king
14
Roles in the Feudal System
  • Lord
  • Vassal
  • Fief
  • Manor
  • Serf

Feudal serfs
15
The Feudal Power Relationship
16
Knights
  • Elite military soldiers
  • Usually from the noble classes
  • Stages of training page, squire, knight
  • Chivalry

Statue of a medieval knight
17
The Medieval Tournament
  • Means of practicing military skills

18
Castles
  • Centers of noble life
  • Purposes
  • Intimidation
  • Military defense
  • Residence

Warwick Castle, England
19
Catholic Church Hierarchy
20
The Catholic Church Expands Its Power
  • The Church becomes more of a political entity
  • Struggles with monarchs
  • Gregory VII and Henry IV
  • Expanded land ownership

Henry IV of Germany
Pope Gregory VII
21
The Monastic Movement
  • Became popular in the 5th century
  • Arose as a reaction against the increasing
    worldliness of the Church
  • Monasteries secluded religious communities
  • Benedictine monasticism vows of chastity,
    poverty, obedience

St. Benedict
22
The Inquisition
  • New orders Franciscans and Dominicans
  • The Inquisition special court established by the
    Church to combat heresy
  • Accused heretics sometimes tortured
  • Convicted heretics burned at the stake

A suspected heretic being tortured by the
Inquisition
23
Universities
  • Need for administrators
  • Muslim knowledge, renewed interest in classical
    writings
  • Universitas

A map of medieval European universities
24
France
  • Hugh Capet (938996)
  • Philip II (11801222)
  • Philip IV (12851314)
  • Most powerful kingdom in Europe by the 14th
    century

Hugh Capet
25
England
  • 1066 Norman Invasion
  • William the Conqueror (10271087)
  • Brought feudalism to England
  • Henry II (11541189)
  • Instituted a single common law code, unified
    court system

William the Conqueror
26
Magna Carta (1215)
  • Conflict between King John and the English
    nobility
  • Nobles rebelled against excessive taxation,
    forced King John to sign the Magna Carta in 1215
  • Limited power of the monarch
  • Formal recognition that the king was not above
    the law

A photograph of the Magna Carta
27
Development of Parliament
  • Henry III (12161272)
  • Edward I (12391307)
  • Original parliament
  • House of Lords nobles and church lords
  • House of Commons knights and residents
  • Approved taxes, discussed policies, worked with
    the monarch to make laws

Edward I
28
Italian City-States
  • Many city-states on the Italian peninsula
  • Changed hands often controlled at times by
    Germanic tribes, Byzantines, and the French
  • Rome and the Papal States remained important

Medieval Italy
29
Islam in Europe
  • Islamic forces took control of Spain in the early
    8th century
  • Muslim innovations
  • Agriculture
  • Architecture
  • Math and science

Great Mosque of Córdoba
30
The Reconquista of Spain
  • Muslims ruled the Iberian Peninsula for nearly
    800 years
  • Reconquista Struggle between Christians and
    Muslims to control Spain
  • 7181492
  • King Ferdinand of Aragon and Isabella of Castile

Isabella and Ferdinand
31
The Crusades
Louis IX of France leads crusaders against
Damietta, in Egypt
  • 10951291
  • Goals of the Crusades
  • Convert nonbelievers
  • Eliminate heretics
  • Regain control of the Holy Land from the Muslims

32
Pope Urban II
  • 1095 Pope Urban IIs speech
  • Promised spiritual rewards
  • Thousands responded to the call for religious
    warriors

Pope Urban II calling for the Crusades
33
The First Crusade (10961099)
  • 1096 Mostly French knights
  • Captured Jerusalem in 1099
  • Crusader states
  • Jerusalem taken by Muslim forces under Saladin in
    1187

A depiction of the capture of Jerusalem by
crusaders
34
Other Crusades
  • Major and minor crusades took place between the
    12th and 14th centuries
  • Christians unsuccessful at recapturing the Holy
    Land
  • Popes invoked crusades more often and for
    non-spiritual purposes
  • Legacy of the Crusades
  • Increased trade
  • Religious tensions arose

The Crusade on Constantinople
35
The Late Middle Ages
  • 13001500
  • War
  • Black Death

Battle of Agincourt, 15th century
36
The Hundred Years War Causes
  • The Hundred Years War 13371453
  • Struggles between French and English royal
    families over who would rule either country
  • Conflicts over territory, trade

English ruler Edward III
37
The Hundred Years War Battles
  • England had early victories
  • The French eventually expelled the British from
    mainland Europe
  • English military innovation the archer

The Battle of Crecy, the first major battle of
the Hundred Years War
38
Joan of Arc
  • Heroine of the war
  • Had visions that told her to free France
  • Fought with the army
  • Captured, burned at the stake

Joan of Arc being burned at the stake
39
The Plague
40
Spread of the Plague
  • Started in China
  • Reached Europe in 1347 via a merchant ship on the
    island of Sicily
  • 134748 southern Europe
  • 134950 central Europe and the British Isles

41
Popular Medical Curesfor the Plague
  • Doctors wore strange costumes
  • Bathing in human urine
  • Wearing excrement
  • Placing dead animals in homes
  • Wearing leeches
  • Drinking molten gold and powdered emeralds
  • Burning incense to get rid of the smell of the
    dead

A costume worn by doctors to ward off the Plague
42
Effects of the Plague
  • Killed 2530 million Europeans
  • Undermined faith in religion
  • Economy
  • Culture influenced

43
Architecture
  • Many churches and cathedrals built during the
    Middle Ages
  • Church designs
  • Romanesque cross, nave
  • Gothic ribbed vault, flying buttress, stained
    glass

Chartres Cathedral in France, a prime example of
medieval Gothic architecture
44
Illuminated Manuscripts
  • Manu scriptus
  • Scriptorium
  • Art form

Page from the Book of Kells, 800 CE, scribed by
Celtic monks
45
Legacy of the Medieval Era
  • Transitional period
  • New kingdoms evolved
  • The Church became a dominant force
  • Modern institutions originated
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