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Medieval Western Europe

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Medieval Western Europe. A Quest for Order. Periodization. Early Middle Ages: 500 1000 ... hatred of English and defeated Duke of Burgundy master of 'real politik' ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Medieval Western Europe


1
Medieval Western Europe
  • A Quest for Order

2
Periodization
Early Middle Ages 500 1000 High Middle Ages
1000 1250 Late Middle Ages 1250 - 1500
3
Western Europe. In the Middle Ages
  • The Medieval WorldConversion of Clovis links
    German barbarians with Christianity (496)
  • Problem of Order after collapse of Rome
  • Competing interests single empirereconstitution
    of Rome Christendom under papacy unforeseen
    third optionDynastic States.

4
Europe in the 6c
5
Souces of the Medieval World
  • Memory of the Old Roman Empire
  • Memory of Greco-Roman Civilization
  • Emergence of the Institutional Church
  • Germanic Culture

Beginnings of Europe St. Remi baptizes Clovis
6
The Medieval Catholic Church
  • filled the power vacuum left from the
    collapse of the classical world.
  • monasticism
  • St. Benedict Benedictine Rule of poverty,
    chastity, and obedience.
  • provided schools for the children of the upper
    class.
  • inns, hospitals, refuge in times of war.
  • libraries scriptoria to copy books and
    illuminate manuscripts.
  • monks ? missionaries to the barbarians. St.
    Patrick, St. Boniface

7
The Power of the Medieval Church
  • bishops and abbots played a large part in the
    feudal system.
  • the church controlled about 1/3 of the land
    in Western Europe.
  • tried to curb feudal warfare ? only 40 days a
    year for combat.
  • curb heresies ? crusades Inquisition
  • tithe ? 1/10 tax on your assets given to the
    church.
  • Peters Pence ? 1 penny per person paid by
    the peasants.

8
A Medieval Monks Day
9
A Medieval Monastery The Scriptorium
10
Illuminated Manuscripts
11
Papacy
  • Under Church fathers, early heresy is
    overcomenature of Jesus.
  • Triumph of St. Augustines world view (354-430)
    Civitas Dei
  • Leo I (440-61) and Gregory the Great (590-604)
    elevate position of papacynew converts accept
    papal supremacy.
  • Is Pope superior to Kings?

12
Papacy-2
  • Gelasian Theory
  • Investiture Controvesy
  • Innocent III (1198-1216)
  • Gothic Architecture
  • Scholasticism

13
Romanesque Architectural Style
  • Rounded Arches.
  • Barrel vaults.
  • Thick walls.
  • Darker, simplistic interiors.
  • Small windows, usually at the top of the wall.

14
Gothic Architectural Style
  • Replaced Romanesque
  • Pointed arches.
  • High, narrow vaults.
  • Thinner walls.
  • Flying buttresses.
  • Elaborate, ornate, airier interiors.
  • Stained-glass windows.

Flying Buttresses
15
Cathedral At Chartres Romanesque And Gothic
16
Cathedral at Rheims
17
So Why Doesnt the Papacy Prevail
  • Corruption
  • Babylonian Captivity of the Papacy (1305-1377)
  • Great Schism (1378-1415)
  • Failure of Conciliar Movement (1422-1450)
  • Success of Dynastic States

18
A Quest for a New Rome
  • Collapse of the Merovingian DynastyLes Rois
    Fainéants
  • Coming of the CarolingiansCharles Martel
    Donation of Pepin
  • CharlemagneCrowned 800 as H. R. E.
  • Treaty of Verdun--843

19
Charlemagne 742 to 814
20
Charlemagnes Empire
21
Pope Crowned CharlemagneHoly Roman Emperor Dec.
25, 800
22
The Carolingian Renaissance
23
Carolingian Miniscule
24
Charlemagnes Empire CollapsesTreaty of Verdun,
843
25
Fedualism-Manorialism Response to Collapse of
Carolingian Order
  • Decentralized governmental systemslocal nobles
    defacto rulers--feudalism
  • Reciprocity
  • Localized economies tied to self sufficient
    manors--manorialism

26
Feudalism
A political, economic, and social system based on
loyalty and military service.
27
Carcassonne A Medieval Castle
28
Parts of a Medieval Castle
29
The Medieval Manor
30
Life on the Medieval Manor
Serfs at work
31
Feudal Socio/Political Order
32
Emergence of Dynastic States
  • Success in Western Europeforerunners of England,
    France, and Spain
  • Interference of Papacy deterred evolution of
    more-or-less unitary states in the Italian
    Penensula and the Germanies until the 19th
    century.

33
Anglo-Saxon Heptarchy
34
Alfred the Great (871-899)
  • King of Wessex who wielded power over all of
    Heptarchy
  • Defeated Vikings (Danes)
  • Issued a Code of Laws for all the realm
  • Began the English Navy
  • Commissioned the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle (measure
    of stability)

35
The Rise of European Monarchies England
36
William the ConquerorBattle of Hastings,
1066(Bayeaux Tapestry)
37
William IKing of England (1066-1087)
  • Introduced Norman Feudalism into
    Englandemphasized power of King (Salisbury Oath)
  • Domesday Survey
  • Great Council created out of Witan
  • Curia Regis established
  • Much central authority compared to earlier
    governmental arrangements in England

38
Evolution of Englands Political System
  • Henry I
  • Williams son.
  • set up a court system.
  • Exchequer ? dept. of royal finances.
  • Henry II
  • established the principle of common law
    throughout the kingdom.
  • grand jury.
  • trial by jury.

39
Magna Carta, 1215
  • King John I
  • Runnymeade
  • Great Charter
  • monarchs were not above the law.
  • kings had to consult a council of
    advisors.
  • kings could not tax arbitrarily.

40
The Beginnings of the British Parliament
  • Both tool of nobles and tool of crown
  • 1295Model Parliament under Edward III
    (1272-1307)included all classes of
    representativesNobles, plus Burgesses (towns)
    and Knights of the Shire (Counties).
  • by 1400, two chambers evolved
  • House of Lords ? nobles clergy.
  • House of Commons ? knights and burgesses.

41
Wars of the Roses
  • Long View1399-1485
  • Contingencymight not have been necessary if
    Henry V had lived a long time.
  • ContingencyRichard IIIs image and usurpation
    gave Tudors a chance to press the Lancastrian
    claim.
  • Henry VII not only had to prevail at Bosworth
    Field, he and his descendants had to create
    mythologies and interests that supported a
    nascent nationalism.
  • Dynastic State as alternative to feudal-based
    Civil War.

42
Long View Wars of the Roses
43
The Rise of European Monarchies
France
44
Dynastic State in France
  • Hugh Capet (r. 987-1328) held exclusive title to
    Ile de France.
  • Louis VI (r. 1108-37) added to Capetian lands and
    crushed nobles who resisted.
  • Philip II (r. 1180-1223) was first French King to
    be more powerful than any of his Vassals.
  • Philip IV (r. 1285-1314) intimidated Pope
    Boniface VIII, leading College of Cardinals to
    name a Frenchman Pope.
  • Louis IX (r. 1461-1483) used nationalismhatred
    of English and defeated Duke of Burgundymaster
    of real politik

45
Waning of the Middle Ages
  • Crusades
  • Rise of Towns and Cities
  • Trade
  • End of Scholastic Consensus

46
Pope Urban II Preaching a Crusade
47
Christian Crusades East and West
48
Medieval Universities
49
Oxford University
50
Late Medieval Town Dwellings
51
Medieval Trade
52
Medieval Guilds
Guild Hall
  • Commercial Monopoly
  • Controlled membership apprentice ? journeyman
    ? master craftsman
  • Controlled quality of the product masterpiece.
  • Controlled prices

53
Medieval Guilds A Goldsmiths Shop
54
Crest of a Coopers Guild
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