Foundations of Medieval Europe - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


PPT – Foundations of Medieval Europe PowerPoint presentation | free to download - id: 74ff97-MTgwY


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation

Foundations of Medieval Europe


Foundations of Medieval Europe The German Kingdoms – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:109
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 22
Provided by: Imag102
Learn more at:


Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: Foundations of Medieval Europe

Foundations of Medieval Europe
  • The German Kingdoms

The German Kingdoms
  • During the early Middle Ages, small German
    kingdoms ruled Italy, Gaul, Spain, Britain, and
    North Africa
  • These small kingdoms were constantly at war with
    one another
  • Eventually the Kingdom of the Franks gained
    control of the Western Roman Empire

Roman Influence on Government
  • The form of government used by the German tribes
    was simple compared to what the Romans had used
  • The Germans depended on loyalty of their warriors
    instead of the Roman method of organized
  • The German tribes also had few government
    officials and few taxes

Roman influence on Gov. cont.
  • German laws were based on custom instead of the
    extensive Roman law codes
  • German laws were meant to prevent feuds between
  • Only written laws were lists of fines for
    specific crimes
  • Theodoric, the Ostrogoth King, issued a
    simplified version of Roman law
  • Many German kingdoms kept their customs and
    languages which eventually became modern English

Roman Influence on Gov. cont.
  • The Christian Church preserved some Roman
    traditions in the German kingdoms
  • Some Anglo-Saxons converted to Christianity and
    new Christian communities were set up along Roman
  • German kings relied on the clergy because they
    were the only educated people they had access to

The kingdom of the Franks
  • The Franks emerged as the strongest kingdom in
    the early Middle Ages
  • They lived in present-day Belgium and Germany
  • King Clovis, the cunning, ruthless Frank leader,
    conquered lands from the Pyrenees Mountains to
    central Europe
  • Clovis converted to Christianity

Kingdom of the Franks cont.
  • Clovis converted because he believed that the
    support of the Church in Rome would make him more
    powerful than neighbouring leaders
  • The neighbouring kings were Christians that
    belonged to the Arian sec, one of the earliest
    Christian sects
  • This was seen as a heretic group

Kingdoms of the Franks cont.
  • heretics untrue Christians
  • The Church in Rome and its followers were now
    known as the Roman Catholic Church
  • When Clovis died his lands were divided among his
  • The power of the Franks diminished by the mid

Invasion by the Muslims
  • In the 700s, the German Kingdoms faced invasion
    by the Muslims
  • Muslims followed Islam, a religion founded in the
    Middle East in the 7th century
  • They pushed into Europe through Spain and started
    to push into France
  • Charles Martel, the Frankish Mayor of the Palace
    (the real ruler of the court) rallied the
    Christians against the invaders

Age of Charlemagne
  • After defeating the Muslims, Charles Martel
    founded the Carolingian dynasty
  • He began to organize a strong central government
  • His son Pepin was elected king and his election
    was approved by the pope
  • After Pepin died, his son Charles continued to
    build on his grandfather and fathers strong

Age of Charlemagne cont.
  • During his long reign he impressed his
    contemporaries and earned the name Charlemagne or
    Charles the Great
  • He conquered an empire that reunited most of the
    Western Roman Empire
  • He won lands back from the Muslims in Spain
  • He battled non-Christians in an effort to spread

Age of Charlemagne cont.
  • In 800 Charlemagne was crowned Emperor of the
    Romans by Pope Leo III
  • He was an efficient, energetic ruler
  • He kept firm control over the empire from his
    court at Aachen
  • He recruited officials to carry out his policies
  • His policies were designed to improve government
    and unify the empire

Age of Charlemagne cont.
  • Missi dominici, or lords messengers, checked on
    local nobles who were responsible for justice and
    defense of their own lands
  • Charlemagne helped established uniform laws and
    established judges to upholds those laws

Age of Charlemagne cont.
  • Charlemagne promoted Christianity
  • Supported the work of missionaries who converted
    the Saxons
  • Encouraged the Church to organize parishes or
    rural districts
  • The parishes were each run by a priest
  • In order to support the parishes all Christians
    had to pay a tithe (10 of their income) to the

A Revival of Learning
  • Charlemagne encouraged education by inviting
    scholars from all over Europe to his court
  • An Anglo-Saxon monk named Alcuin, set up a palace
    school to teach Charlemagnes children and the
    children of his nobles
  • Charlemagne issued rules for the education of the
  • He ordered monasteries to establish schools and
    libraries where students could learn Latin

Revival of Learning cont.
  • Monks also were responsible for making copies of
    the bible and the few surviving ancient Greek and
    Roman texts
  • They also developed the art of Illumination and a
    clear written script known as Carolingian
  • Charlemagne strengthened the foundations of
    medieval civilization by encouraging scholarship

A New Wave of Invasions
  • Charlemagne's heirs weakened the empire by
    fighting among themselves
  • In 843, Charlemagnes grandsons drew up the
    Treaty of Verdun that divided the empire into
    three kingdoms
  • The fighting for control over these regions would
    effect events in Europe for 1000 years

Invasions cont.
  • The division of the empire occurred at the same
    time as a new wave of invaders was attacking
  • The Slavs, the Magyars, and the Muslims were
    threats to the empire
  • The biggest threat however was from the Vikings

Invasions cont.
  • The Vikings
  • The Vikings were farmers and traders that came
    from Scandinavia (present day Norway, Sweden, and
  • A growing population is believed to have forced
    them to seek lands in other parts of Europe
  • The king of the Franks gave an area in Northern
    France to some Viking raiders
  • This area is known as Normandy which comes from a
    French word meaning men from the north

Invaders cont.
  • Viking settlements
  • Vikings explored, raided and traded in Eastern
    Europe, Iceland and Greenland
  • In 1000, Lief Ericson travelled to Newfoundland
  • In the 9th century the Vikings occupied part of
    England where they were known as the Danes
  • The area they occuped became known as the Danelaw
    because they lived there under their own laws

Invaders cont.
  • The invasions disrupted life in Western Europe
    but they did not completely destroy all the work
    of Charlemagne
  • The church sent missionaries to convert the
  • Under strong leaders the people of Western Europe
    resisted the invaders