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Germanic and Medieval Europe

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Title: Germanic and Medieval Europe


1
Germanic and Medieval Europe
2
Germanic Rule
  • Trade decreased
  • Cities, bridges, and roads fell into disrepair
  • Law order vanished
  • Education almost disappeared
  • Money was no longer used
  • Life did not extend beyond the village
  • By AD 500the Roman Empire had been destroyed by
    Germanic invasions
  • Many things happened after the Germanic peoples
    took power

3
Germanic Rule
  • Western Europe had become a very backward place
  • The period when the Germanic tribes first took
    over the west is called
  • The Dark Ages,
  • Middle Ages,
  • Medieval Period
  • The era contained elements of Germanic, Roman,
    and Christian cultures

4
Merovingian Rulers
  • AD 400sthe Franks emerged as the most powerful
  • The Franks settled in Gaulmodern day France and
    Western Germany
  • The early Frankish rulers were called Merovingian
    Kings
  • The Merovingian Kings held power until the 700s

5
Merovingian Rulers
  • Clovis
  • 481Became leader of the Franks
  • 496Converted to Christianity
  • He was very strong because of his military
  • Upon his death, his kingdom was divided among his
    sons

6
Clovis
7
Carolingian Rulers
  • Charles Martel
  • 714Charles Martel became Mayor of the Palacethe
    leading government official under the king
  • 732Martel defended France from Muslim invasion
    at the Battle of Tours

8
Charles Martel
9
  • Pepin the Short
  • Pepin was Charles Martels son
  • 741Pepin became Mayor of the Palace
  • Pepin wanted to be king, but he had no royal
    blood
  • He used his influence with the Frankish bishops
    and the Pope to bring about dynastic change

10
  • Pepin the Short
  • The Pope made Pepin king of the Franks
  • Pepin agreed to defend the Catholic Church
    against its enemies
  • 754Pepin helped to drive the Lombards out of
    Rome
  • Pepin received a lot of Lombard land near Rome
  • Pepin gave the land to the Pope
  • The land became the Papal States

11
  • Charlemagne
  • 768Charlemagne became king of the Franks
  • Charlemagne was Pepins son
  • Charlemagne has also been called Charles the
    Great Carolus Magnus
  • His dynasty has been called the Carolingian
    Dynasty

12
  • He increased the size of the empire
  • The kingdom came to include
  • Germany
  • France
  • Northern Spain
  • Most of Italy

13
  • He knew he needed to restore literacy to his
    kingdom
  • He made his royal court into a center of learning
  • By 800, Charlemagnes empire included all of
    civilized Western Europe

14
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15
  • 800Charlemagne traveled to Rome to defend the
    Pope against upset Roman nobles
  • Pope Leo III crowned Charlemagne as Emperor of
    the Romans on Christmas Day
  • His crowning helped to better the relationship
    between the Pope and the Holy Roman Emperor

16
  • Charlemagne used counts to help rule his vast
    empire
  • The counts solved the local problems and helped
    to get soldiers for Charlemagnes army

17
  • Charlemagne personally held his empire together
  • 814Charlemagne dies leaving his son in
    powerLouis the Pious
  • Louis was very weak
  • After Louis death, he left the kingdom to his 3
    sons

18
  • Louis 3 sons constantly fought over control in
    the kingdom
  • 8433 brothers agreed to divide the empire in the
    Treaty of Verdun
  • Charles the BaldWestern Part (France)
  • Louis the GermanEastern Part (Germany)
  • LothairHoly Roman Empire (N. Italy and S.
    Germany)

19
Early Medieval Europe
  • Feudalism dominated early Medieval Europe
  • Feudalism was a highly decentralized form of
    government stressing mutual alliances between
    monarchs and nobles in which land is given away
    in exchange for loyalty and military service
  • Feudalism started in France and moved to other
    parts of Europe in the 1000s

20
  • Feudalism was developed by Charles Martel while
    he was fighting the Muslims
  • Martel noticed the Muslims had an improved
    saddlethe Muslim saddle had stirrups, European
    saddles did not
  • Martel wanted to add the new saddle to his
    military and create a true cavalry
  • He had no money to pay the new soldiers, so he
    gave them land instead

21
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22
  • Feudalism involved 2 people
  • The Lord gave the land away
  • The Vassal received the land
  • The land that is given away is called a fief
  • The vassal had to provide certain services to the
    lord in exchange for the land

23
  • 1.) Provide a certain number of knights
  • Most important duty
  • The vassal would give away his land as payment to
    knights
  • Thus the vassal could become a lord
  • 2.) Serve on the lords court
  • 3.) Provide food and housing if the lord ever
    visited

24
  • 4.) Give to the lord if his son became a
    knight or his eldest daughter became married
  • 5.) Pay the lords ransom if he were ever
    captured

25
  • Most of the obligations were never carried out
  • Most vassals would raise knights not to give to
    the lord, but to fight the lord to get more land
  • Feudalism lack of centralization led to lots of
    war between the lords and vassals
  • The Catholic Churchunsuccessfullytried to limit
    the number of wars with many laws

26
  • Castles
  • Lords were only powerful if they could protect
    themselves
  • They built castles for defense
  • Castles were a complex of different buildings

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31
  • The Nobility
  • Kings
  • Lords
  • Knights
  • Ladies
  • Nobles had easy lives when compared to the
    peasants
  • Their castles were cold, dark, damp, and dreary
    places

32
  • The Nobility
  • Nobles had lots of power in their lands
  • Collect taxes and rent
  • Administer justice
  • Female nobles had very few rights
  • Forced into fixed marriages
  • Could marry at age 12
  • Main dutyto have and raise kids

33
  • The Nobility
  • Noblemen participated in tournaments to keep
    their skills sharp
  • Noblemen also enjoyed hunting, falconry, and
    archery

34
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36
  • Knight Life
  • Knights came from the noble classes
  • 1.) _at_ age 7, training began
  • The boy was a page and learned skills
  • 2.) _at_ 15 the boy became a squire
  • Assists a knight in battle
  • 3.) _at_ 21 the boy became a knight

37
  • The Knight
  • Knights followed a code called chivalry
  • Had to be brave
  • Fight fairly
  • Keep promises
  • Defend the Church
  • Treat noblewomen with respect

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39
  • The Manorial System
  • The nobles were wealthy because of the work the
    peasants were doing
  • The peasants lived on and worked the nobles
    lands
  • Manorial Systeman agricultural system that
    provided both the lord and peasant with food,
    shelter, and protection

40
  • The Manorial System
  • Manors were the lands and buildings that were
    farmed and used by both the lord and the peasants
  • Lords house
  • Pastures and fields
  • Forests
  • Peasant village

41
  • The Manorial System
  • The manors peasants agreed to provide services
    to the lord in return for the lords protection
  • The peasants farmed the land to produce food for
    themselves and the lord
  • The peasants served as the tool
    producersblacksmiths, carpenters, millers, etc.

42
  • The Manorial System
  • The manors had to be self-sufficientmaking
    everything the manor needed
  • Most peasants never left the manor
  • Some peasants were serfssimilar to slaves, but
    they could not be bought or sold

43
  • Agricultural Advances
  • 2 new agricultural improvements occurred in the
    Middle Ages that led to more food production
  • 1.) New Plow
  • Heavier
  • Made deeper cuts in the soil
  • 2.) Three Field System
  • Crop rotation

44
  • Peasant Life
  • Peasants lived very hard lives
  • Life expectancy40
  • Disease and hunger were rampant
  • Housing was small1 room with a dirt floor
  • Rarely ate meat
  • Enjoyed holidayslots of entertainment and food

45
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46
Medieval Church
  • During the Medieval period, the Catholic Church
    proved to be very powerful
  • Catholic Church became the center of life for
    nearly all Western Europeans
  • The primary job of the church was spiritual
  • The church became involved in political social
    issues
  • Interdicts

47
  • Pope most powerful figure in Europe
  • Nearly all of Europe fell under the Popes
    control
  • Everyone was Catholic, giving the Pope control
    over peasants, nobles, and kings

48
  • Baptism
  • Penance
  • Eucharist
  • Confirmation
  • Matrimony
  • Anointing of the sick
  • Holy Orders
  • Way to salvation was by gaining the grace of God
  • To do this, people participated in sacraments
    (ceremonies)

49
  • Most Europeans were very religious even though
    they didnt understand Christianity
  • The mass (church service) was said in Latina
    language that only the clergy (priests)
    understood
  • People learned about Christianity through
    paintings, statues, stained glass

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52
  • 1.) Secular (from Latin word meaning present
    world) Clergy
  • Pope, Bishops, Priests
  • 2.) Regular (from Latin word meaning rule)
    Clergy
  • Monks nuns

53
  • 520St. Benedicts monastery in Italy that had
    strict rules for monks
  • Couldnt marry
  • Couldnt own property
  • Some took vows of silence
  • Monastic Life
  • Monks were very obedient people
  • Clothing was simple- a long, loose robe made from
    dark, wool material
  • 1-2 meals a day
  • Lived in monasteries

54
St. Benedict
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  • Monastic Life
  • Women also participated
  • These women were nuns who lived in convents
  • Known for wearing gown veil

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58
  • Monastic Life
  • Monks nuns were isolated from the rest of the
    people yet played a major role in peoples lives
  • Monks preserved classical Roman and Greek texts
    by hand copying books
  • Monasteries also had schools for children,
    hospitals for the sick, and hotels for travelers

59
  • Power of the Church
  • The Catholic Church was powerful both politically
    spiritually
  • The rich gave to the Church
  • Church became corrupt from the power
  • Church leaders cared less about the people and
    more about

60
  • Church Reform
  • People began to call for reform because the
    Church was too secular
  • A College of Cardinals would choose the Pope
  • 1073the Pope outlawed the Practice of Lay
    Investiturewhen secular rulers appointed Church
    officials
  • 1215 Pope Innocent III tried to reform the
    clergy
  • He condemned drunkenness, feasting, hawking, and
    dancing among the clergy

61
  • The pope stands between God and man, lower than
    God, but higher than men, who judges all and is
    judged by no one.
  • Pope Innocent
    III

62
  • Heretics could be punished or killed
  • Innocent started the Inquisitiona Church court
    designed to find, try, convict, punish heretics
  • 1.)imprisonment
  • 2.)excommunication
  • 3.)taking of property
  • 4.)execution

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64
  • Friarswandering preachersalso attempted church
    reform
  • Franciscans
  • Dominicans

65
Rise of European Monarchies
66
  • During the early medieval period, kings were
    rulers only in name they had very little power
    until the 1100s

67
Medieval England
  • England was repeatedly invaded by Viking tribes
    from the 400s until the 100s
  • Angles, Saxons, Vikings
  • One king was able to help England defend itself
    from Viking invasions in 800s
  • King Alfred the Great (871-899) defeated the
    Vikings
  • Alfred was a learner, opened schools, and hired
    translators to translate books
  • Had a history of England written (Anglo-Saxon
    Chronicle)
  • The Anglo Saxon Chronicle was continuously
    updated for 200 years

68
King Alfred
69
  • 1066 England will be invaded and change hands
    after king dies
  • 3 people claim throne (a Viking, Harold
    Godwinson, William Duke of Normandy)
  • William Duke of Normandy was on who laid claim
  • He was a relative of King Edward and a vassal to
    the King of France
  • Assembled force of 10,000 set sail for England
  • 1066 Battle of Hastings William wins becomes
    the Conqueror or King William I of England

70
  • William sets up new tax system
  • Doomsday Book was a census to count every
    person, farm, town, farm animal, etc. in
    England--a 1st for Europe

71
William the Conqueror
72
  • Henry I (1100-1135) Williams grandson
  • Greatly increased power of the monarch
  • Created system of courts known as Lion of
    Justice
  • Judges from royal court traveled around to
    decide cases (took power from lords)
  • Henry II (1154-1189) grandson of Henry I
  • Establishes common law started trial by jury
  • Henry ran into problems with the Catholic Church
    in England

73
  • Henry appointed friend-Thomas Beckett as
    archbishop of Canterbury
  • Henry does this to get a friend or ally into the
    Church
  • Eventually orders his friend to be murdered.
  • Married Eleanor of Aquitaine
  • Now owns Normandy Aquitaine (thats almost ½ of
    France!!)

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75
  • Henry IIs son King John
  • Loses land to the French
  • John angers people--by raising taxes
  • 1215angry English barons force John to sign
    Magna Carta
  • The Magna Carta was a charter that placed limits
    on the kings power
  • 1.) King couldnt raise taxes without consent of
    the Great Council
  • 2.) Outlawed imprisonment without fair trial

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  • 1200s - middle class that made from business
    not farming
  • Led to a Parliament
  • 1.) House of Lords
  • 2.) House of Commons

78
France
  • France develops strong monarchy
  • Frances govt. will not be like the limited
    monarchy that had been created in England
  • Lands were ruled by different lords who were
    independent of each other
  • 987 Hugh Capet will seize throne of France
  • Capetian Dynasty lasts 300 years

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  • As the French monarchs became more powerful, the
    number of French nobles decreased
  • Gave towns the right to govern themselves--towns
    no longer under feudal obligations
  • Royal courts exert power over local lords courts
  • Only king could mint coins
  • Even taxed the clergy
  • Banned private wars certain weapons

81
Holy Roman Empire
  • The HRE (modern day Germany) stayed very weak
  • The HRE was heavily entangled in the politics of
    the Pope and Rome
  • 962 Pope asked Otto for help named Otto
    Emperor of the Romans
  • HRE could approve or disapprove the election of
    popes
  • HRE could depose popes while the pope could
    depose kings--a struggle over who had real power
    will develop

82
  • 1073 Pope Gregory VII outlaws lay
    investiture--kings appointing the clergy
  • Emperor Henry IV refused to follow this
  • Pope Gregory excommunicated Henry
  • Gregory tries to get nobles to select another
    ruler
  • Upon this, Pope excommunicated and deposed Henry
  • Henry gives in to the Pope goes to Rome to
    repent
  • Concordat of Worms
  • HRE was allowed to choose bishops and give
    bishops land
  • The pope, however had the power to disapprove
    unworthy candidates
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