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The Early Cold War: 1947-1970

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The Early Cold War: 1947-1970 De-Stalinization Hungary 1945-1955, 2000 enemies executed Over 300,000 purged from intellectual, other leadership roles 100,000 in ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Early Cold War: 1947-1970


1
The Early Cold War 1947-1970
2
Part I Reconstruction and Confrontation
3
The Ideological Struggle
Soviet Eastern Bloc Nations Iron Curtain
Vs.
US the Western Democracies
4
Different Ideologies
  • Espionage KGB vs. CIA
  • Arms Race
  • Ideological Competition
  • Bi-Polarization of Europe

5
The Iron Curtain
From Stettin in the Balkans, to Trieste in the
Adriatic, an iron curtain has descended across
the Continent. Behind that line lies the ancient
capitals of Central and Eastern Europe.
-- Sir Winston Churchill, 1946
6
Truman Doctrine 1947
Greece, Turkey The U. S. should support free
peoples throughout the world who were resisting
takeovers by armed minorities or outside
pressuresWe must assist free peoples to work out
their own destinies in their own way. The U.S.
gave Greece and Turkey 400 million in aid to
keep it safe from communism
7
Marshall Plan 1948
European Recovery Program George Marshall The
U. S. should provide aid to all European nations
that need it. This move is not against any
country or doctrine, but against hunger, poverty,
desperation, and chaos.
8
Post-War Germany
9
Berlin Blockade Airlift (1948-49)
10
North Atlantic Treaty Organization (1949)
  • United States
  • Belgium
  • Britain
  • Canada
  • Denmark
  • France
  • Iceland
  • Italy
  • Luxemburg
  • Netherlands
  • Norway
  • Portugal
  • 1952 Greece Turkey
  • 1955 West Germany
  • 1983 Spain

11
Warsaw Pact (1955)
U. S. S. R. Albania Bulgaria Czechoslovakia
East Germany Hungary Poland Romania
12
Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev
About the capitalist states, it doesn't depend
on you whether we (Soviet Union) exist. If you
don't like us, don't accept our invitations,
and don't invite us to come to see you. Whether
you like it our not, history is on our side. We
will bury you. -- 1956
De-Stalinization Program
13
De-Stalinization
  • Ended forced labor
  • Khrushchev denounced dictatorial rule
  • 1956-1961Stalins name removed from cities,
    buildings, projects
  • Stalins body removed from Lenins tomb

14
Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty
15
The Hungarian Uprising 1956
Imre Nagy, Hungarian Prime Minister Removed state
controls on speech Wanted free elections, no
Warsaw Pact
16
Hungary
  • 1945-1955, 2000 enemies executed
  • Over 300,000 purged from intellectual, other
    leadership roles
  • 100,000 in labor camps
  • 1956 Nagy removed by Soviets
  • Major show of force by Soviet army
  • 250,000 flee Hungary, repression

17
Sputnik I (1957)
The Russians have beaten America in spacethey
have the technological edge!
18
Soviet Space Advances
  • 1957 Laika
  • First death in space

19
Nixon-Khrushchev Kitchen Debate (1959)
Things that matter, instead of luxury.
20
U-2 Spy Incident (1960)
  • 1960
  • Surveillance, shot down
  • Well-planned by US but failed
  • PR coup by Soviets
  • 2 weeks before East/West summit

21
Khruschev Embraces Castro, 1961
22
Bay of Pigs Debacle (1961)
23
1961
  • Informal discussion
  • Bay of Pigs, disaster for US
  • Kennedy must act as if the US is at a
    disadvantage

24
The Berlin Wall Goes Up (1961)
Checkpoint Charlie
25
Cuban Missile Crisis (1962)
26
Cuban Missile Crisis (1962)
Show film clip Cuban Missile Crisis
27
Cuban Missile Crisis (1962)
We went eyeball-to-eyeball with the Russians, and
the other man blinked!
28
Ich bin ein Berliner! (1963)
President Kennedy tells Berliners that the West
is with them http//www.youtube.com/watch?vGK907
TwM7q0
29
Prague Spring (1968)
Former Czech President, Alexander
Dubcek http//www.youtube.com/watch?v-4WdrbahQqs
featurerelated
30
Prague Spring Dashed!
31
4th French Republic 1945-1958
  1. Democratic, but politically unstable
  2. Universal suffrage.
  3. Weak President powerful legislature
  4. Many political parties coalition governments
  5. Indochina.
  6. Suez War.
  7. Algerian Crisis.

32
5th French Republic (1958-Present)
  1. Powerful President. first Charles DeGaulle
  2. Weak Cabinet
  3. Weakened legislature.
  4. Separation of powers.

33
Student Riots in Paris (May 1968)
34
Clement Attlee the Labor Party 1945-1951
  1. Limited socialist program modern welfare state.
  2. Nationalization of industry
  3. Socialized medicine

35
Clement Attlee the Labor Party 1945-1951
  • Britain is in a big debt
  • The beginning of the end of the British Empire.
  • India 1947
  • Palestine 1948

36
Churchill Returns 1951-1955
He never tried to destroy the welfare state
established by Attlees government.
37
The Federated Republic of Germany
  • Created in 1949
  • Limited army, US will protect
  • Konrad Adenauer
  • Pro-Western foreign policy.
  • German economic miracle.

38
Italy After WW II
Coalition governments short and unstable!
39
Part II European Union
40
European Economic Integration
  • 1947 ? General Agreement on Tariffs and
    Trade GATT

41
European Economic Integration
  • 1952 ? European Coal Steel Community
    ECSC.
  • Inner Six
  • Coal and steel

42
European Economic Integration
  1. 1957 ? European Economic Community
    EEC

43
European Economic Integration
  • 4. 1957 ? European Economic Community
    EEC
  • Created a larger free trade area, or customs
    union.

44
European Economic Integration
  • 5. 1967 ? combined the ECSC EEC to form the
    European Community EC.
  • HQ ? Brussels.
  • European Parliament.

45
European Economic Integration
  • 6. 1991-92 ? Maastricht Agreements
  • European Union EU created from the EC.
  • One currency, one culture, one social area, and
    one environment!
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