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Title: INTERACTIONS 1914 - Present


1
INTERACTIONS1914 - Present
  • WAR
  • DIPLOMACY

2
DRIFT TOWARDS WAR
  • Slavic Nationalism
  • Pan-Slavism stressed unity of Slavs under Russia
  • In Turkey Bulgars, Macedonians sought
    independence
  • Austrian Slavs independence or rights within
    Austria
  • Hungarian Slavs unification with independent
    Serbia
  • Germany backed Austria-Hungary
  • Anglo-German Rivalry
  • Naval race between Germany, Britain increased
    tensions
  • German industrialization threatened British lead
  • Colonial disputes of the late nineteenth century
  • Germany sought colonies at others expense
  • France, Germany nearly fought over Morocco in
    1905
  • Balkan wars (1912-13) strained diplomatic
    relations
  • France, UKGB, Russia came together to oppose
    Germany
  • Public opinion supported national rivalries
  • Attitudes of patriotism among European citizens
  • Leaders under pressure to be aggressive, to take
    risks

3
COLONIAL EMPIRES, c. 1914
4
ALLIANCES WAR PLANS
  • Rival systems of alliance
  • Obligated allies to come to one another's defense
  • Included all great powers and many lesser powers
  • Even included Japan
  • The Central Powers
  • Germany, Austria-Hungary formed a Dual Alliance
    1879
  • In fear of France, Italy joined, now Triple
    Alliance
  • Ottoman Empire, Bulgaria, Rumania affiliated with
    Germany
  • The Allies
  • Britain, France, Russia formed the Triple
    Entente, or Allies
  • Shifting series of treaties ended with a military
    pact, 1914
  • Belgium, Serbia linked to Allies
  • War plans each power poised and prepared for war
  • Military leaders devised inflexible military
    plans
  • France's Plan focused on offensive maneuvers and
    attacks
  • Germany's plan swiftly defeat France, then
    Russia
  • Neutrals were not to be respected
  • Wars were to be swift and over by Christmas

5
WORLD WAR I BEGINS
  • The guns of August - June 1914 Countries race
    towards war
  • The Western front
  • Stalemate caused by new weapons
  • Bloodletting long, costly battles
  • New technologies favored defensive tactics over
    offensive tactics
  • Armored tanks used to break down trenches toward
    end of the war
  • Airplanes used mainly for reconnaissance
  • Submarines
  • Used especially by Germans against Allied
    shipping
  • Unrestricted warfare against all vessels to
    isolate Great Britain
  • On the eastern front
  • Battle lines more fluid
  • Russians gradually overrun by Germans, Austria
  • New rules of engagement
  • Civilians became targets of enemy military
    operations
  • Air raids against civilians naval blockades
    common
  • Total war the home front
  • On the home front the economy mobilized to the
    war effort
  • Women served the war by entering the workforce

6
WORLD WAR I OUTSIDE OF EUROPE
  • British, French forces used colonials as troops,
    bearers
  • FR Senegalese troops at Marne, Vietnamese
    bearers used
  • UK Indian troops in SW Asia, African bearers
  • Australia, New Zealand, Canada heavily involved
  • Asia-Pacific
  • Japan entered war with Allies to get German
    holdings in area
  • The Twenty-One Demands
  • Japan advanced its imperial interests in China
  • 21 Demands were designed to reduce China to
    Japanese protectorate
  • Britain intervened, prevented total capitulation
    of China to Japan
  • Sub-Saharan Africa
  • Allies targeted the four German colonies in
    Africa
  • Togoland fell quickly, but not the others long,
    protracted warfare
  • Many Allied soldiers and workers died from
    tropical diseases
  • The Ottoman Empire and SW Asia
  • Battle of Gallipoli, 1915, in Ottoman Turkey
  • British decided to strike at the weakest Central
    Power, the Ottomans
  • Battle of Gallipoli a disaster, with 250,000
    casualties on each side
  • The Ottoman empire lost ground after Gallipoli

7
END OF THE WAR
  • Russia
  • 1917 February or Democratic Revolution in Russia
  • Uprising against shortages, mounting deaths in
    the war
  • Facing mutinies, Nicholas II abdicated
  • Struggle for power between provisional
    government, soviets
  • New government passed many liberal reforms
  • Did not undertake land reform, did not withdraw
    from the war
  • V. I. Lenin (1870-1924) stepped into unstable
    situation
  • A revolutionary Marxist, exiled in Switzerland
  • Saw importance of a well-organized, disciplined
    party for revolution
  • 1917 October or Communist Revolution
  • Minority Bolsheviks gained control of Petrograd
    soviet
  • Bolsheviks' slogan "Peace, Land, and Bread"
    appealed to workers, peasants
  • Russia withdrew from war, made a separate peace
    with Germany
  • U.S. intervention
  • United States under President Woodrow Wilson
    officially neutral
  • American public opposed to participation but U.S.
    sold supplies, gave loans
  • By 1917, Allied ability to repay loans depended
    on Allied victory
  • The submarine warfare helped sway American public
    opinion

8
PARIS PEACE COFERENCE, 1919
  • Wilson's 14 Points proposal for a just and
    lasting peace
  • Free trade, rights for colonials,
    self-determination, association of nations
  • Most rejected by Allies Central Powers
    surrendered based on them
  • Results of War
  • Great War killed fifteen million people, wounded
    twenty million
  • Set stage for decolonization after World War II
  • Economic crises inflation, debt, loss of
    investments, foreign markets
  • Economic relationship between Europe, US United
    States now creditor
  • Loss of prestige overseas weakened European grip
    on colonies
  • Paris settlement was dominated by Britain,
    France, United States
  • Twenty-seven nations with conflicting aims
    participated Peace dictated
  • Leaders of Central Powers and Soviet Union not
    included
  • The Peace Treaties, 1919
  • French insisted on destroying German military
  • Central Powers forced to accept war guilt and pay
    reparations for cost of war
  • Austria, Hungary separated, reduced new states
    added to eastern Europe
  • Overall, the peace settlement was a failure left
    a bitter legacy
  • Self-determination for ethnic nationalities
  • Basis for redrawing map of Eastern Europe
    Difficult to draw lines

9
LEAGUE OF NATIONS
  • The League of Nations created to maintain world
    peace
  • Forty-two members, twenty-six of them outside
    Europe
  • Dominated by UK, France and used as force against
    Germany
  • The league had no power to enforce its decisions
  • League could only
  • Make suggestions
  • Impose sanctions
  • Blockades
  • Collective security depended on all major powers
  • Powers Left Out
  • United States never joined
  • USSR ignored
  • Germany not invited for some time
  • The mandate system
  • United States opposed direct colonization
  • Allies proposed system of trusteeships
  • France, United Kingdom benefited most
  • Created from German colonies, Ottoman territories
    in S.W. Asia
  • Idealistic Attempts

10
LEAGUE OF NATIONS
11
INTERWAR DIPLOMACY
  • Japan
  • Global conflict began with Japanese invasion of
    Manchuria, 1931
  • League of Nations condemned action Japan simply
    withdrew from league
  • 1937, Japan launched full-scale invasion of China
  • 1937 War In China Resumed
  • Nationalists and communists formed "united front"
    against Japanese
  • Unable to effectively work together, they
    conducted guerilla attacks
  • Japan, Germany, Italy ally 1940 neutrality pact
    with USSR, 1941
  • European aggression
  • Italy after the Great War
  • Italians felt slighted at the Paris Peace
    Conference
  • Mussolini promised national glory, empire
  • Invaded Ethiopia (1935-1936), killed 250,000
    Ethiopians annexed Albania
  • Germany deep resentment at Treaty of Versailles
  • Harsh terms reparations, economic restrictions,
    depression helped Nazis
  • Hitler blamed Jews, communists, liberals for
    losing war, Versailles Treaty
  • After 1933, Hitler moved to ignore terms of peace
    settlement
  • Withdrew from League, 1933 Rebuilt military, air
    force reinstated draft
  • Militarized Rhineland, 1936 Austria, 1938
    France and Britain did nothing

12
WORLD WAR II AXIS 1939 - 1942
  • Blitzkreig Germany conquers Europe
  • Strategy of a "lightening war" unannounced,
    surprise attacks
  • Conquests 1939 - Poland 1940 - France, Norway,
    Denmark, Low Countries
  • Battle of the Atlantic pitted German submarines
    against British convoys
  • The battle of Britain was a British victory
    against the German airforce
  • Germans, British, Italians fight see-saw war in
    the deserts of North Africa
  • The German invasion of the Soviet Union
  • 1941 Germany conquers the Balkans, invades USSR
    in June 1941
  • Blitzkrieg strategies less effective in Russia
  • Hitler underestimated Soviet industrial capacity
  • Russian winter caught German troops ill-prepared
  • Germans stalled at Battle of Stalingrad
  • U.S. support of the Allies before Pearl Harbor
  • Roosevelt sold and then "loaned" arms and war
    material to the British
  • Later supplied the Soviets and the Chinese
  • Japanese expansion
  • Continued into southeast Asia Indochina,
    1940-1941
  • United States responded by freezing Japanese
    assets, implementing oil embargo
  • Demanded withdrawal from China and southeast Asia

13
WORLD WAR II 1942 - 1945
  • Impact of Soviet Union and U.S. entry in 1941
  • USSR brought vital personnel and USA industry to
    Allies
  • Russia fielded 350 divisions against the German
    130
  • Germany forced to fight a two front war
  • German subs sank 2,452 merchants ships, but U.S.
    shipyards built more
  • Allied victories came after 1943
  • Russians defeated the Germans at Stalingrad,
    pushed them back
  • 1944, British-U.S. troops invaded North Africa
    and then Italy
  • June 1944, British-U.S. forces invaded northern
    France at Normandy
  • Overwhelmed Germans on coast of Normandy, 6 June
    1944
  • Round-the-clock strategic bombing by Allies
    leveled German cities
  • Germans surrendered unconditionally 8 May 1945
    Hitler committed suicide
  • Turning the tide in the Pacific
  • The Battle of Midway, June 1942 United States
    broke Japanese code
  • Island-hopping strategy moving to islands close
    to Japan for air attacks
  • US launched unrestricted submarine warfare
    against Japanese empire
  • British invade Japanese empire through Burma, SE
    Asia
  • Chinese nationalists, communists tie down 2
    million Japanese troops
  • Savage fighting on islands of Iwo Jima and
    Okinawa

14
WORLD WAR II ALLIANCES
15
HOME FRONTS
  • Occupation, collaboration, and resistance
  • Patterns of occupation varied
  • Japanese conquests puppet governments,
    independent allies, or military control
  • German conquests racially "superior" people
    given greater autonomy
  • Both Japan, Germany exploited conquered states,
    peoples
  • Slave labor conscripted from conquered
    populations to work in factories
  • Labor conscripted from Poles, Soviets, Balkans,
    also Chinese and Koreans
  • Many local people accepted, collaborated with
    occupying forces
  • In Asia, Japanese domination not much different
    from European domination
  • Others aided conquerors to gain power in new
    administration
  • Anticommunism led some in western Europe to join
    the Nazi SS troops
  • Resistance to occupation took many forms
  • Active resistance sabotage, assaults,
    assassination
  • Passive resistance as well intelligence
    gathering, refusing to submit
  • Resistance in Japan and Germany was dangerous and
    rare
  • Occupation forces responded to resistance with
    atrocities
  • Brutal reprisals to acts of resistance by both
    Germans and Japanese
  • Despite retaliation, resistance movements grew
    throughout the war
  • Women and the war

16
SETTLEMENTS COLD WAR
  • Soviet Union and United States vied for
    nonaligned nations
  • War left millions of casualties and refugees
  • At least sixty million people died in WWII,
    highest in Soviet Union and China
  • Eight million Germans fled west to British, U.S.
    territories to escape Soviet army
  • Twelve million Germans and Soviet prisoners of
    war made their way home
  • Survivors of camps and three million refugees
    from the Balkans returned home
  • The origins of the cold war (1947-1990)
  • Unlikely alliance between Britain, USSR, USA held
    up for duration of war
  • Not without tensions Soviet resented
    U.S.-British delays in European invasion
  • Postwar settlement established at Yalta and
    Potsdam
  • Each Allied power to occupy and control
    territories liberated by its armed forces
  • Stalin agreed to support United States against
    Japan
  • Stalin's plans prevailed Poland and east Europe
    became communist allies
  • President Truman took hard line at Potsdam,
    widened differences
  • Postwar territorial divisions reflected growing
    schism between USA, USSR
  • Soviets took east Germany, while United States,
    Britain, and France took west Germany
  • Berlin also divided four ways by 1950 division
    seemed permanent
  • Churchill spoke of an "iron curtain" across
    Europe, separating east and west
  • Similar division in Korea Soviets occupied north
    and United States the south

17
COLD WAR IN EUROPE
  • Postwar Europe
  • Divided into competing political, military,
    economic blocs
  • NATO, European Economic Communities
  • Warsaw Pact, COMECON
  • Neutral European Free Trade Association
    Yugoslavia
  • Western Europe
  • U.S. allies supported by permanent presence of
    American army
  • Parliamentary governments, capitalist economies
  • Eastern Europe
  • Dominated by Soviet Union, Red Army, secret
    police
  • Communist governments modeled after USSR dominate
    countries
  • Germany divided east and west in 1949
  • Soviets refused to withdraw from eastern Germany
    after World War II
  • Allied sectors reunited 1947-1948, Berlin
    remained divided as well
  • Berlin blockade and airlift, 1948-1949
  • Soviet closed roads, trains, tried to strangle
    West Berlin into submission
  • Britain and United States kept city supplied with
    round-the-clock airlift
  • Soviets backed down and ended blockade
  • The Berlin Wall, 1961

18
UNITED NATIONS, 1945
19
COLD WAR ALLIANCES
WARSAW PACT ORGANIZATION COMECON
NORTH ATLANTIC TREATY ORGANIZATION
CENTRAL TREATY ORGANIZATION
S.E. ASIAN TREATY ORGANIZATION
ORGANIZATION OF AMERICAN STATES
20
THE COLD WAR WORLD, c. 1982
21
COLD WAR CONFLICT
  • The Korea War, 1951-1953
  • Korea divided at 38th parallel U.S. ally in
    south, Soviet ally in north
  • North Korean troops crossed 38th parallel and
    captured Seoul, June 1950
  • U.S. and UN troops pushed back North Korean
    troops to Chinese border
  • Chinese troops came in, pushed U.S. forces,
    allies back in the south
  • Both sides agreed to a cease-fire in July 1953,
    again at 38th parallel
  • Globalization of containment
  • Western fears of international communism must be
    contained
  • Creation of SEATO, an Asian counterpart of NATO
  • Domino theory" if one country falls to
    communism, others will follow
  • Cuba nuclear flashpoint
  • Fidel Castro establishes guerrilla force in
    mountains, 1953
  • Overthrew dictator Batista in 1959
  • Castro declared that his government would be
    socialist, angers USA
  • Castro seized U.S. properties, killed, exiled
    political opponents
  • United States cut off Cuban sugar imports,
    imposed export embargo
  • Castro accepted Soviet economic aid and arms
    shipments
  • Bay of Pigs fiasco, April 1961
  • CIA-sponsored invasion of Cuba failed

22
DÉTENTE DECLINE OF BIPOLAR WORLD
  • Era of cooperation
  • Leaders of both superpowers agreed on policy of
    détente, late 1960s
  • Exchanged visits and signed agreements calling
    for cooperation, 1972, 1974
  • Concluded Strategic Arms Limitations Talks
    (SALT), 1972, again 1979
  • Demise of détente
  • Full U.S.-China diplomatic relations in 1979
    created U.S.-USSR strain
  • U.S. weapons sale to China in 1981 undermined
    U.S.-Soviet cooperation
  • 1980 Soviet intervention in Afghanistan prompted
    U.S. economic sanctions
  • U.S. defeat in Vietnam
  • 1950s, United States committed to support
    noncommunist government in South Vietnam
  • U.S. involvement escalated through 1960s
  • United States and allies unable to defeat North
    and South Vietnamese communists
  • President Nixon pledged in 1968 to end war with
    Vietnam
  • U.S. troops gradually withdrew U.S. phase of war
    ended in 1973
  • North Vietnam continued war effort, unified the
    nation in 1976
  • Soviet setbacks in Afghanistan
  • Afghanistan had been a nonaligned nation until
    1978, pro-Soviet coup
  • Radical reforms in 1978 prompted backlash
  • Islamic leaders objected to radical social
    change, led armed resistance

23
END OF COLD WAR
  • Revolution in east and central Europe
  • Moscow's legacies
  • After World War II, Soviets had credibility for
    defeating Nazis
  • Communism unable to satisfy nationalism in
    eastern and central Europe
  • Soviet-backed governments lacked support and
    legitimacy
  • Soviet interventions in 1956 and 1968 dashed
    hopes of a humane socialism
  • Mikhail Gorbachev, Soviet leader 1985-1991
  • 1989, Gorbachev announced restructuring of USSR,
    withdrawal from cold war
  • Satellites states informed that each was on its
    own, without Soviet support
  • Rapid collapse of communist regimes across
    eastern and central Europe, 1989
  • In Poland, Solidarity leader Lech Walesa won
    election of 1990
  • Communism overthrown peacefully in Bulgaria and
    Hungary
  • Czechoslovakia's "velvet revolution" in 1990,
    divided into Czech Republic, Slovakia
  • Only violent revolution was in Romania ended
    with death of communist dictator
  • East Germany opened Berlin Wall in 1989 two
    Germanys were united in 1990
  • The collapse of the Soviet Union
  • Gorbachev's reforms
  • Gorbachev hoped for economic reform within
    political and economic system
  • Centralized economy inefficient, military
    spending excessive

24
GUERRILLA STRUGGLES
  • Definition
  • Small trained groups conduct military operations
  • Targets associated with government, economy
  • Avoid conflict with larger, regular military
    forces
  • Inspiration
  • Nationalism
  • Political Independence
  • Political Ideology
  • Religion
  • Previous Historical Examples
  • Dutch against Spanish, late 16th and early 17th
    century
  • Americans against British, late 18th century
  • Spanish against Napoleon, early 19th century
  • Russians against Napoleon, early 19th century
  • Boers against British in Boer War, late 19th
    century

25
GUERRILLA MOVEMENTS VIETNAM
  • Indochina was a French colony
  • Nationalist movements arrested by French
  • Model aims after Chinese nationalist parties
  • In 1940, Japanese occupy area in agreement with
    Vichy French
  • 1945 1959
  • Ho Chi Minh founds Vietnamese Communist Party
  • Fought French, Japanese in World War II
  • Declared Vietnam independent in 1945
  • French decided to reassert colonial rule
  • Viet Minh defeated French 1954 Dien Bien Phu
  • Vietnam partitioned at 17th parallel
  • 1959 1975
  • US assumes roll of aid to anti-communist south
  • Viet Cong wage war against corrupt South
    Vietnamese state
  • Communist guerrilla movements in Laos, Cambodia,
    too
  • US troops reach 300,000 but cannot win war
  • 1968 Tet Offensive broke Viet Cong, US will to
    win
  • US eventually withdraws, South fights loosing
    battle
  • North Vietnam takes control of South in 1975

26
RELIGIOUS GUERRILLA MOVEMENTS
  • Iran 1953 1979
  • Shah Reza Pahlavi
  • Modernization equals westernization export of
    oil, military take top priority
  • Ruled with secret police, tyranny
  • Violent clashes between protestors, police
  • Ayatollah Khomeni
  • Traditionalist movement unites opposition ousts
    Shah in 1979
  • Established Muslim fundamentalist state
  • Takes US diplomats hostage in 1979, released 1981
  • Actively sponsors Muslim terrorist groups abroad
  • HAMAS Palestine FPLO Radical branch of the PLO
  • Hezbollah Lebanon Shites Islamic Jihad
  • Afghanistan 1979 2002
  • 1979 USSR invades to support pro-Soviet
    government
  • Mujahidin forces fight until 1989
  • Communist regime collages 1992 after Soviets
    withdraw troops
  • 1996 Taliban Islamic Fundamentalist militia take
    control
  • Anti-western anti-women anti-democracy
  • Attacks images of west, non-Islamic culture (blew
    up Buddha statues)

27
INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS
  • Post-1945
  • Era of international cooperation
  • Many global problems cannot be solved by national
    governments
  • Nongovernmental organizations (NGOs)
  • Red Cross, an international humanitarian agency,
    founded 1964
  • Greenpeace, an environmental organization,
    founded in 1970
  • Amnesty International and Human Rights Watch
  • The United Nations
  • Founded 1945 "to maintain international peace and
    security"
  • Security Council
  • Permanent Veto Nations UK, US, France, Russia,
    China
  • Not successful at preventing wars, for example,
    Iran-Iraq war
  • Often can diffuse tense situations
  • General Assembly
  • Each nation has one vote poor, 3rd world nations
    dominate
  • Cannot legislate, but has influence in
    international community
  • Often used as a sounding board for world
    concerns, ignored by West
  • ECOSOC, UN Commission of Refugees, WHO
  • More successful in health and educational goals

28
GENOCIDES
  • Types of Murder
  • Genocide Killing of a specific group of people,
    attempt to wipe out
  • Democide Mass murder of people by government
  • Ethnic Cleansing Term common when one group
    attacks, kills another
  • Armenian Holocaust
  • First genocide of 20th century
  • Turks killed 1.5 million Armenians for their
    support of Russians in World War I
  • The Holocaust
  • Long history of anti-Semitism
  • Created tolerance of Nazi's anti-Jewish measures
  • At first Nazis encouraged Jewish emigration
  • Many Jews were unable to leave after Nazis took
    their wealth
  • Nazi conquest of Europe brought more Jews under
    their control
  • The "final solution"
  • Began with slaughter of Jews, Gypsies,
    undesirables in Soviet Union
  • By 1941, German special killing units had killed
    1.4 million Jews
  • By 1942 Nazis evacuated all European Jews to
    camps in east Poland
  • Jewish resistance
  • Will to resist sapped by prolonged starvation,
    disease

29
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