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The Cold War

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The Early Cold War: 1947-1970 Ms. Susan M. Pojer Horace Greeley HS Chappaqua, NY – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Cold War


1
The Early Cold War 1947-1970
Ms. Susan M. Pojer Horace Greeley HS
Chappaqua, NY
2
Brinkmanship
  • The Policy of threatening to go to war as a
    response to enemy aggression.

Put this definition on the back of your map.
You want a piece of This?!?
3
Examples of Brinkmanship and the Cold War
  • Both the USA and the USSR wanted to avoid an all
    out Nuclear War. Instead of fighting directly,
    they paid others to fight for them, and then
    continued a kind of global game of Chicken.
    The following events are examples of when the two
    sides almost committed to total war, but then
    pulled back at the last minute and instead did
    something clever to stay in the game without
    losing face.
  • The Berlin Blockade and Airlift
  • The Korean War
  • The Cuban Missile Crisis

4
Berlin Blockade Airlift 1948-49?
Russians try to claim West Berlin once and for
all by starving them out. Water, power are cut.
Ground transport is closed.
Americans fly supplies to the people of West
Berlin for almost a year. Eventually Russia
gives up and opens roads and utility lines
again.until next time.
5
Cold War Map- Berlin Blockade and Airlift
Please do not talk at this time March 5
HW Please review 17.1 17.3 for Quiz on
Friday. Please get your map and add the Berlin
Blockade and Air Lift.
  • Choose a symbol to represent the Berlin Blockade
    and Airlift and put it on the small map of Berlin
    (not Germany) on your map.
  • In your map key (on the Left), indicate that your
    symbol represents the Berlin Blockade and
    Airlift.
  • On the back of this paper explain what the Berlin
    Blockade and Airlift was.
  • Put the Berlin Blockade and Airlift on the time
    line in 1948 - 49

6
Review Containment
7
Premier Nikita Khrushchev
About the capitalist states, it doesn't depend
on you whether we (Soviet Union) exist. If you
don't like us, don't accept our invitations,
and don't invite us to come to see you. Whether
you like it our not, history is on our side. We
will bury you. -- 1956
De-Stalinization Program
8
Containment and Cuba
  • 1. Together read Intro to Cuban/American
    relations
  • 2. Get into groups of three.
  • 3. Divide the reading (person 1 does reading 1
    and so on)
  • 4. Read your section and underline evidence of
    the US Containment Policy in Cuba.
  • 5. Share out.

9
Cuban Missile Crisis (1962)?
The confrontation began on October 14, 1962, when
U.S. reconnaissance photographs taken by an
American U-2 spy plane revealed missile bases
being built in Cuba, in response to similar U.S.
bases built at the Turkish-Soviet border.
After a tense confrontation on October 28, 1962,
both U.S. President John F. Kennedy and Soviet
General Secretary Nikita Khrushchev, with the
intercession of U.N. Secretary-General U Thant,
agreed to remove their respective nuclear
missiles. This is as close as we have ever come
to nuclear war.
10
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11
Cuban Missile Crisis (1962)?
12
Cold War Map- Cuban Missile Crisis
  • Choose a symbol to represent the Cuban Missile
    Crisis and put it on Cuba on your map.
  • In your map key (on the Left), indicate that your
    symbol represents the Cuban Missile Crisis.
  • On the back of this paper explain what the Cuban
    Missile Crisis was.
  • Put the Cuban Missile Crisis on the time line in
    1962

13
Please do not talk at this time March 6
HW Interview someone over 36 about the Cold
War. Ask them about their experiences in the
50s, 60s, 70, and 80s. Ask them what they
remember about the events on your map or what
they thought would happen to the world. Due
Tuesday
  • Please take out a half sheet of paper (You may
    share with a friend) and label it Cold War Quiz
  • Put your name on this paper.
  • Number 1 -5 of this paper.
  • Please remember, no notes or talking on the quiz!

14
Use the quotation to answer this question. "An
iron curtain has descended across the Continent.
Behind that line lie all the capitals of the
ancient states of Central and Eastern Europe . .
. all are subject in one form or another, not
only to Soviet influence but to a very high and,
in many cases, increasing measure of control from
Moscow." - Winston Churchill, "The Sinews of
Peace" speech, March 5, 1946 1. The quotation
expresses Churchill's concern about A. the rise
of two superpowers. B. ruined cities in Eastern
Europe. C. the spread of communism. D. postwar
economic recovery. 2. What was the underlying
cause of the Cold War? A. conflicts within the
UN B. Soviet resentment of U.S. military efforts
during World War II C. border disputes in
Europe D. competition between the United States
and the Soviet Union
3. Who were most of the Vietcong? A.
pro-Communist South Vietnamese B. pro-Communist
North Vietnamese C. anti-Communist South
Vietnamese D. anti-Communist North
Vietnamese 4. During the war in Korea, what did
President Truman and Douglas MacArthur disagree
strongly about? A. American involvement B. the
use of nuclear weapons C. whether to attempt to
cross the 38th parallel D. whether China posed a
threat to South Korea 5. What is the 38th
Parallel
15
Please trade papers and write the words,
Corrected By and then your name at the bottom of
the page.
16
Quiz Answers!
1. C. the spread of communism. 2. D. competition
between the United States and the Soviet Union 3.
A. pro-Communist South Vietnamese 4. B. the use
of nuclear weapons 5. The line dividing North
and South Korea
17
Maos Communist Revolution 1949
China Becomes Communist in spite of Western
intervention
18
The Korean War A Police Action (1950-1953)?
If Korea becomes Communist, who else will follow?
If all the world becomes Communist, who will
America trade with? After WWII Korea was split
(along the 38th parallel), just like Berlin and
Germany between the US and the USSR. North Korea
invaded South Korea to unify their nation with
Russian support. Americans (as a Member of the
UN) get involved to stop the advancement of
Communism. They push the N. Koreans far back
into N. Korea. This brings in the Chinese who do
not want Capitalist neighbours After countless
deaths and destruction, the two sides leave where
they started, Communists in the North and
Capitalists in the South. The country is still
divided along the 38th parallel.
China
38th Parallel
"Domino Theory"
19
Propaganda Add Propaganda to the Back of your
Cold War Map
  • Propaganda- an advertisement that attempts to
    spread ideas or promote a cause
  • Cold War Propaganda was mostly about controlling
    information. Governments only wanted their
    people to know certain things about what was
    going on in the war. They also wanted to make
    sure they had public support, so they tried to
    guarantee victories for every contest, or at
    least tried to scare people into wanting to
    continue the fight.

20
Propaganda
21
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22
Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty
Maintaining Communism, especially when it wasnt
working well, was all about controlling
communications. Soviet citizens wouldnt rebel
to seek a Different life if they didnt know that
life could be different. Radio Free Europe was
an attempt to communicate with the people of
Russia. It broadcast western music and
propaganda to Russia, bearing the message of the
West Democracy and Capitalism are Better
23
Get out a half sheet of paper (you can share with
a friend) and label it Propaganda. As you
listen to the song Russians by Sting, think about
the message he is trying to give. Is this
Propaganda or Anti Propaganda? Explain.
24
Please put this definition the back of your
map Proxy Wars (AKA Surrogate War)- a war
started by a major power that does not itself
participate directly. The super power does not
send its own troops, but may supply support in
terms of weapons, money, training and intelligence
Please do not talk at this time March 9 HW
Cold War Interviews! Interview someone over 36!
Write down your answers!
25
Think of two Mafia bosses...
Don Corleone
They want to fight each other to see who is the
Top Gangster of the USA!
Tony Soprano
However, an all out war between two such powerful
men might destroy both of them, and a large
number of innocent bystanders as well. The
police and the Government would get involved. No
one would win.
26
They both have top supporters...
But these bosses don't want to send their top
people to do the dirty work. They are too
Valuable. They might get killed. Then everyone,
the police, the media, and so on, would know the
Bosses were involved. The Bosses would have to
commit totally to the war, and they would have to
fight it publicly. That limits what they can do.
27
So, they both hire Hit-men instead...
These Mafia Bosses don't know these men. They
don't care what happens to them. Sure, they give
them weapons, ammunition, money for expenses,
maybe even let them practice on their shooting
range, but at the end of the day, these men are
expendable. If they succeed, great. If they die
trying, its not a big deal. Plus, since no one
knows the Bosses know these men, the Bosses stay
out of it. There is no Media frenzy, no news
supports to link them to assassinations. They
can do sneakier things.
28
So, what is in it for the Hit-men?
Well, they get Money, Weapons, Information,
Training, and they can use all of those things
for themselves, and their own interests after or
while doing the work of the Bosses. They are
independent contractors. They do their job and
then they do what they want.
29
The Proxy Wars of the Cold War are like this
example
The USA and the USSR are the Mafia Bosses. They
can't fight each other directly without blowing
up the world. Their top supporters are their
allies, NATO, and the Warsaw Pact Countries.
These groups can't get involved without turning
the fight into a well publicized World War III
(Also a no win situation)? The Hit men are the
groups fighting in the politically unstable
countries of the world, like the North and South
Koreans in Korea, the Viet Cong and the South
Vietnamese in Vietnam and Sandinistas and the
Contras in Nicaragua. These groups get money,
information, weapons, training and support from
the USA or the USSR. In exchange they promote
Capitalism or Communism in their countries. But
they also use the resources they get to fight for
what they want, revolution, independence, and so
on....
30
It is important to note...
The USSR and the USA do give Weapons, Money,
Training, Information, and so on... But they
don't give The BEST Weapons (no one was handing
out Nukes!) A Lot of Money (just enough to
keep things going...) The Best Training (We
don't want these people to beat us at our own
game later...) ALL the Information (We leave a
lot out. We don't want our secrets to become
public)
31
Examples of Surrogate Wars and the Cold War
  • The USA and USSR never actually went to war with
    each other. Instead, They often fought each other
    by supporting the enemies of the other side. The
    superpowers sometimes clashed in the most bizarre
    ways, such as the World Chess Championships!
    Mostly they looked for unstable governments and
    tried to give enough support to make their
    favourite side win.
  • The Vietnam War
  • Civil War in Nicaragua
  • Revolution in Afghanistan

Map Instructions For each event find Vietnam,
Nicaragua and Afghanistan on your Cold War Map
and choose a symbol to represent each conflict.
Label your symbol and place each event on the
timeline on the front, then write your definition
on the back of your map.
32
Vietnam War 1965-1973
Americans followed a policy of Containment and
sided with the South Vietnamese to promote
Capitalism and stop the spread of
Communism. Unfortunately, the People of Vietnam
wished to be Communist. They fought a dirty,
guerrilla style war against superior technology
and numbers, but they won because the American
people turned against the failed war, the suicide
missions and the determination of the Vietnamese.
33
Civil War in Nicaragua (1979)?
  • Americans supported the unpopular dictator
    Samoza.
  • When Communist Sandinista leader Ortega took
    control of Nicaragua with Russian support,
    Americans funded the Anti Communist Contras to
    fight him in Nicaragua and other communists in El
    Salvador.
  • Because of Foreign support, this war raged for 10
    years killing thousands and ruining the
    Nicaraguan economy.

34
Revolution in Afghanistan 1979 - 1996
Soviets back a communist military coup that
seizes the government of Afghanistan. Americans
give weapons and aid to the Mujahedeen forces
(Islamist peasants who opposed the non religious
people in power) challenging the Soviet backed
government. The Soviets step up involvement and
eventually invade when the Afghani leader,
President Takari, begins a reign of terror.
Meanwhile, Americans channel more and more aid
through Pakistan (secretly) and demand the
Soviets stop their involvement at the UN
(publicly). With both sides of the Conflict well
armed by the USA and USSR respectively,
Afghanistan falls into civil war. The Russians,
experiencing their own Vietnam, pull out Civil
war and infighting between extremist factions
continued until the Mujahedeens Taliban seized
power in 1996.
35
Share the results of your interview with a
partner nearby. What did you find interesting or
surprising about what the person you interviewed
said? Choose one thing between what you and your
partner found out to share with the class.
Please speak quietly to a partner nearby March 10
HW Cold War Events Homework. See Handout. Due
Thursday.
36
Espionage
The Spy Wars between Russia and the US were
legendary. Both countries tried desperately to
steal each others secrets and keep their
own. Failing that, they worked to spread
misinformation. For example, the Russians
invented the MIG-29 high altitude fighter jet to
shoot down an American High Altitude spy plane
that the Americans never actually built.
Knife
Gun
Gun
Julius and Ethel Rosenberg were executed as
Traitors for selling atomic secrets to the Soviets
37
U-2 Spy Incident (1960)?
Col. Francis Gary Powers plane was shot down
over Soviet airspace. He was violating a treaty
Americans had signed to respect Soviet airspace.
He failed to commit suicide to the great
embarrassment of the US.
38
The Berlin Wall Goes Up (1961)?
Russians seek to stop the emigration of citizens
to the West through West Berlins Airports
They build a wall around West Berlin and kill
anyone who tries to cross.
Checkpoint Charlie
39
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40
The wall goes up in the middle of the
night. People get trapped on one side or the
other, away from friends and family. For the next
three decades, people try to escape. Its easy at
the beginning, but later requires more and more
patience, time, and genius.
41
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42
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43
Ich bin ein Berliner! (1963)?
President Kennedy tells Berliners that the West
is with them! (Or that he is a Jelly Donut. Kind
of both)?
44
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45
Berlin Wall
  • Choose a symbol to represent the Berlin Wall and
    put it on the small map of Berlin (not Germany)
    on your map.
  • In your map key (on the Left), indicate that your
    symbol represents the Berlin Wall.
  • On the back of this paper explain what the Berlin
    Wall was.
  • Put the Berlin Wall on the timeline from 1961
    1989.
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