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The Cold War 1945-1991


The Cold War 1945-1991 By Ms. Joseph Korean War Korea 1905 Sino-Japanese War Korea controlled by Japanese 1945 Post WWII North Korea occupied by USSR South Korea ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Cold War 1945-1991

The Cold War 1945-1991
By Ms. Joseph
Cold War
  • Competition and tension between the
  • US and USSR for power and influence
  • in the world without any direct fighting
  • Competitions
  • Politics Democracy vs. Communism
  • Economics Capitalism vs. Communism or Mixed
    Economy vs. Command Economy
  • Technology
  • Arms Race (weapons military)
  • Space Race
  • Influence among 3rd World Nations
  • Military Alliances NATO vs. Warsaw Pact

Weapons of the Cold War
  • Threat of Nuclear Attack
  • Propaganda
  • Sending Economic and Military Aid to Weaker

Different Values
  • USA
  • Democracy
  • Freedom
  • Capitalism
  • Individualism
  • USSR
  • Totalitarianism
  • Equality
  • Socialism
  • Collectivism

USA rules, USSR drools
We are the Best, better than The West
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Roots of the Cold War
  • WWI
  • Russia gets out early, US entry helps win the war
  • Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
  • Russians lose 1/3 of their territory
  • Russian Revolution
  • U.S. doesnt recognize Russian govt. until 1933
  • West aids White Army
  • Treaty of Versailles
  • Russia not invited
  • Latvia, Lithuania and Estonia granted
  • WWII
  • Stalin signs Nazi-Soviet Non-Aggression Pact
  • Stalin pleas for help on eastern front denied
  • Russian losses at 29M, US only 400,000
  • US refuses to give Russia nuclear technology
  • US drops bomb to avoid giving Russia more
  • WWII Agreements Yalta and Potsdam

YALTA (in the USSR) Date Feb 1945 Present
Churchill, Roosevelt and Stalin
  • Creation of United Nations
  • Division of Germany
  • Russian agree to help defeat Japan in exchange
    for land
  • Stalin agrees to free elections in occupied

POTSDAM (Germany) Date July 1945 Present
Churchill, Truman and Stalin
  • Stalin has refused free elections, instead
    installed communist governments in occupied
  • US has the A-bomb and are anxious to restrict
  • Finalize agreement to divide Germany and Berlin

Cold War Foreign Policies
  • US
  • Truman Doctrine
  • Containment
  • Marshall Plan
  • NATO
  • United Nations
  • USSR
  • Soviet Satellites Iron Curtain
  • Molotov Plan
  • Warsaw Pact
  • United Nations

Truman Doctrine
  • CAUSE - Greece and Turkey threatened with
    communist takeovers
  • 1947 Truman promised that the USA would support
    free peoples who are resisting subjugation by
    armed minorities or by outside pressures.
  • US Foreign Policy - provide money and military
    aid to nations resisting communist takeovers
  • Greece and Turkey, received 400M first and
    successfully defeated communism
  • Italy received to secure upcoming elections.
    France received aid to prevent the advance of
    Communist trade unions
  • It signalled the end of isolationst policies.

  • Containment US Foreign Policy to keep communism
    within its existing borders
  • Places were Containment Policy was used
  • Greece
  • Turkey
  • South Korea
  • Berlin
  • Vietnam

Marshall Plan
  • Marshall Plan - money to help rebuild European
    economies after WWII
  • Purpose Prevent spread of communism by
    eliminating the conditions that encourage
  • Catch - had to be spent on products made in the
  • USSR - rejected the Marshall Plan thinking it was
    a plan to boost the US economy and make countries
    dependent on US

United Nations
  • Purpose - International Organization established
  • after WWII to maintain international peace
  • Organization 6 main groups
  • Security Council
  • resolves disputes, maintains peace and security
  • 15 members, 5 permanent
  • Russia, China, US, France, Great Britain
  • General Assembly
  • Representatives from all member nations
  • Makes policies
  • Secretariat executive and administrative duties
  • Economic and Social Council provides economic
    assistance and programs to 3rd world nations
  • International Council oversees transition to
    colonial rule
  • World Court resolves international disputes,
    war crimes

United Nations
  • Problems - Between 1945-1949 US and USSR vetoed
    each other initiatives. Many were concerned that
    the UN might become another LON
  • 1950 USSR boycotted UN over failure to
    recognize Communist China
  • enabled the US to take action in Korea
  • UN resolution to sends troops to aid South Korea
    against a North Korean invasion ensured that the
    UN could send troops to resolve international

Iron Curtain
  • From Stettin in the Baltic to Trieste in the
    Adriatic an iron curtain has descended across the
  • -Winton Churchill
  • Soviet Satellites - Soviet controlled countries
    in Eastern Europe (aka countries behind the iron
  • Purpose protect USSR from invasion from the West

Molotov Plan
  • USSRs plan to counter the Marshall Plan a.k.a
  • Eastern European countries under Soviet influence
    received some aid

Soviet Union Tests Bomb
  • 1949 Soviets Test first Atomic Bomb
  • US and West react with fear and despair
  • Arms Race Begins

NATO and Warsaw Pact
  • NATO
  • Military Alliance between the US and western
  • An attack against one nation would be considered
    an attack against all
  • Warsaw Pact
  • Military Alliance between the USSR and Eastern
  • Pledge to defend one another in the event of an

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Cold War Events Tension and Conflict
  • Berlin
  • Airlift
  • Wall
  • U2 Spy Plane
  • Cuba
  • Korea
  • Vietnam

Divided Germany
  • Germany had been divided into 4 sectors after
  • Allies remain in these territories and implement
    their own economies/political systems
  • Allies had different goals for Germany
  • USSR - prevent Germany from becoming too strong
  • Western Allies - make Germany economically strong
    to avoid Communism

Iron Curtain A term used by Winston Churchill
to describe the separating of Those
communist lands of East Europe from the West.
Divided Germany
Improve your knowledge
Divided Berlin
  • The Russians took very high casualties to capture
    Berlin in May 1945. They spent the early
    occupation trying to take over all zones of the
    city but were stopped by German democrats such as
    Willy Brandt and Konrad Adenauer. Reluctantly the
    Russians had to admit the Americans, French and
    British to their respective zones.

Berlin Blockade
  • Western Allies attempt to unite the Western
    Sectors of Germany and Berlin and form an
    independent West Germany with a common currency
  • Stalin responds with attempt to take over all of
  • Berlin Blockade 1948 Stalin tries to starve the
    city to force the west out of West Berlin
  • USSR cut off all ground access to Berlin, leaving
    2M West Berliners without food, electricity and

Berlin Blockade
  • You are President TrumanWhat would you have done
    to save West Berlin?
  • What are the pros and cons to each alternative?

Trumans Choices
  • Use military force to gain ground access to West
  • Give up West Berlin to Soviets
  • Is there another?
  • Airlift Food and Supplies

Berlin Airlift
  • Purpose to prevent the takeover of West Berlin
    by the USSR
  • US sent 2M tons of supplies to West Berlin on
    Cargo Plans
  • Plans landed 24hrs/day to keep west Berliners
    from starving

Operation Little Vittles
  • US pilots drop candy to the children of West
    Berlin using parachutes made of handkerchiefs

Extended Thinking
  • What did the Berlin Airlift do for the
    relationship between the U.S. and German people?
  • What did the Berlin Airlift do for Stalin?
  • In what ways did President Trumans airlift
    support the policy of containment?
  • As you view the film, make note of the end result
    of the airlift? What happened to the west and
    east sectors of Germany?

Berlin Airlift
Effects of Berlin Blockade
  • Success for Containment
  • Germany became 2 countries East and West
  • Berlin became permanently divided
  • US appeared as friend rather than foe to West
  • USSR/Stalin - appeared oppressive and brutal

U2 Spy Plane Incident
  • May 1, 1960
  • US U-2 spy plane shot down over the Soviet Union.
  • Khrushchev demanded an apology - Eisenhower
  • Pilot Gary Powers - Convicted of espionage and
    sentenced to 3 years imprisonment and 7 years of
    hard labor.
  • Served 1 year 9 months and 9 days before being
    traded for the Soviet spy Colonel Rudolph
    Ivanovich Abel.
  • Effect- Created further mistrust between US and

Berlin Wall
Berlin Wall
  • Constructed in 1961
  • Purpose - keep East Berliners from defecting to
    West Berlin
  • Effects East Berliners
  • separated from families
  • and jobs, exodus ended

  • Cuban Revolution 1956
  • Castro overthrows President Batista
  • Establishes Communist Government in Cuba
  • Nationalizes all industries
  • Many owned by U.S. citizens

US Response to Cuban Revolution
  • Bay of Pigs Invasion
  • CIA plan to Overthrow Castro
  • Sent Cuban Exiles to invade Cuba
  • Kennedy cancelled US air support
  • Invasion Failed
  • Operation Mongoose
  • CIA plan to assassinate Castro and interrupt
    Cuban Trade

Cuban Missile Crisis
  • Cuban reaction to US attempts to overthrow Castro
  • Turn to USSR for Help
  • Soviets begin building nuclear weapon sites in
  • October 1962 US U2 Spy Plane Photographs
    Missile launch sites under construction in Cuba

Missile Range
  • Missiles could reach
  • Missiles could reach
  • every major city in US
  • (except Seattle) within
  • minutes of launch

Cuban Missile CrisisOct 16-28, 1962
  • Causes
  • Reaction to US attempts to invade Cuba and
    overthrow Fidel Castro
  • Reaction to US missiles placed in Turkey

Kennedy SpeechCuban Missile Crisis
Cuban Missile Crisis
  • Potential Options Discussed by ExComm (Sec. of
    State, Sec. of Defense, Joint Chiefs of Staff,
    National Security Advisor, CIA Director, Vice
    President, UN Ambassador)
  • Ignore the Missiles
  • Airstrikes to take out Missiles
  • Airstrikes followed by US invasion
  • Diplomacy
  • Naval Blockade of Cuba

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Cuban Missile Crisis
  • Naval Blockade option chosen by Kennedy
  • Demonstrated US willingness to take action
  • Gave Khrushchev time to consider the gravity of
    the situation
  • US Response
  • Americans left population centers
  • US military on full alert
  • Soviet Response
  • Send ships toward Cuba
  • Eventually honor the blockade

CMC Final Agreement
  • Public
  • USSR agrees to withdraw Missiles
  • US wont invade Cuba
  • Private
  • Kennedy agreed to remove Missiles in Turkey

Soviet Leadership - Cold War
  • Stalin (1922-1953)
  • Khrushchev (1953 1964)
  • Brezhnev (1964 1982)

  • Stalin (1922-1953)
  • Great Purge (1936-1938)
  • Political Rivals sent to gulags or purged
  • 5 year Plan (1928)
  • focus on heavy industrial products
  • Few consumer goods made
  • Focus on quantity vs. quality
  • Collectivization(1928)
  • Peasants forced to work on group farms
  • Military spending high 1st A-bomb (1949), 1st
    H-bomb (1952)

  • Khrushchev (1953 1964)
  • De-Stalinization (1953)
  • Denounced Stalins brutal policies
  • Improved standard of living
  • More freedoms
  • Continued Collectivization and 5 year plans
  • U2 Spy Plane incident 1960
  • Peaceful Co-existence with West (1961)
  • Continued Massive Military Buildup
  • Sputnik 1st Satellite in space ICBMs capable
    of reaching US (1957)
  • Cuban Missile Crisis (1962) Weakened Economy
    Removed from Office (1964)

  • 1964 1982
  • Reversed Khrushchevs de-Stalinization policies
  • Brezhnev Doctrine no country
  • could leave the Warsaw Pact (1968)
  • Détente (1972) policy to relax relations with
    the US
  • SALT (1972) limited the number of nuclear
    warheads and missiles that each country could
  • Invasion of Afghanistan (1979) ended détente
  • Drained national treasury, unpopular

Soviet SatellitesYugoslavia
  • Only large eastern European Communist state to
    resist Soviet Control
  • Josip Tito leader of Yugoslavia
  • insisted on own national policies
  • Developed his own form of Communism
  • Stalin expelled Yugoslavia from the international
    communist organization

Soviet SatellitesInvasion of Hungary 1956
  • Hungarians demand freedoms from communist
  • Imre Nagy announced withdraw from Warsaw Pact -
    Threatens to return to democracy
  • Khrushchev sends Soviet Army into Budapest
  • Leaders and protesters rounded up and executed
  • Hungary returns to Communism

Soviet Satellites Invasion of Czechoslovakia1968
  • Czechs attempt to loosen Soviet Control
  • Czech leader Alexander Dubcek restores some
  • Soviets send in Warsaw Pact troops
  • Czechoslovakia returns to Soviet Communism

Soviet SatellitesPoland
  • Resented Soviet control
  • Gomulka freed political prisoners and ended
    collectivization, eased relations with the
    Catholic Church
  • 1970s workers demand economic reforms
  • 1976 Growing underground movement to resist
    Soviets aided by Catholic Church

Cold War in Asia
China Korea Vietnam Japan
Communism in China
  • 2000 years of Dynastic Rule
  • 1911 Republic of China established
  • Nationalist Leader - Sun Yat-sen
  • Promised land reform and end to political

Communism in China
  • 1920 Chinese Communist Party formed
  • 1920/30s Nationalist Party in Control
  • Chiang Kai-Shek leads Nationalist Party (1927)
  • Millions of peasants starve
  • Unequal land distribution
  • Govt. policies favor wealthy landlords
  • 1927 Civil War begins
  • Nationalist vs. Communists
  • 1934 Long March
  • 90K Communist March 2,000 miles in Protest
    against government
  • Nationalist kill 6K Communists
  • Mao Zedong survives

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Communism in China
  • WWII
  • Communist Mao Zedong
  • gain strength in countryside by giving peasants
  • arm peasants with weapons
  • Communist movement grows
  • Nationalist- Chiang Kai-shek
  • save best troops to fight Communists, NOT
  • Troops are crushed by Japanese
  • Nationalist movement weakens
  • Continues to ignore problems
  • Land reform, Corruption

Chinese Civil War
  • Civil War Resumes after WWII
  • US sends 3B in Aid to help Nationalists
  • Why?_______________________
  • As you watch the video, answer the following
  • What were the results of the Chinese Civil War?

Chinese Civil War
Chinese Civil War
  • Results
  • Chiang Kai-shek flees to Formosa establishes the
    Republic of China
  • Allies with US
  • Mao Zedong established the Peoples Republic of
  • Allies with USSR

Communism in China
  • 1949 Communist Revolution
  • Mao Zedong becomes leader (1949-1976)
  • 1952-1957 Soviet Socialism
  • 5 year Plan and Collectivization
  • 1956 Break from Soviet Influence
  • Move toward true communism
  • 1956-1961 Great Leap Forward
  • Modernize economy, while equally sharing wealth
  • Large scale industrial programs
  • Communes
  • 1966-1969 Cultural Revolution
  • Plan to rid China of the 4 Olds ideas, culture,
    customs and habits
  • Red Guard helped to enforce Communist Ideas
  • 1976 Mao dies, Jiang Qing (wife) takes over
    struggle in Communist Party begins

Chinese Modernization
  • 1979-1997 Deng Xioping
  • The Four Modernizations
  • improve agricultural production
  • update and expand industry
  • modernize its army
  • Import foreign science and technology
  • 1997-2003 Jiang Zemin
  • Modernization of industry
  • Environmental destruction
  • Widening Gap between rich and poor
  • Three Represents
  • Changes to Communist Ideology
  • Included representing interests of majority
  • Movement to include business interests
  • in party politics

Zemin improved Chinese relations Between the US
and USSR
Modern China
  • Chinese Global Influence continues to Grow
  • Focus
  • Environmental Controls
  • Gaps between rich and poor
  • Continued economic improvement
  • Foreign Investment in economy
  • Personal, but not Political Freedoms
  • Media and Political Control
  • Human Rights Violations Tibet
  • Committed to Chinese Reunification - Taiwan

President Hu Jintao moves China toward capitalism
Korean War
  • 1905 Sino-Japanese War
  • Korea controlled by Japanese
  • 1945 Post WWII
  • North Korea occupied by USSR
  • South Korea occupied by US
  • Plan to create an independent, unified Korea
  • 1948
  • US holds free elections in S. Korea
  • USSR refuses free elections
  • Syngman Rhee President of S. Korea
  • Kim Il Sung USSR installed Leader Communist

Korean Invasion
  • Jan 1950 Secretary of State Dean Achseson Speech
  • South Korea not included as nation of vital
    interest to US
  • US uncertainty about South Korea leads Stalin to
    believe an invasion would be successful
  • US/USSR misread intentions
  • Stalin believed US wouldnt risk another war
  • Truman believed USSR wouldnt
  • risk full-scale invasion

Korean War
  • North and South Korea Divided
  • at the 38 Parallel
  • June 1950
  • 90,000 N. Korea Troops
  • Invade S.Korea
  • June 1950
  • Truman orders Naval Air
  • Force to Korea without formal
  • declaration of war
  • UN Security Council approves
  • military aid to South Korea
  • North Korea
  • South Korea

Korean War
  • UN Troops Cornered at Pusan
  • MacArthur lands UN forces
  • Enemy lines at Inchon
  • Drives North Korean Troops
  • To 38 Parallel
  • North Korea
  • South Korea/UN Troops
  • Cornered at Pusan

Korean War
  • MacArthur pins troops against
  • the Chinese border
  • Ignores warnings from Mao to back
  • Off
  • Against Trumans orders, MacArthur
  • bombs bridges crossing into China
  • China sends troops across border
  • North Korea pined at Chinese Border
  • South Korea/UN Troops

Korean War
  • Chinese/N. Korean troops drive UN troops back
    across 38 Parallel
  • MacArthur wants victory expand war into China
    use of nuclear weapons
  • Truman wants Limited War Containing the war
    within its borders using conventional weapon
  • April 1951 Truman Fires MacArthur for publically
    criticizing his policy of Limited War
  • North Korea/Chinese Troops cross 38 Parallel
  • South Korea/UN Troops

Korean War
  • What were the results of the Korean War?
  • North Korea
  • South Korea/UN Troops

Korean War
Korean War Results
  • South Korea remained Free
  • US Contained Communism
  • Became a Democracy
  • US Troops Remain at 38th Parallel
  • South Korea became an economic Tiger high
    economic growth
  • North Korea Communist
  • Leader - Kim Jong Il
  • Economy has stagnated
  • People are starving
  • Focus on developing nuclear weapons

Lee Myung Bak President, S.Korea
Kim Jong Il President, N. Korea
Korean War Deaths
History of Vietnam
  • Once a Colony of France want rubber, tin rice
  • Part of French Indochina
  • Cambodia
  • Laos
  • Vietnam
  • Japanese capture during WWII

  • Communist leader Ho Chi Min
  • declares Vietnamese independence in 1945
  • Goals
  • Independent Vietnam
  • Unified Vietnam
  • Land Reform
  • French return to reclaim Vietnam

Vietminh Strategy
  • Tire the French
  • Guerrilla Warfare - avoid major battles, hit and
    run tactics
  • Build support with peasants

Truman Years
  • US Policy 1950-1956
  • Containment and Truman Doctine
  • Provide military aid to French to defeat the
    Communist Vietminh
  • French Lose

What were the results of the Geneva Peace Talks?
  • Vietnam divided at 17th Parallel
  • North Communist
  • Leader Ho Chi Min
  • Gained Popularity through land reform
  • South Non-Communist Dictator
  • Leader - Ngo Dinh Diem
  • Refuses Land Reform
  • Unification pending free elections

Eisenhower Years
  • Policy of Containment
  • Domino Theory
  • Fall of Vietnam would lead
  • Other countries in SE Asia to fall
  • U.S. sends to aid South Vietnam in resisting

Why is Diem Unpopular?
  • Cancels elections with support of US
  • Refuses to make land refoms
  • Brutal Policies kills off opposition
  • Communist groups form in South Vietnam

Who are the Viet Cong?
  • Communist Group in South Vietnam
  • Aided by North Vietnam and USSR
  • Civil War breaks out in South Vietnam

The Kennedy Years
  • Sends military advisors and to South Vietnam
  • US proposes military coup
  • Diem Assassinated

Johnson Years
  • Escalates War in Vietnam
  • Golf of Tonkin Incident US boats torpedoed by
    N. Vietnam
  • Golf of Tonkin Resolution Congress gives
    Johnson authority to send troops
  • 1965 165,000
  • 1968 500,00

What major difficulties do US troops encounter?
  • 3 Major Difficulties
  • Guerilla Warfare
  • No clearly defined battle lines
  • Hit and Run Tactics
  • Unfamiliar Jungle Terrain
  • Unpopularity of S. Vietnamese Govt.
  • War becomes
  • unpopular at home

Nixon Years
  • Vietnamization increase South Vietnamese
    troops combat role while US gradually pulls out
  • Massive bombings - put pressure on N. Vietnamese
    to end the war

How does the war end?
  • Vietminh agree to ceasefire
  • 1973 - Last US troops leave
  • 1975 N. Vietnamese invade S. Vietnam
  • S. Vietnam Surrenders
  • Vietnam becomes a unified communist country

Costs of Vietnam War
  • 57,000 US Soldiers Dead
  • 2 Million Vietnamese Dead
  • 150B Financial Cost
  • US loses First War
  • Reluctance to commit US troops over seas

Vietnam Today
  • Remains a Communist Country
  • Unified no longer North and South
  • US ended trade embargo in 1994
  • US established diplomatic relations in 1995

Compare Korean War to Vietnam War
  • Occupation of Japan led by MacArthur 6 years
  • Demilitarization
  • Japanese armed services disbanded
  • Japan agrees to protection from US
  • Democracy
  • 2 House Parliament called Diet
  • Emperor becomes symbolic

  • Economic Miracle
  • US Investment
  • Government Intervention
  • Cooperation of manufacturers, suppliers,
    distributors and banks
  • Focus on Technology
  • Business Management
  • Lifetime employment
  • Seniority-Based wages
  • Group Effort
  • Quality Control