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The Early Modern Period 1450-1750 CE

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The Early Modern Period 1450-1750 CE UNIT 4 APWH EXAM REVIEW MAJOR CHANGES World becomes global - exploration; technological innovations; political organizations ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Early Modern Period 1450-1750 CE


1
The Early Modern Period1450-1750 CE
  • UNIT 4
  • APWH EXAM REVIEW

2
MAJOR CHANGES
  • World becomes global - exploration technological
    innovations political organizations trade
  • Domination of Maritime trade - shift from land
    based trade in Classical and Post-Classical
    Periods
  • Decline of nomadic groups and their power
  • Shift in labor systems
  • Gunpowder Empires

3
Major Early Modern Empires
  • Spain
  • Portugal
  • England
  • France
  • The Netherlands
  • Russia
  • Gunpowder Empires
  • Ottoman Empire
  • Tokugawa Japan
  • Safavid Persia
  • Ming China
  • Mughal India

4
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5
The Ottoman Empire1299-1923
  • Founded by Osman
  • 1453 take Constantinople and end Byz. Empire
  • Take control of land on 3 continents - From Iraq
    in the east, North Africa to the South Balkans
    to the East
  • Sultan (supreme leader) w/ a bureaucracy
  • Strong army (Janissaries) Slave labor
  • Religiously and culturally tolerant
  • Emphasized Merchant class
  • Women have right to own property

6
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7
Mughal India1526-1858
  • Descendants of Mongol invaders and Muslim
    merchants in Northern India
  • Included India, Pakistan and Afghanistan
  • Strong military, funded by high taxes
  • Those in military earn pieces of land, which
    makes regional princes upset
  • Muslim leaders over Hindu majority - religiously
    tolerant (they have to be!)
  • Creation of new religion Sikhism (Islam and
    Hinduism)
  • Great architectural feats - Taj Mahal

8
Tokugawa Japan1600-1868
  • Tokugawa family unite regional daimyos under one
    government
  • Capital Edo (Tokyo)
  • Opposed to European presence in Asia (after
    seeing Spanish take over Philippines did not
    want Europeans to appeal to daimyos to overthrow
    govt)
  • 1630s close Japan from European influences
  • No travel to Europe no Europeans in Japan except
    Dutch traders (limited)

9
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10
Ming China1368-1644
  • Follow Yuan dynasty (Mongols)
  • Promote initial exploration - Zheng He
    eventually recalled to deal with internal
    problems
  • Neo-Confucianism
  • Silk Road begins to decline b/c of maritime trade
  • Cultural contributions porcelain paintings
  • At end of dynasty, very inept rulers prone to
    rebellions and outside attacks

11
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12
Qing China
  • Overthrown Ming Dynasty in 1644 (last until 1911)
  • Led by Manchus (from Manchuria) viewed as
    outsiders by rest of China
  • Pre-1750 very strong empire promote Mandate of
    Heaven forbid intermarriage between Manchus and
    Chinese
  • Golden Age of Chinese civilization - good,
    long-serving rulers promotion of Confucianism,
    education and military might
  • React favorably to Catholic missionaries
    increase trade with Europeans and open ports for
    trade

13
Safavid Persia1501-1736
  • Shia Islam
  • Founded by Ismail
  • Lack of religious tolerance goes to war with
    Ottomans to convert them Safavids lose
  • Capital Isfahan - great city planning mosques
  • Difficult to expand due to being surrounded by
    other empires - Arab empires, Ottomans, Mughals

14
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15
Age of Exploration
  • Portugal - exploration and colonization Prince
    Henry the Navigator important in early slave
    trade first to set up trading centers in
    Africas coast (factories)/ trade directly with
    India and China Brazil
  • Spain - Isabella and Ferdinand exploration and
    colonization expelled Muslims and Jews from
    Spain (Inquisition) control most of Latin
    America and southern North America crucial in
    beginning of slave trade
  • Treaty of Tordesillas divides South America
    between Spain and Portugal

16
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17
Age of Exploration
  • France
  • Power through trade and colonization (Northern
    parts of North America)
  • Traders Trappers
  • Louis XIV - absolute monarch Palace of
    Versailles
  • England
  • Power from trade and colonization
  • British East India Company
  • Mercantilism
  • Strong naval force - defeat Spanish Armada
  • Colonies on Eastern seaboard of N.America
  • Strong limited government (monarchy) with
    Parliament
  • Queen Elizabeth I

18
Social and Gender Change in Early Modern Europe
  • Major cities develop - Paris, London, Amsterdam
  • Rise of small middle class (much bigger in
    Industrial Revolution)
  • Rising gap between rich and poor
  • Later marriage ages decline in arranged marriage
  • Some women become educated
  • Renaissance and Reformation change views of
    European society

19
Early Modern Russia
  • Post-Classical Mongol control of Russia hurts
    most of the region, except for Moscow, which
    benefits from the tax collection feudalism
    increases behind in trade and technological
    development
  • Romanov Family dominates
  • Expansion east use of Cossacks
  • Peter the Great - Westernization St. Petersburg
    warm water port
  • Catherine the Great appeal to upper classes
    (boyars) likes idea of Westernization, but
    doesnt implement it as well as Peter
  • Both treat peasants terribly

20
Exploration and Colonization of the Americas -
Consequences
  • Decimation of indigenous peoples - Aztecs, Incas,
    Native Americans (90)
  • Spread of Disease - smallpox, tuberculosis
  • Columbian Exchange animals and crops
  • Rise in coercive labor Encomiendas Slave labor
  • European access to raw materials (silver, sugar,
    cotton, tobacco)

21
Coercive or Forced Labor Systems
Type of labor system Location Demographic Impact Treatment of Slaves Status of Slaves
Slave Trade (Trans-Saharan and East Africa) East Africa Mostly women and lower-class women Part of property
Plantation System (Atlantic Slave Trade) Caribbean North and South America 15-25 million slaves to the Americas Middle Passage silver mining agricultural and domestic work Not much social mobility in early modern period
Janissaries Ottoman Empire young boys from Eastern Europe Military Service forced conversion to Islam Some social mobility
Serfdom Eastern Europe Russia Japan Becomes very similar to slavery Some mobility
22
Early Modern Demographic Changes
  • Rise in population in Europe
  • Decrease in population in Americas
  • 15th century 67 million living in North, Central
    and south America
  • 1700 13 million in all of western hemisphere
  • Africa slave trade hurt, but not decimate
    African demographics
  • By 1700 doubled population in 1000 CE
  • Western Africa only area really impacted by ST
  • Asia between 1000 and 1700 CE - population
    almost doubles

23
Major European Cultural and Intellectual
Developments
  • Renaissance (15th and 16th centuries)
  • Starts in Italy (humanism less focus on church
    Machiavelli secular paintings architecture)
  • Spreads to Northern Europe (still focused on
    religion)
  • Reformation
  • 1517 Martin Luther posts 95 Theses
  • Question of authority of Catholic Church
  • Religion should be personal not corrupt
  • Speaks out against Indulgences
  • Many religious wars (Thirty Years War)
  • Counter-Reformation (Catholic Churchs attempt to
    stop conversion)

24
  • Scientific Revolution
  • World could be explained through natural, rather
    than religious, laws
  • Sun center of the universe (heliocentric theory -
    Copernicus, Galileo)
  • Scientific Method
  • Diffuses throughout Europe and Americas
  • Enlightenment
  • Social Contract Theory- people have a say in
    government (John Locke)
  • Natural Rights - life, liberty and property (John
    Locke)
  • Right to revolution and overthrow of government
  • Freedom of speech, press, and religion (Voltaire)
  • Challenges idea of divine right of kings
  • Diffuses through Europe and American colonies
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