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The Early Modern World

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The Early Modern World 1450??? To 1750 – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Early Modern World


1
The Early Modern World
  • 1450???
  • To 1750

2
Problems with periodization
  • The beginning of the Modern Era
  • 1300?
  • 1350?
  • 1400?
  • 1450?
  • 1492?
  • WHY?

3
The world around 1300
  • Population Decline and growth
  • Black Plague (_at_1348)
  • Feudalism in Japan (Kamakura) and Europe
  • Pax Mongolica Yuan dynasty in China, Kievan Rus
    under Mongol rule
  • Rise of the Inca and Aztec empires
  • Mali at its height

4
Ca. 1300
  • Delhi Sultanate in South Asia rise of Islam,
    decline of Buddhism, competing power bases.
  • Founding of Ottoman dynasty (1281)
  • Continued decline of Byzantium
  • Trade circuits in Mediterranean, Indian Ocean,
    South China Sea, Trans-Saharan and across the
    Eurasian steppe

5
Think about it
  • Predict what trends will change and which will
    stay the same.
  • As the world continues to become more integrated
    circa 1450, predict which societies are in the
    best position to take advantage of new
    technologies and new discoveries.

6
Changes in Trade, Technology and Global
Interactions
  • Exploration
  • Gold, Glory and God
  • Empire Building
  • Cartography
  • Commodities

7
Cultural and Intellectual Development
  • Renaissance
  • Scientific Revolution
  • Enlightenment
  • Patronage of the Arts

8
Changing Beliefs
  • Reformation
  • Neo-Confucianism
  • Missionaries Christianity, Islam, Buddhism

9
Renaissance
  • Renaissance- growth of idea of HUMANISM belief
    in human potential separate from religion.
  • Patronage of the arts by the public and the
    church
  • Rediscovery of Perspective by artists such as
    Raphael in Marriage of the Virgin 1504
  • Renaissance was a REBIRTH OF WHAT?

10
Missionaries Jesuits
11
Commodities
  • African slave trade
  • Note the primary destinations!

12
Commodities Slavery
13
Commodities Sugar, Silver and Slaves
14
Commodities Coffee
  • Coffee beans used first in Yemen and then later
    in Europe and the Americas
  • European using chocolate technology from the
    Aztecs 17th Century

15
Empire Building
  • How do empires rise and expand?
  • What factors at this time will help empires
    maintain themselves and expand their borders?
  • Consider the impact and nature of interaction
    with others

16
Empires Russia
  • Mongol occupation stalled Russian unification and
    development
  • Increasing absolutist rule and territorial
    expansion by 16th Century Ivan the Terrible
  • Role of Russian Orthodox Church
  • Peter the Great accelerated westernization
    process

17
Empires Ottoman, 1285-1914
  • 1350s Initial Ottoman invasion of Europe
  • 1453 Ottoman capture of Constantinople
  • 1683 Ottoman siege of Vienna

18
Empires Ming China 1368-1644 Manchu Qing
Dynasty 1644 - 1912
19
Empires Japan Tokugawa, 1600-1853
  • Taika, Nara and Heina periods (645-857) height
    of cultural borrowing from China
  • -Tale of Genji Lady Murasaki
  • Emergence of warrior class and increasing civil
    wars
  • Encounter with Portuguese 1543
  • Isolation from West rise of Tokugawas
  • Tokugawa elite followed development in west
    (contrast to Chinas hairy barbarian mentality)

20
Empires Mughal India, 1556-1739
  • Empire based on military strength
  • Akbar attempt to combine beliefs into new
    religion to unite Hindu and Muslim subjects
    Din-I-Ilahi
  • Indian textile trade value to Europeans
  • Patronage to the arts--Shah Jahan

21
Empires England
  • Limited Monarchy and the emergence of
    Constitutional Monarchy (1215 Magna Carta is the
    beginning)
  • Civil Wars
  • Commonwealth
  • Charles II James II
  • the Glorious Revolution Bill of Rights
  • Enlightenment Ideas
  • Colonies in Americas

22
Empires France
  • Absolute Monarchy
  • King Louis XIV
  • I am the State
  • Versailles
  • Mercantilism
  • Territorial expansion in Europe and fur-trading
    colonies in Saint Domingue (Haiti) and New France
    (Quebec)

23
Empires Dutch
  • Dutch East India Company universal carriers
    In 1660, employed 12,000 people and had 257
    ships. Sought monopolies and large profits.
  • North America (fur trade along the Hudson river,
    New Amsterdam)
  • Caribbean islands for plantation settlements
  • Capetown, South Africa way station
  • Southeast Asia spice trade (nutmeg in Banda
    islands, cloves in Melaka and pepper in Banten)

24
Empires Spain
  • Reconquista ended with the fall of Granada
  • Inquisition
  • Columbus voyage
  • Arrival of Cortez in Mexico and Pizarro in Peru
  • Took over existing tributary empires labor
    (mita), silver, gold, and foodstuffs
  • Demographic impact disease, death, and mestizos

25
Spain
26
Empires Portugal
  • Search for Maritime route to Asia
  • Advanced naval technology caravels, carracks,
    astrolabe and compass
  • Established fortresses along the Gold Coast
    sugar plantations and African slave labor
  • Indian Ocean trade and Da Gama Malindi, Sofala
    and Kilwa, Calicut and Goa, and later Macao
  • Atlantic trade with conquest of Brazil sugar
    plantation

27
Brazil, plantation colony
  • Portuguese due to Treaty of Tordesillas 1494
  • African slave labor used to support the
    plantation complex (sugar)
  • Largest producer of sugar in world first half of
    17th C.

28
Empires African
  • Characteristics of
  • Stateless societies - organized around kinship,
    often larger than states, forms of government
  • Large centralized states increased unity came
    from linguistic base Bantu, Christianity and
    Islam, as well as indigenous beliefs
  • Trade markets, international commerce, taxed
    trade of unprocessed goods.

OYO--BENIN--KONGO--ASANTE
29
Cartographic Changes
30
Gender and Empire
  • Changing roles
  • Reigning queens
  • Domestic work

31
Demographic and Environmental Changes
  • Predict what the consequences of increased
    integration and empire building be on population?
    On the environment? Think long and short term.

32
Comparisons
  • Be able to compare the following
  • Imperial systems European monarchy vs. a
    land-based Asian empire sea-based empire vs.
    land-based
  • Coercive labor systems
  • Empire building in Asia, Africa, Latin America,
    and Europe
  • Russias interaction with the west compared to
    others

33
Conclusions
  • What are the major themes that seem apparent?
  • What global processes are in action?
  • Suggest the best possible ways to learn case
    studies of these global forces.
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