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Gunpowder Empires


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Title: Gunpowder Empires

Gunpowder Empires
  • 1450-1750

Muslim Empires
  • Ottoman, Safavid, Mughal
  • Emerged from central steppe nomads
  • All had Absolute monarchs who modeled their
    courts after early Islamic empires

Gunpowder Empires
  • 1450-1750, rise of sea-based power in Europe
  • Empires in Middle East and Asia continued to rely
    on roads, armies, and inland urban areas for
    military and economic influence
  • Made use of guns, muskets, cannons
  • Ottomans also had a large navy and dominated
    Med. Sea
  • Gunpowder Empires Russia, Ottoman, Safavid,
    Mughal, Ming and Qing China, and Tokugawa Japan
  • Muslim empires that represent the height of
    Muslim political and military power

(No Transcript)
Ottoman Empire
  • Named for founder Osman, they were given land in
    Anatolia by the Seljuk Turks in return for aid
    against the Mongols
  • Lasted from 13th C. to 1922, peak in 16th C.
  • Expanded due to weakening of Byzantine Empire,
    1453 captured Constantinople after a seige and
    renamed it Istanbul
  • Important Muslim center, Hagia Sophia turned into
    a mosque (Justinian cried a little)
  • Reached height under Suleiman (the Magnificent or
    the Lawgiver)

Political Characteristics
  • Sultans were both political and military leaders
  • Large bureaucracy centered in Istanbul
  • Vizier assistant to sultan, head of bureaucracy
  • warrior aristocrats controlling areas of empire
  • Devshirme System
  • Required Christians to pay tribute in the form of
  • Special training, learned Turkish, Converted to
    Islam became either bureaucrats or soldiers
  • Given control of guns and heavy artillery,
    eventually had a say in government
  • Eventually Janissaries and Viziers gained so much
    power that they challenged authority of Sultans
  • No clear succession laws, sons often warred with
    each other when Sultan died

Economic Challenges
  • Istanbul center of trade (just like
    Constantinople before it)
  • Mid-17th century, economic decline
  • Empire too large
  • Increasing corruption and heavy taxes
  • Peasant revolts
  • Inflation due to large amounts of New World
    silver (Ottomans had set rate for silver, when
    Europeans brought new world silver in, their
    silver cost less so they could buy more)

Social Characteristics
  • Majority Sunni (Know this)
  • Expanded into Egypt, Europe, Caucasus large
    number of Christians and Jews
  • Sultans supported public works, religious
    scholars, artisans, poets, architects, schools,
    hospitals, Mosques, etc
  • Large number of merchants and artisans with
  • Relations with Europe (or lack thereof)
  • Saw Europeans as backwards and marginal, their
    culture superior Led them to ignore major
    changes Europe was bringing to the world
  • ex. Ignored Printing press, could not print
    arabic-corrupting to holy language
  • Lost control of Med. To Phillip II of Spain in
    1571, never again would dominate, also lost
    control of many ports in Indian Ocean to

Safavid Empire
  • Turkish nomads, Shiite
  • Believed that descendants of Ali should be the
    heir to Islam Imam
  • 12th imam disappeared as a child, Safavids
    believed an Imam would return the Hidden Imam
  • Did not have a united political base
  • 16th C. united under Ismail
  • Declared ruler was a stand-in until the Hidden
    Imam returned
  • Safavids and Ottomans fought often, due to
    religious differences
  • Battles between the two set limits of Shiite
    expansion In modern day Iran and Iraq surrounded
    by Sunni countries

Shah Ismail uniting Safavids by force
Politics, Economics, and Culture
  • Politics
  • Reached Peak under Shah Abbas I
  • Similar to Janissaries, Russian boys were
    captured, converted, and used as soldiers
  • Brought in European advisors for technical
    knowledge (they were infidels, but beating Sunni
    more important)
  • Turkish chiefs became warrior nobility and
    supervised their lands (like Ottomans)
  • Economics
  • Promoted trade, capital Isfahan (far inland, so
    less cultural diversity)
  • Guilds, silk industry, Rug/carpet industry (most
  • Also influenced by inflation of silver
  • Culture
  • Mixture of Turkish and Persian traditions but
    much of culture built on ancient Persia

Court of Shah Abbas I at Isfahan
Mughal Empire
  • India controlled by Muslim Delhi sultanate (from
    13th C.)
  • Tendency of India to fragment, people primarily
  • 1583 India taken by Babur founded Mughal Empire
  • Mixture of Mongol and Turkish people from Asia
  • Dominated India until 17oos, but ruled in name
    until 1858
  • Empire extended under grandson, Akbar
  • Empire reached height and power

Political Characteristics
  • Military power based on land (no navy)
  • Goal of spreading Islam-although some rulers were
    more tolerant, such as Akbar
  • Succession was a problem like Safavid
  • Akbar
  • incorporated many Hindu Rajas into positions in
    military and bureaucracy to ease tensions
  • Encouraged marriage between Mughals and Hindu
  • Abolished Jizra-head tax on non-Muslims
  • Taxes based on each regions potential for wealth
  • Ended ban on building of Hindu temples, made
    Muslims respect cows
  • Laws lasted through his successors to Aurangzeb

Jesuits at Akbars Court
More Rulers
  • Jahangir and Shah Jahan
  • Patrons of the arts esp. miniatures
  • Built mosques, tombs, schools, palaces
  • Most famous Taj Mahal, built by Shah Jahan for
    his wife
  • Less interest in conquest and politics
  • Large court library (begun by Akbar who was
    illiterate, but lived to have books read to him)
  • Both love of pleasure politics, economics, and
    military issues neglected
  • Aurangzeb succeeded them and tried to restore
  • Also tried to rid subcontinent of all religions
    but Islamlots of resentment
  • Conquered more land, but spent all money
  • Local leaders plotted against him
  • Ended Akbars reforms
  • At his death, empire was at its largest, but VERY
    unstableEuropeans perched ready to take

Most Devoted husband EVER!!
Economics and Society
  • Trade network based on cotton, indigo, and silk
  • By 17th C. much trade with Europeans
  • No navy, so merchant ships privately owned, many
    ships owned by Portuguese and Dutch
  • Religion
  • Continued conflicts between Hindu and Muslims
  • Akbar attempted to create Divine Faith blend of
    Islam, Christianity, Zoroastrianism, Hindu and
    Sikh beliefs-did not last after his death
  • Nanuk (1469-1539) At first tried to reconcile
    Hinduism and Islam, then became 1st guru of new
    faith Sikhism

Nanuk, Sikh Guru
Women in the Muslim empires
  • Patriarchal, seclusion for women, veiled
  • Unequal politically, socially and economically
  • Some wives of rulers were able to gain power
  • Political power Harem intrigue
  • In Mughal
  • Child marriage common
  • Practice of Sati (Akbar and Shah Jahan both

Ming and Qing Dynasties
  • 1368-1912

Europe in SE Asia
  • Asia generally thought of Europe (or didnt think
    of it) as backwards, but Europe was beginning to
    be felt globally by the 17th and 18th centuries
  • SE Asia most affected Portuguese and Dutch both
    focused on region
  • Europeans took over two governments in this
    region and set up regimes that favored
  • Philippines Manila became capital of Spanish
    commerce in Asia
  • Indonesia Dutch set up trading center in Java
  • China, Japan, and Korea much more resistant to

Dutch Map of Batvia, the trading capital of Java
End of Yuan
  • Rulers after Kublai Khan weak and plagued with
  • Scholar-gentry began encouraging rebellion
    against barbarian oppressors
  • Banditry widespread in countryside while piracy
    major problem on seas
  • China fell into chaos
  • Power was grabbed by a peasant Ju Yuanzhang who
    would begin Ming (Brilliant) Dynasty and change
    his name to Hongwu

Early Ming Dynasty
  • Overthrew Mongols in 1368
  • Hongwu, first Ming emperor
  • Goal to remove all traces of Mongol rule
  • Established government based on traditional
  • Revived Confucian education and Civil Service
  • Centralized government at new capital Nanjing
  • Ming rulers insisted on absolute obedience and
    were suspicious of non-Chinese
  • Government used emissaries called Mandarins to
    make sure orders followed in outlying regions
  • Relied on eunuchs for governmental service (did
    not have families to challenge rule)

Eunuchs from the Qing Dynasty
More Ming
  • At first tried to spread power and hegemony by
    sailing throughout SE Asia and Indian Ocean
  • Zheng-he, Muslim Eunuch, admiral of the huge Ming
  • Eventually, scholar-gentry afraid of power of
    eunuchs, destroyed fleet and stressed traditional
  • Believed China weakened by contact with others
  • Cautious of trade with outsiders
  • Believed that best to model itself on greatness
    of the past
  • Repaired irrigation systems, Great Wall,
    factories, internal trading connections
  • Promoted Chinese traditions Confucianism and

Later Ming Politics
  • Capital returned to Beijing and Forbidden City
    was built
  • Housed more than 20,000 people to serve emperor
    and family
  • Bureaucracy revived, exams largely unchanged
  • Large armies with good leaders and organization,
    but not as technologically advanced as those of
    the West

Map of Forbidden City
Later Ming Economy
  • Strong commercial activity, greater percentage of
    merchants than other regions even though
    merchants still low class
  • Portuguese traded new world silver for luxury
    goods, but behavior offended Chinese only
    allowed at one port Macao
  • Much urban growth
  • Lagged in technology
  • Europeans adapting and improving technology
  • Chinese became more isolated and took little
    notice of technological advances outside of China

Later Ming Trade
  • Ethnocentric, did not need much from others
  • High point in interaction between China and Japan
  • Shoguns emulated Chinese culture
  • Both countries plagued by pirates
  • Trade limited with Europeans except for a few
    contacts with Dutch and Portuguese
  • Did tolerate some Christian Missionaries

Ming sailors fighting pirates
Christian Missionaries
  • Had come to China before, but Plague and Yuan had
  • During Ming, Jesuits came to China
  • Most famous Matteo Ricci
  • Italian who hoped to convert the emperor
  • Knew that Chinese had great respect for learning
    and refinement and studied Chinese culture,
    reading, and writing
  • Also knew that court was interested in European
    science, technology and mechanical inventions
    intrigued Chinese with bronze cannons, cuckoo
    clocks, and a giant clock that chimed the hours

Matteo Ricci showing a clock to the Ming Emperor
(The funniest part of this picture is that it is
from a cosplay sitewho is cosplaying Matteo
More Jesuits
  • Tried to convince emperor of similarities between
    Confucianism and Christianity
  • Held services in Chinese, allowed shrines to
    ancestors had little success
  • Pope eventually alarmed at comparisons and
    ordered priests to follow accepted Christianity
  • Chinese ordered missionaries to quit preaching
  • Missionaries weakened, had neither papal or
    imperial support
  • Effects
  • Opened China to European influence
  • Writings of the Jesuits stimulated an interest in
    China for Europe

Decline of Ming
  • Central Asian nomads began attacking borders
  • Series of weak emperors, corruption, court
  • Peasant rebellions
  • Northern Manchurians seized China from the north
  • Named their dynasty the Qing (Pure) Dynasty
  • Symbolic of throwing out bad rulers and returning
    to traditional Chinese culture
  • Problem They were outsiders

Were Back.again
Qing Dynasty1644 - 1911
  • Conquered Beijing in 1644
  • By the late 18th C., China had reached its
    largest size in history
  • Encouraged separation between Manchus and Chinese
  • Highest posts filled by Manchus
  • Left scholar-gentry in charge of most
    bureaucratic positions
  • Forbid intermarriage
  • Forced Chinese men to shave front of head and
    grow a queue
  • Sign of submission to dynasty

Expansion under Qing
  • Civil service exams more competitive than ever
    district, provincial, and metropolitan levels
  • State highly centralized with emperor Son of
  • Secluded, privileged life in Forbidden City
  • Everyone who came to see emperor had to perform
    Kowtow (elaborate bow with three separate
  • Rulers
  • Kangxi (1661-1722) and Qianlong (1736-1795)
  • Their rule lasted over 130 years
  • Prosperous, powerful, and wealthy empire
  • Both Confucian scholars
  • Kanxi talented military leader
  • Qianlongs reign so prosperous that four times he
    cancelled tax collection

19th C. Kowtow
  • Prosperity based on agriculture
  • Wheat, rice, and millet
  • Enhanced by crops from New World Potatoes,
    maize, peanuts
  • Led to a rapid rise in population
  • Eventually population growth would outpace food
  • Strengthened by silver
  • Traded for silk, porcelain, and tea
  • Greatly aided Chinese economy, unlike Muslim

Women in Ming
  • Highly patriarchal, emphasis on Confucianism
    increased control men had over women
  • Preference for sons (only they could take exams)
  • Widows encouraged to commit suicide
  • Footbinding popular
  • Could not divorce, but husband could put aside
    wife for disobedience of adultery

  • Status of scholar-bureaucrats grew
  • Wore distinctive clothing and treated with
    deference by people
  • Below gentry were peasants, artisans and
  • Merchants still had lowest status
  • Rich culture philosophy, literature, history,
    calligraphy, painting, poetry
  • Porcelain became major art form wealthy
    Europeans desired it along with painted scrolls
    and screens

Last Dynasty Yay! You know them all!!
Tokugawa Japan
  • 1603-1867

Feudal Japan
  • 12th -16th Centuries
  • Feudalistic hierarchies, emperor ruled in name
  • Shogun, highest military official, held true
  • Local control under territorial lords Daimyo
  • Each had own loyal samurai
  • Pledged allegiance to Shogun, but acted
  • Late 16th C., civil war broke out among several
    daimyos and several warlords emerged
  • Most famous was Toyotomi Hideyoshi, broke power
    of warring daimyos and unified Japan in 1590
  • Wanted to rule China, Korea, and India
  • Began attacking Korea, but died before much
  • Unified Japan for the first time in history

Tokugawa Shogunate
  • 1603-1867
  • After Hideyoshi, daimyos met under leadership of
    Tokugawa Ieyasu
  • Established centralized government in 1603
  • Capital was at Edo
  • Government called Bakufu or tent government,
    implying that it was a holding place for the true
  • Daimyos still had much power
  • Tokugawa Shoguns carried out policy Daimyos had
    to go to Edo every other year (this meant the
    Shogun had direct control over 50 always)
  • Weakened daimyos by
  • Affecting wealth they had to maintain two
  • Absence from lands meant it was hard to establish
    a firm power base
  • Daimyo needed permission to marry or build

Economics and Society
  • Encouraged economic growth because less warring
    within Japan
  • Increased agricultural production due to better
    irrigation, water control, and fertilizer
  • Rapid population growth
  • Curbed by birth control, late marriage, abortion,
    and infanticide
  • Needed because Japan had limited space

Edo During Tokugawa Period
Rise of Merchants
Japanese Market during the Tokugawa Shogunate
  • Social hierarchy influenced by Confucianism
  • Ruling elites shogun, daimyo, samurai
  • Middle class peasants and artisans
  • Lower class merchants
  • As trade flourished merchants began to be
    wealthier than upper classes
  • elites finances based on agricultural production
    while the merchants based on luxury goods
  • During times of peace samurai left with little to
    do and became poorer
  • Forbidden from entering into any other
    profession, so many worked for merchants

Arts and Learning
  • Culture shaped by Shintoism, Confucianism, and
  • Elites influenced by Neo-Confucianism, many wrote
    in Chinese
  • Tokugawa Shogunate supported Neo-Confucianism
  • Some scholars emphasized Shinto because it was
    traditional, felt Neo-Confucianism diluted
    Japanese culture
  • Japanese writing less characters than Chinese, so
    greater literacy
  • Did have moveable type, urban middle class became
  • Poetry, novels, satires, Kabuki plays were most
  • Urban teahouses, brothels, public baths popular
    because allowed people to escape from rigid
    decorum of society

Kabuki theater during the Ming
Japan and the Europeans
  • Portuguese in mid-16th C. first to Japan
  • Followed by traders and missionaries
  • Wanted pottery, lacquerware, and copper
  • Missionaries goal of converting to Roman
  • First tried to convert daimyos
  • Hideyoshi concerned (Converts refused to obey
    feudal lords orders if they believed they
    conflicted with Christianity) and ordered
    missionaries to leave in the 1580s.
  • Tokugawa banned Christianity in 1614
  • Drove missionaries away, those who refused were
  • 300,000 Japanese Christians killed
  • Tokugawa began restricting foreign trade
  • By 1640s only Dutch and Chinese ships allowed and
    only on island of Deshima

Europeans at the port of Deshima
Dailies Gunpowder Empires
  • 1. What were the 3 gunpowder Empires?
  • 2. How were they different from the European
  • 3. Describe religion in the Mughal Empire? Who
    were the Sikhs?
  • 4-5. Give two reason that the gunpowder empires

Dailies Ming and Qing
  • Who were the Jesuits?
  • Why did the Chinese allow the Jesuits into China?
  • Who were the Qing (where were they from)?
  • Why were guns banned in Japan?
  • Describe the Reconquista.