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AP World History 1450

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Title: AP World History 1450


1
AP World History 1450 1750 CEPeriod 4 Review
AND Sikhism!
  • All of the text save for the articles are
    straight from the AP Board, and are the MINIMUM
    that you need to know for Period 4.

2
Period 4 Global Interactions, c. 1450 to c. 1750
  • Key Concept 4.1. Globalizing Networks of
    Communication and Exchange
  • The interconnection of the Eastern and Western
    hemispheres made possible by transoceanic
    voyaging marked a key transformation of his
    period. Technological innovations helped to make
    transoceanic connections possible. Changing
    patterns of long-distance trade included the
    global circulation of some commodities and the
    formation of new regional markets and financial
    centers. Increased transregional and global trade
    networks facilitated the spread of religion and
    other elements of culture as well as the
    migration of large numbers of people. Germs
    carried to the Americas ravaged the indigenous
    peoples, while the global exchange of crops and
    animals altered agriculture, diets, and
    populations around the planet.
  • I. In the context of the new global circulation
    of goods, there was an intensification of all
    existing regional trade networks that brought
    prosperity and economic disruption to the
    merchants and governments in the trading regions
    of the Indian Ocean, Mediterranean, Sahara, and
    overland Eurasia.
  • II. European technological developments in
    cartography and navigation built on previous
    knowledge developed in the classical, Islamic,
    and Asian worlds, and included the production of
    new tools, innovations in ship designs, and an
    improved understanding of global wind and
    currents patterns all of which made
    transoceanic travel and trade possible.

3
Example of New Tools and Ships
Portolan maps and Caravel Ships were used by the
Portuguese and Spanish explorers in the 15th and
16th centuries. Portolan maps had lines radiating
out from compass points.
4
Key Concept 4.1.
  • III. Remarkable new transoceanic maritime
    reconnaissance occurred in
  • this period.
  • A. Official Chinese maritime activity expanded
    into the Indian Ocean region with the naval
    voyages led by Ming Admiral Zheng He, which
    enhanced Chinese prestige.
  • B. Portuguese development of a school for
    navigation led to increased travel to and trade
    with West Africa, and resulted in the
    construction of a global trading-post empire.
  • C. Spanish sponsorship of the first Columbian and
    subsequent voyages across the Atlantic and
    Pacific dramatically increased European interest
    in transoceanic travel and trade.
  • D. Northern Atlantic crossings for fishing and
    settlements continued and spurred European
    searches for multiple routes to Asia.
  • E. In Oceania and Polynesia, established exchange
    and communication
  • networks were not dramatically affected because
    of infrequent European
  • reconnaissance in the Pacific Ocean.
  • IV. The new global circulation of goods was
    facilitated by royal chartered European monopoly
    companies that took silver from Spanish colonies
    in the Americas to purchase Asian goods for the
    Atlantic markets, but regional markets continued
    to flourish in Afro-Eurasia by using established
    commercial practices and new transoceanic
    shipping services developed by European merchants.

5
Key Concept 4.1.
  • A. European merchants role in Asian trade was
    characterized mostly by transporting goods from
    one Asian country to another market in Asia or
    the Indian Ocean region.
  • B. Commercialization and the creation of a global
    economy were intimately connected to new global
    circulation of silver from the Americas.
  • C. Influenced by mercantilism, joint-stock
    companies were new methods used by European
    rulers to control their domestic and colonial
    economies and by European merchants to compete
    against one another in global trade.
  • D. The Atlantic system involved the movement of
    goods, wealth, and free and unfree laborers, and
    the mixing of African, American, and European
    cultures and peoples.
  • V. The new connections between the Eastern and
    Western hemispheres resulted in the Columbian
    Exchange.
  • European colonization of the Americas led to the
    spread of diseases including smallpox, measles,
    and influenza that were endemic in the Eastern
    Hemisphere among Amerindian populations and the
    unintentional transfer of vermin, including
    mosquitoes and rats.
  • B. American foods became staple crops in various
    parts of Europe, Asia, and Africa. Cash crops
    were grown primarily on plantations with coerced
    labor and were exported mostly to Europe and the
    Middle East in this period.

6
American Crop Maize
  • For western civilization, the story of corn
    began in 1492 when Columbus's men discovered this
    new grain in Cuba. An American native, it was
    exported to Europe rather than being imported, as
    were other major grains The word "corn" has many
    different meanings depending on what country you
    are in. Corn in the United States is also called
    maize or Indian corn. In some countries, corn
    means the leading crop grown in a certain
    district. Corn in England means wheat in
    Scotland and Ireland, it refers to oats. Corn
    mentioned in the Bible probably refers to wheat
    or barley. At first, corn was only a garden
    curiosity in Europe, but it soon began to be
    recognized as a valuable food crop. Within a few
    years, it spread throughout France, Italy, and
    all of southeastern Europe and northern Africa.
    By 1575, it was making its way into western
    China... Although corn is indigenous to the
    western hemisphere, its exact birthplace is far
    less certain. An archeological study of the bat
    caves in New Mexico revealed corncobs that were
    5,600 years old by radiocarbon determination...
    The original wild form has long been extinct.
    Evidence suggests that cultivated corn arose
    through natural crossings to produce modern
    races. Corn is perhaps the most completely
    domesticated of all field crops. Its perpetuation
    for centuries has depended wholly on the care of
    man. It could not have existed as a wild plant in
    its present form. Corn was the most important
    cultivated plant in ancient times in America.
    Early North American expeditions show that the
    corn-growing area extended from southern North
    Dakota and both sides of the lower St. Lawrence
    Valley southward to northern

7
American Crop Maize
  • Corn is perhaps the most completely domesticated
    of all field crops. Its perpetuation for
    centuries has depended wholly on the care of man.
    It could not have existed as a wild plant in its
    present form. Corn was the most important
    cultivated plant in ancient times in America.
    Early North American expeditions show that the
    corn-growing area extended from southern North
    Dakota and both sides of the lower St. Lawrence
    Valley southward to northern Argentina and Chile.
    It extended westward to the middle of Kansas and
    Nebraska, and an important lobe of the Mexican
    area extended northward to Arizona, New Mexico
    and southern Colorado. It was also an important
    crop in the high valleys of the Andes in South
    America.

The great variability of the corn plant led to
the selection of numerous widely adapted
varieties which hardly resembled one another. The
plant may have ranged from no more than a couple
of feet tall to over 20 feet. It was not like the
uniform sized plant that most people know today.
For the Aztecs, Mayas, Incas and various Pueblo
dwellers of the southwestern United States, corn
growing took precedence over all other
activities...
8
Maize Continued
  • Argentina and Chile. It extended westward to the
    middle of Kansas and Nebraska, and an important
    lobe of the Mexican area extended northward to
    Arizona, New Mexico and southern Colorado. It was
    also an important crop in the high valleys of the
    Andes in South America. The great variability of
    the corn plant led to the selection of numerous
    widely adapted varieties which hardly resembled
    one another. The plant may have ranged from no
    more than a couple of feet tall to over 20 feet.
  • Origin, History, and Uses of Corn (Zea mays)
    Lance Gibson and Garren Benson, Iowa State
    University, Department of Agronomy, Revised
    January 2002.

9
Cash Crop Sugar!
  • White Gold, as British colonists called it, was
    the engine of the slave trade that brought
    millions of Africans to the Americas beginning in
    the early 16th-century. The history of every
    nation in the Caribbean, much of South America
    and parts of the Southern United States was
    forever shaped by sugar cane plantations started
    as cash crops by European superpowers. Profit
    from the sugar trade was so significant that it
    may have even helped America achieve independence
    from Great Britain. Today more sugar is produced
    in Brazil than anywhere else in the world even
    though, ironically, the crop never grew wild in
    the Americas. Sugar cane native to Southeast
    Asia first made its way to the New World with
    Christopher Columbus during his 1492 voyage to
    the Dominican Republic, where it grew well in the
    tropical environment. Noting sugar cane's
    potential as income for the new settlements in
    the Americas Europeans were already hooked on
    sugar coming from the Eastern colonies Spanish
    colonizers snipped seeds from Columbus' fields in
    the Dominican Republic and planted them
    throughout their burgeoning Caribbean colonies.
    By the mid 16th-century the Portuguese had
    brought some to Brazil and, soon after, the sweet
    cane made its way to British, Dutch and French
    colonies such as Barbados and Haiti. It wasn't
    long, however, before the early settlers realized
    they were lacking sufficient manpower to plant,
    harvest and process the backbreaking crop. The
    first slave ships arrived in 1505 and continued
    unabated for more than 300 years. Most came from
    western Africa, where Portuguese colonies had
    already established trading outposts for ivory,
    pepper and other goods. To most of the European
    merchants, the people they put on cargo ships
    across the Atlantic a horrendous voyage known
    as the Middle Passage were merely an extension
    of the trading system already in place. Sugar
    slavery was the key component in what historians
    call The Triangular Trade, a network whereby
    slaves were sent to work on New World
    plantations, the product of their labor was sent
    to a European capital to be sold and other goods
    were brought to Africa to purchase more slaves.
    By the middle of the 19th century, more than 10
    million Africans had been forcibly removed to the
    New World and distributed among the sugar
    plantations of Brazil and the Caribbean.

10
Cash Crop Sugar! Continued
  • During those three centuries, sugar was by far
    the most important of the overseas commodities
    that accounted for a third of Europe's entire
    economy. As technologies got more efficient and
    diversified, adding molasses and rum to the
    plantation byproducts, sugar barons from St.
    Kitts to Jamaica became enormously wealthy. The
    importance of those sugar-rich colonies,
    especially those belonging to Britain and France,
    had enormous consequences for the map of the
    Americas during the 1700s. Britain lost its 13
    American colonies to independence in part because
    its military was busy protecting its sugar
    islands, many historians have argued. As opposed
    to the slaves working plantations in the U.S.
    South, Africans on Caribbean sugar plantations
    (and the islands themselves) outnumbered their
    European owners by a wide margin. The British
    planters lived in constant fear of revolt and
    demanded soldiers for protection. Several
    decisive battles of the Revolutionary War would
    have turned out differently had Britain thrown
    its full might behind the war, experts believe.
    Sizable garrisons were also stationed in the West
    Indies to guard the few sugar holdings Britain
    had left at the end of the Seven Years' War in
    1763. In carving up the Americas after the
    fighting stopped, King George III had decided to
    cede a few of his Caribbean sugar islands to
    France in order to secure a sizable chunk of
    North America. In swapping sweet and profitable
    Guadeloupe for the barren, sugar-free wasteland
    of Canada, plus most of the land east of the
    Mississippi River, many Englishmen thought the
    King got a raw deal. http//www.livescience.com/49
    49-sugar-changed-world.html

11
Cash Crop Sugar! Continued
12
Domesticated Animal Cattle
  • The Europeans who first settled in America at
    the end of the 15th century had brought longhorn
    cattle with them. By the early 19th century
    cattle ranches were common in Mexico. At that
    time Mexico included what was to become Texas.
    The longhorn cattle were kept on an open range,
    looked after by cowboys called vaqueros. In 1836,
    Texas became independent, the Mexicans left,
    leaving their cattle behind. Texan farmers
    claimed the cattle and set up their own ranches.
    Beef was not popular so the animals were used for
    their skins and tallow. In the 1850s, beef began
    to be more popular and its price rose making some
    ranchers quite wealthy. http//www.historyonthene
    t.com/American_West/cattle_industry.htm

A Mexican cattle ranch
13
Food Brought by African Slaves Rice
  • A rice variety that made many a colonial
    plantation owner rich was brought to the United
    States from West Africa, according to preliminary
    genetic research. The finding suggests that
    African slaves are responsible for nearly every
    facet of one of the first rice varieties grown in
    the U.S., as well as one of the most lucrative
    crops in early American history. West Africans
    had been growing varieties of rice for several
    thousand years before the start of the slave
    trade with the colonies... Ship masters wanting
    to deliver healthy slaves to the U.S. bought rice
    in Africa as provisions for the voyage Once in
    the colonies, slaves grew leftover rice in their
    own garden plots for food. In 1685 plantation
    owners in the Carolinas started experimenting
    with a rice variety that produced high yields and
    was easy to cook... The slaves used their
    rice-growing know-how to convert the swampy
    Carolina lowlands to thriving rice plantations
    replete with canals, dikes, and levies, which
    facilitated periodic flooding of the fields The
    so-called Carolina Gold variety quickly became a
    high value export crop, primarily to Europe...

http//news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2007/11/0
71128-rice-origins.html
14
Key Concept 4.1.
  • C. Afro-Eurasian fruit trees, grains, sugar, and
    domesticated animals were brought by Europeans to
    the Americas, while other foods were brought by
    African slaves.
  • D. Populations in Afro-Eurasia benefited
    nutritionally from the increased diversity of
    American food crops.
  • E. European colonization and the introduction of
    European agriculture and settlements practices in
    the Americas often affected the physical
    environment through deforestation and soil
    depletion.
  • VI. The increase in interactions between newly
    connected hemispheres and intensification of
    connections within hemispheres expanded the
    spread and reform of existing religions and
    created syncretic belief systems and practices.
  • A. As Islam spread to new settings in
    Afro-Eurasia, believers adapted it to local
    cultural practices. The split between the Sunni
    and Shia traditions of Islam intensified, and
    Sufi practices became more widespread.
  • B. The practice of Christianity continued to
    spread throughout the world and was increasingly
    diversified by the process of diffusion and the
    Reformation.
  • C. Buddhism spread within Asia.
  • D. Syncretic and new forms of religion developed.
  • VII. As merchants profits increased and
    governments collected more taxes, funding for the
    visual and performing arts, even for popular
    audiences, increased.
  • Innovations in visual and performing arts were
    seen all over the world.
  • B. Literacy expanded and was accompanied by the
    proliferation of popular authors, literary forms,
    and works of literature in Afro-Eurasia.

15
What does it mean to be a Sikh?
  • Sikhism emerged in 16th-century India in an
    environment permeated with conflicts between
    Hindus and Muslims. Its founding teacher, Guru
    Nanak Dev, was born in 1469 to a Hindu family.
    His most famous saying was, "There is no Hindu,
    there is no Muslim, so whose path shall I follow?
    I shall follow the path of God." Today, there are
    about 23 million Sikhs worldwide, making Sikhism
    the fifth largest religion in the world.
  • Sacred Text Adi Granth.
  • Beliefs Monotheistic Like Jews, Muslims, and
    Protestant Christians, representations of God in
    images is banned. Like Hinduism, Sikhism believes
    in the concepts of karma and reincarnation.
    Establishment of a Sikh state is a matter of
    religious doctrine.
  • Main Holiday Guru Gobind Singh's Birthday -
    January 5

16
Sikhism Continued
  • Practices
  • 1. Uncut hair, which is kept covered by a turban,
    or dastaar. The dastaar is worn by men and some
    women to cover their long hair.
  • 2. The Kirpan is a ceremonial sword, symbolizing
    readiness to protect the weak, and defend against
    injustice and persecution. The kirpan is normally
    worn with a cloth shoulder strap called a gatra.
    The kirpan exemplifies the warrior character of a
    Sikh.
  • 3. The Kara is a steel bracelet, symbolizing
    strength and integrity.
  • 4. The Kangha is a small wooden comb, symbolizing
    cleanliness and order. The kangha is used to keep
    the hair clean and is normally tucked neatly in
    one's uncut hair. As a Sikh combs their hair
    daily, he or she should also comb their mind with
    the Guru's wisdom.
  • 5. Kachhera are cotton boxer shorts, symbolizing
    self-control and chastity prohibition of
    adultery.
  • www.religionfacts.org
  • http//www.sikhismguide.org/fiveks.aspx

17
Sikhism Continued
Above is the Khanda a double edged sword. It is
a metaphor for divine knowledge.
18
Renaissance Art and Shakespeare
  • Why is Shakespeare considered a Classical
    playwright?
  • How did Renaissance art differ from medieval art?
    How did it represent the philosophy of Humanism?
    If you can answer those questions then move on!

19
Key Concept 4.2 New Forms of Social
Organizationand Modes of Production
  • Although the worlds productive systems continued
    to be heavily centered on agricultural production
    throughout this period, major changes occurred in
    agricultural labor, the systems and locations of
    manufacturing, gender and social structures, and
    environmental processes. A surge in agricultural
    productivity resulted from new methods in crop
    and field rotation and the introduction of new
    crops. Economic growth also depended on new forms
    of manufacturing and new commercial patterns,
    especially in long-distance trade. Political and
    economic centers within regions shifted, and
    merchants social status tended to rise in
    various states. Demographic growth even in
    areas such as the Americas, where disease had
    ravaged the population was restored by the
    eighteenth century and surged in many regions,
    especially with the introduction of American food
    crops throughout the Eastern Hemisphere. The
    Columbian Exchange led to new ways of humans
    interacting with their environments. New forms of
    coerced and semi-coerced labor emerged in Europe,
    Africa, and the Americas, and affected ethnic and
    racial classifications and gender roles.
  • I. Traditional peasant agriculture increased and
    changed, plantations expanded, and demand for
    labor increased. These changes both fed and
    responded to growing global demand for raw
    materials and finished products.
  • A. Peasant labor intensified in many regions.

20
Frontier Peasant Settlements in Siberia
  • The American West and Russia's Far East both
    were just across a mountain barrier from their
    country's original area of settlement. Both
    hinterlands were immense, sparsely populated
    regions that tempted the adventurous and
    restless. In the 19th century, the United States
    enticed settlers to its western territories via
    the Homestead Act. The Czars similarly offered
    Russian peasants the inducement of free land on
    the Siberian frontier. but much much earlier!
    "Fewer than two hundred thousand natives
    scattered in tiny settlements and nomadic
    stopping places across Siberia's five and a third
    million square miles were all that barred their
    advance," notes Dr. Lincoln, a professor at
    Northern Illinois University. Both Siberia and
    the American West were first explored by
    "mountain men" fur traders. Indeed, Dr. Lincoln
    notes, the Siberian fur trade literally made
    Russia's fortune. Until merchant-adventurers,
    such as the famed Stroganov family, began
    shipping back Siberian pelts, Russia was a poor
    nation on the fringe of European affairs. But in
    the 17th century, a fur hat was the mark of a
    European gentleman, and the Siberian sable -- an
    animal the ancient Greeks called the "golden
    fleece"

21
Frontier Peasant Settlements in Siberia
  • gave Russia its first export commodity Life on
    Siberia's frontier was as raw and rough as in
    Dodge City or Tombstone When they'd exhausted
    Siberia's animal stock, Russian fur traders
    hopped across the narrow straits separating Asia
    from North America.
  • Only when they'd finished exploiting Alaska's
    fur-trading possibilities did the Czars sell off
    their North American territories to the United
    States. http//articles.baltimoresun.com/1994-0
    2-01/features/1994032183_1_siberia-golden-fleece-f
    ur

Siberian Bear Hunter 19th Century
22
Chattel Slavery
  • Chattel is movable property.
  • A slave is a person without freedom, who is
    treated as property.
  • As a result of the European Age of Exploration,
    West Africans were transported as chattel slaves
    to the Americas. Their journey (if they survived)
    was called the Middle Passage. They played an
    integral part of Triangular Trade.
  • Muslim Arabs bought and sold chattel slaves in
    Eastern Africa and Southeast Asia.

23
The Creation of Mulattoes and Mestizos
24
Key Concept 4.2
  • B. Slavery in Africa continued both the
    traditional incorporation of slaves into
    households and the export of slaves to the
    Mediterranean and the Indian Ocean.
  • C. The growth of the plantation economy increased
    the demand for slaves in the Americas.
  • D. Colonial economies in the Americas depended on
    a range of coerced labor.
  • II. As new social and political elites changed,
    they also restructured new ethnic, racial, and
    gender hierarchies.
  • Both imperial conquests and widening global
    economic opportunities contributed to the
    formation of new political and economic elites.
  • B. The power of existing political and economic
    elites fluctuated as they confronted new
    challenges to their ability to affect the
    policies of the increasingly powerful monarchs
    and leaders.
  • C. Some notable gender and family restructuring
    occurred, including the demographic changes in
    Africa that resulted from the slave trades.
  • D. The massive demographic changes in the
    Americas resulted in new ethnic and racial
    classifications.

25
Key Concept 4.3. State Consolidation and Imperial
Expansion
  • Empires expanded and conquered new peoples around
    the world, but they often had difficulties
    incorporating culturally, ethnically, and
    religiously diverse subjects, and administrating
    widely dispersed territories. Agents of the
    European powers moved into existing trade
    networks around the world. In Africa and the
    greater Indian Ocean, nascent European empires
    consisted mainly of interconnected trading posts
    and enclaves. In the Americas, European empires
    moved more quickly to settlement and territorial
    control, responding to local demographic and
    commercial conditions. Moreover, the creation of
    European empires in the Americas quickly fostered
    a new Atlantic trade system that included the
    trans-Atlantic slave trade. Around the world,
    empires and states of varying sizes pursued
    strategies of centralization, including more
    efficient taxation systems that placed strains on
    peasant producers, sometimes prompting local
    rebellions. Rulers used public displays of art
    and architecture to legitimize state power.
    African states shared certain characteristics
    with larger Eurasian empires. Changes in African
    and global trading patterns strengthened some
    West and Central African states especially on
    the coast this led to the rise of new states and
    contributed to the decline of states on both the
    coast and in the interior.
  • I. Rulers used a variety of methods to legitimize
    and consolidate their power.
  • Rulers used the arts to display political power
    and to legitimize their rule.
  • B. Rulers continued to use religious ideas to
    legitimize their rule i.e. Aztec human
    sacrifice. Ouch!

26
Art as a Display of Political Power
Louis XIV The Sun King 1638 - 1715
27
Key Concept 4.3
  • C. States treated different ethnic and religious
    groups in ways that utilized their economic
    contributions while limiting their ability to
    challenge the authority of the state.
  • D. Recruitment and use of bureaucratic elites, as
    well as the development of military
    professionals, became more common among rulers
    who wanted to maintain centralized control over
    their populations and resources.
  • E. Rulers used tribute collection and tax farming
    to generate revenue for territorial expansion.
  • II. Imperial expansion relied on the increased
    use of gunpowder, cannons, and armed trade to
    establish large empires in both hemispheres.
  • A. Europeans established new trading-post empires
    in Africa and Asia, which proved profitable for
    the rulers and merchants involved in new global
    trade networks, but these empires also affected
    the power of the states in interior West and
    Central Africa.
  • B. Land empires expanded dramatically in size.
  • Examples of land empires
  • Manchus
  • Mughals
  • Ottomans
  • Russians

28
Key Concept 4.3 Continued
  • C. European states established new maritime
    empires in the Americas.
  • Examples of maritime empires
  • Portuguese
  • Spanish
  • Dutch
  • French
  • British
  • III. Competition over trade routes, state
    rivalries, and local resistance all provided
    significant challenges to state consolidation and
    expansion.

29
Janissaries in the Ottoman Empire
  • Janissaries were a force of elite infantry loyal
    to the Ottoman emperor. The Janissaries were
    christian slaves, taken from their villages
    between the ages of seven and ten, and raised to
    be loyal soldiers of the emperor, whose personal
    property they were. The Janissaries were trained
    bowmen whose loyalty and lack of political
    connections within the Empire made them
    invaluable to the stronger sultans. Their loyalty
    was gained both through their strict training,
    which took up to ten years, and the prospect of
    great rewards for good service. Some two thirds
    of the Grand Viziers of the Ottoman Empire up at
    least until the sixteenth century had been
    Janissaries, as were many other officials of the
    empire. It was only when the line of Sultans
    began to weaken that the Janissaries became
    kingmakers. The first Janissaries were probably
    recruited by Orkhan, as a personal bodyguard.
    Their numbers grew, reaching ten thousand in the
    fifteenth century. Rickard, J. (10 October
    2000), Janissaries (Ottoman Empire),
    http//www.historyofwar.org/articles/weapons_janis
    saries.html

30
Mustafa Kemal Atatürk wearing the traditional
Janissary uniform.
31
Piracy in the Caribbean
  • The great era of piracy in the Caribbean extended
    from around 1560 up until the 1720s. Why? The
    Caribbean was a center of European trade and
    colonization from the late 15th Century. In the
    Treaty of Tordesillas the non-European world was
    divided between the Spanish and the Portuguese
    along a north-south line 270 leagues west of the
    Cape Verde Islands. From the 1560s the Spanish
    adopted a convoy system a treasure fleet
    (flota) would sail annually from Seville,
    carrying passengers, troops, and European goods
    to the colonies of the new world. The purpose was
    to transport a year's worth of silver to Europe.
    This made the returning fleet a tempting target,
    although pirates were more likely to shadow the
    fleet to attack stragglers than try and seize the
    main vessels. The United Provinces and England
    were defiantly anti-Spanish for much of the time
    from the 1560s, while the French government was
    seeking to expand its colonial holdings (the
    French had the first non-Spanish hold in the
    Caribbean at St. Augustine, although it was
    short-lived). Aided by their governments English,
    French and Dutch traders and colonists ignored
    the treaty to invade Spanish territory "No peace
    beyond the line." The Spanish could not afford a
    sufficient military presence to control the area
    or enforce their trading laws, especially after
    the defeat of the Spanish Armada by those pesky
    British!

32
Piracy in the Caribbean Continued
  • In the Caribbean the use of privateers was
    especially popular. The cost of maintaining a
    fleet to defend the colonies was beyond national
    governments of the 16th and 17th centuries.
    Private vessels would be commissioned into a
    'navy' with a letter of marque, paid with a
    substantial share of whatever they could capture
    from enemy ships and settlements, the rest going
    to the crown. These ships would operate
    independently or as a fleet and if successful the
    rewards could be great when Francis Drake
    captured the Spanish Silver Train at Nombre de
    Dios (Panama's Caribbean port at the time) in
    1573 his crews were rich for life. This
    substantial profit made privateering something of
    a regular line of business. Specific to the
    Caribbean were pirates termed buccaneers. The
    original buccaneers were escapees from the
    colonies, forced to survive with little support
    they had to be skilled at boat construction and
    sailing and hunting. They operated with the
    partial support of the non-Spanish colonies and
    until the 1700s their activities were legal, or
    partially legal and there were irregular
    amnesties from all

33
Piracy in the Caribbean Continued
  • nations. Their crews operated as a democracy the
    captain was elected by the crew and they could
    vote to replace him. The captain had to be a
    leader and a fighter in combat he was expected
    to be fighting with his men, not directing
    operations from a distance. Spoils were evenly
    divided into shares when the officers had a
    greater number of shares, it was because they
    took greater risks or had special skills. Often
    the crews would sail without wages "on account"
    and the spoils would be built up over a course
    of months before being divided. They typically
    outmanned trade vessels by a large ratio. There
    was also for some time a social insurance system,
    guaranteeing money or gold for battle wounds at a
    worked-out scale. One undemocratic aspect of the
    buccaneers was that sometimes they would force
    specialists like carpenters to sail with them for
    some time, though they were released when no
    longer needed (if they had not volunteered to
    join by that time). Note also that a typical poor
    man had few other promising career choices at the
    time apart from joining the pirates.

34
Piracy in the Caribbean Continued
  • The pirates were egalitarian and liberated slaves
    when taking over slave ships. The decline of
    piracy in the Caribbean paralleled the decline of
    mercenaries and the rise of national armies in
    Europe. Following the end of the Thirty Years War
    national power expanded. The famous pirates of
    the early 18th century were a completely illegal
    remnant of a golden buccaneering age. Contrast
    this with the earlier example of Henry Morgan, a
    pirate who was knighted and made governor of
    Jamaica! As Spanish presence waned in the
    Caribbean, other nations expanded. The English
    had expanded beyond Barbados, with successful
    colonies on St. Kitts and Nevis, Antigua, and
    Bermuda. The French were well established on
    Guadeloupe, Hispaniola and Martinique. The Dutch
    had remained an almost baseless trading presence
    in the area but following the Spanish decline
    they became established at Curaçao and Aruba.

35
Piracy in the Caribbean Continued
36
HW Questions
  1. Fill in your Period 4 chart for Sikhism. Your
    COMPLETED chart is due this Thursday!
  2. Briefly describe the impact of American maize
    (corn) and sugar in global history.
  3. Why did some Russians begin to settle Siberia?
    How was this similar to the settlement of the
    American western frontier?
  4. What were the causes and consequences of piracy
    in the Caribbean?
  5. Were there more changes or continuities within
    period 4 (1450 1750 CE) ? Focus on at least 2
    regions of the world. (No more than 2 paragraphs)
  6. Complete the visual timeline (see the next slide)

37
Period 4 Visual Timeline
Period Four Timeline 1450 CE 1750 CE Your group
must create a visual timeline for the following
events. Keep it simple! If you do it on the
computer, you can email it to all of your group
members.
Date Event
1464 Sonni Ali became ruler of the Songhai Empire, West Africa
1492 Columbuss first voyage
1517 Martin Luther posted the 95 Theses
1600 Spanish Armada
1631 Shaj Jahan built the Taj Mahal for his late wife Mumtaz
1633 Galileo Galilei put on trial
1648 30 Years War ended
1492 Columbuss first voyage
1517 Martin Luther posted the 95 Theses
1600 Spanish Armada
1633 Galileo Galilei put on trial
38
Key Vocabulary
  • Buccaneers
  • Convoy System
  • Janissary
  • Maize
  • Privateers
  • Rum
  • Sugar Cane
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