The Middle East and South Asia during the Early Modern Era 1450-1750 - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Loading...

PPT – The Middle East and South Asia during the Early Modern Era 1450-1750 PowerPoint presentation | free to download - id: 3d4eb1-NDQ0N



Loading


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

The Middle East and South Asia during the Early Modern Era 1450-1750

Description:

The Middle East and South Asia during the Early Modern Era 1450-1750 Suleymaniye mosque built for Sultan Suleyman the Magnificent by the Ottoman architect Sinan ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:101
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 27
Provided by: sharepoin1
Learn more at: http://sharepoint.chiles.leon.k12.fl.us
Category:

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: The Middle East and South Asia during the Early Modern Era 1450-1750


1
The Middle East and South Asia during the Early
Modern Era1450-1750
Suleymaniye mosque built for Sultan Suleyman the
Magnificent by the Ottoman architect Sinan
Pashain 1556.
2
4000 BCE 500 BCE
  • Mesopotamia
  • Veiling of women
  • Moses established monotheism.
  • Hammurabis Law Code

3
500 BCE 600 CE
  • Persian Empire
  • Alexander of Macedon sacked the capital built by
    Darius at Persepolis.
  • Zoroastrianism and its text The Gathas promoted
    the concepts of good and evil, right and wrong,
    and reward and punishment.

4
600 CE 1450 CE
  • Muhammad introduces Islam.
  • Umayyad Empire institutes a tax, the jizya, on
    Christians, Jews, Zoroastrians, and Buddhists.
  • Conquering empire

5
600 CE 1450 CE
  • Abbasid Empire
  • Relied on Persian techniques of administration.
  • Baghdad became a center of bankers, commerce, and
    craft
  • Indian, Persian, and Greek influences encouraged
    explosion in literature, philosophy and
    mathematics.

6
600 CE 1450 CE
  • Mongols
  • Kublai Khans brother toppled Abbasid Empire and
    established Mongol ilkhanate in Persia.

7
1450 CE 1750 CE
  • Ottomans
  • Autocratic
  • Women were revered in politics and helped manage
    empire.
  • Bureaucracy drew inspiration from stepped
    traditions of Turkish and Mongol people
  • Sacked capitol of Constantinople and absorbed
    Byzantine Empire.

8
Identify the five most significant cultural
changes that took place in the Middle East during
the Early Modern Era (1450-1750).
9
Political Change
  • When Mehmud II captured Constantinople in 1453,
    he established new capitol and called it
    Istanbul.
  • He established tightly centralized, absolute
    monarchy.
  • He wasnt just a warrior he was also a true
    emperor.
  • Under Suleyman, the Ottomans became a naval
    power.
  • Shan Ismail and the Savavids established a
    presence in modern day Iran and Iraq.

10
(No Transcript)
11
Political Change
  • Conflicts developed between the Ottomans and the
    Safavids who embraced Twelver Shiism.
  • Flashback
  • After the death of Muhammad Muslims split
  • Shias believed leadership should be assigned to
    descendants of Ali.
  • Sunnis believed in the legitimacy of the early
    caliphs.

12
Social Change
  • The rulers mother and his chief wife or favorite
    concubine enjoyed special privileges and
    authority.
  • Ottoman, Safavid, and Mughal emperors followed
    the example of Chinggis Khan in relying on these
    women in political roles.
  • Population growth was not as dramatic as in
    other parts of the world.

13
Religious Change
  • Twelver Shiism was introduced by Shah Ismail and
    the Safavid Empire.
  • They believed one of the twelve religious
    leaders after Muhammad beginning with Ali would
    return to take power and spread true religion.
  • Safavids believed that Ismail was incarnation of
    Allah.
  • Established Shiites in Iran and Iraq which still
    exists today.

14
Intellectual Change
  • There was a decline in intellectual pursuits due
    to the focus on expansion.
  • Islamic empires neglected cultural developments
    in the larger world.
  • Few Muslims traveled willingly to the land of the
    Franks.
  • Muslim rulers and their subjects felt superior
    and believed they had nothing to learn from
    Europeans.
  • Conservative religious Islamic leaders actively
    discouraged the circulation of writing that might
    pose challenges to the social and cultural order.

15
Technological Change
  • Capital cities and royal palaces reflected
    imperial majesty.
  • Monuments of Istanbul reflected Byzantine and
    Islamic elements.
  • Suleymaniyes religious complex combined tall,
    slender minarets and large domed buildings
    supported by half domes in the style of the
    Byzantine church Hagia Sophia.
  • They used European warfare technologies on a
    widespread scale.

16
Economic Changes in Middle East
  • American food products were introduced to Middle
    East
  • Maize, potatoes, and tomatoes
  • American producers and European merchants
    supplied Muslim markets with coffee, sugar, and
    tobacco.
  • By the 18th century, foreign trade had declined
    dramatically.
  • Much of Middle Eastern trade had fallen under the
    control of European powers.

17
What were the continuities in the Middle East
during the Early Modern Era (1450-1750)?
18
Political Continuities
  • They remained Islamic and military empires.
  • Continued use of the devshirme and Janissaries
    established by early Ottoman empire.
  • Islamic empires continued the use of the dhimmi
    in return for the jizya.
  • Continued fighting among different groups within
    the empire.
  • Religious tensions
  • Economic difficulties

19
Social Continuities
  • The practice of veiling of women continued. The
    lives of most women in society continued to be
    suppressed.

20
Religious Continuities
  • Islam remained the predominant religion of the
    region.
  • Ottomans continued practice of religious
    toleration as long as the jizya was paid.

21
Technological Continuities
  • A common theme throughout this period was the use
    of European warfare technologies.

22
Economic Continuities
  • The Middle East continued to play a role in
    regional trade, though their place in the global
    trade network decreased.

23
Political and Religious Change in South Asia
Islam arrives in India.
  • The Mughals, led by Zahir al-Din Muhammad (Babur
    the tiger), came from central Asia and took
    Delhi.
  • His grandson, Akbar, expanded the Mughal empire
    into southern India. Akbar was a tolerant ruler.
  • Zurangzeb taxed and persecuted Hindus. It
    intensified tension between Hindus and Mughal
    leaders.

24
Changes in Gender in South Asia
  • Like Middle Eastern Islamic empires, rulers
    consulted their wives on political matters.
  • Aurangzeb followed his daughters advice.
  • Mughal Shah Jahan constructed the Taj Mahal to
    honor his wife.

25
Changes in Gender in South Asia
  • Women in imperial households had roles as
    official wives and concubines but were relegated
    to the harem where they raised their young
    children and competed with one another for the
    rulers affections and favors. Because
    succession was an indeterminate matter, imperial
    struggles for power often began in the harem
    between competing mothers of potential heirs.

26
Cultural Influences in South Asia
  • Mughals blended central Asian features with Hindu
    architecture.
  • The Taj Mahal, a mausoleum dedicated to the
    memory of Shah Jahans favorite wife, shows the
    influence of Islam with arches and arcades.
  • Mughal painting was heavily influenced by Persian
    painters.
About PowerShow.com