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America and World War II

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Title: America and World War II


1
America and World War II
  • APUSH
  • Mr. McElhaney

2
AP Outline
  • 21. The Second World War
  • The rise of fascism and militarism in Japan,
    Italy, and Germany
  • Prelude to war policy of neutrality
  • The attack on Pearl Harbor and United States
    declaration of war
  • Fighting a multi-front war
  • Diplomacy, war aims, and wartime conferences
  • The United States as a global power in the Atomic
    Age
  • 22. The Home Front During the War
  • Wartime mobilization of the economy
  • Urban migration and demographic changes
  • Women, work, and family during the war
  • Civil liberties and civil rights during wartime
  • War and regional development
  • Expansion of government power

3
Terms to Know
  • Treaty of Versailles
  • Good Neighbor Policy
  • Buenos Aires Conference, 1936
  • Washington Naval Conference, 1922
  • Kellogg-Briand Pact, 1928
  • Stimson Doctrine
  • Trade Agreements Act
  • Election of 1940
  • Axis Alliance, Mussolini, Hitler
  • Appeasement/Munich Agreement
  • Lend-Lease Act, 1941
  • German-Soviet Non-Aggression Pact
  • Selective Training and Service Act
  • Tripartite Pact
  • Maginot Line
  • Battle of Britain/ Operation Sea Lion
  • Atlantic Charter, 1941
  • Hideki Tojo/Japan, China, Embargo
  • War Powers Act
  • War in the Pacific
  • War in Africa, Europe
  • Eisenhower, Second Front, D-Day, Battle of the
    Bulge
  • Servicemens Readjustment Act (G.I. Bill)
    Neutrality Acts, 1935-1940
  • Four Freedoms Speech
  • Rosie the Riveter, War Production Board
  • African Americans in War
  • Tuskegee Airmen, Phillip Randolph
  • Holocaust and Jewish
  • Wartime Conferences
  • Casablanca
  • Cairo
  • Teheran
  • Quebec
  • Yalta
  • Potsdam
  • Manhattan Project
  • Robert Oppenheimer
  • Los Alamos, Alamogordo

4
Questions- Pre-World War II
  • Basic questions you should be able to answer
  • How does the US public respond to Japanese,
    Italian, and German militarism and aggression in
    the 1930s?
  • Was it inevitable that the United States was
    going to join the War?
  • How does the Roosevelt administration try to stay
    out of the growing conflicts in Europe and Asia
    and what finally pushes the US into the conflict?
  • How was FDRs Good Neighbor policy a departure
    for American politicians since the 1890s?

5
Quiz 3-13
  • Respond to two of the following
  • How did FDR reinforce the policy toward Latin
    America begun by the Hoover administration?
  • Explain how the Stimson Doctrine is applied in
    relation to China.
  • What action does Congress take in an effort to
    support American neutrality?

6
United States Status After WWI
  • After WWI US is considered Isolationist by many,
    because of the desire to stay out of
    international politics (not a member of League of
    NationsWilson and Republicans)
  • Few international treaties
  • Washington Naval Conference- limits naval
    armaments
  • Kellogg-Briand Pact-outlaws war
  • Dawes Plan- reorganizes German WWI debt payments
  • Trade drives American motives
  • Reduction of interference in Latin America (Good
    Neighbor)
  • Above all- popular opinion in US is to stay out
    of foreign wars!

7
FDR and Foreign Affairs
  • Similar to Wilson, FDR wanted to use power to
    maintain order
  • Moral and just principles
  • However, must abide by public opinion which is
    Isolationist
  • Interventionist
  • Appoints Cordell Hull as Secretary of State
  • Basic views
  • Isolation is not a lasting policy
  • Technology impacts distance of oceans
  • Important to maintain American interests
  • Reciprocal Reduction of Tariffs- will help the
    economy countries that reduce tariffs, US will
    also reduce tariffs more trade for both partners

8
Good Neighbor Policy
  • FDR wanted to continue the cordial relations with
    the world and Latin America in particular
  • Continued attempt begun with Hoover
  • Cooperation and non-interventionist
  • Example 1933 Montevideo International
    Conference- Uruguay
  • Repudiated the Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe
    Doctrine
  • Withdrew troops from Haiti
  • Did not send troops to Cuba
  • 1936 FDR visited Buenos Aires, arranged meeting
    of LA nations supporting peace movement

9
Mussolini-Italian Right Wing Dictator
  • Came to power in 1922
  • Fascisti De Combatamento. (Fascist)
  • Right Wing, anti-Socialist and Communist
  • Wanted greatness like the Roman Empire for Italy
  • Repressive but not too extreme- (no concentration
    camps)
  • Nationalist
  • Invades Somalia (1935) and Ethiopia in 1936

10
Haile Selassie
  • Ethiopian Emperor- Condemned the invasion of his
    country in the League of Nations
  • This was a perfect example of the failure of the
    League- no way to enforce peace- beyond economic
    sanctions
  • Haile Selassie is regarded as the Messiah of the
    African race by followers of the Rastafarian
    movement. The word ''Rastafarian'' comes from
    Selassie's pre-coronation name, Ras Tafari.

11
Hitler Rises to Power
  • Germany has problems
  • Economic Depression
  • Conflict with Socialist/Communists against Right
    Wing Groups- Nazis are one group
  • Nazis gain significant power in Reichstag (German
    legislature) 1933 and Hitler ascends to
    Chancellor (similar to Prime Minister-executive
    branch)

12
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13
Factors that Contributed to Hitlers Rise
  • Economic depression
  • Treaty of Versailles (Peace Treaty Germany and
    Allies World War I)
  • Striped Germany of land (East Prussia, Danzig and
    empire)
  • Striped Germany of military, navy, air force
  • Allies had a right to intervene (Saar Basin
    Rhineland, many resources)
  • German had to take explicit blame for the war
  • Pay War Repartitions
  • Socialists/Communists vs Right Wing groups were
    fighting for control
  • Created conditions for popularity of Nazis for
    some German voters

14
Hitler and Hindenburg
  • New Chancellor and Old President of Weimar
    Republic

15
Hitler-Once in Power
  • Hitler vows to make Germany great again
  • To Claim its rightful place in the Sun.
  • Reichstag fire Hitler has emergency powers
  • Hitler begins to implement his plan- (found in
    his book Mein Kampf)
  • Rearm Germany
  • Unite the German people in one country (all
    German speaking people 1938 Anschluss- political
    unity between Austria and Germany, later
    (Sudetenland) Czechoslovakia and East Prussia
    (part of Poland)
  • Ethnically Cleanse German Territory (all
    non-AryanJews, Gypsies)
  • Expand East Lebensraub- into Russian lands,
    Destroy communists

16
European Appeasement
  • One of the huge lessons of World War II that is
    brought up again and again is the idea of
    Appeasement (giving in to demands as an expedient
    to avoid a conflict or difficult struggle)
  • The powers of France, Great Britain and others in
    Europe have been accused of appeasing Hitler when
    they should have stopped his early demands.
  • The idea is that perhaps Hitler could have been
    stopped. Before he was too powerful.
  • By giving in to Hitlers demands, it encouraged
    him to push further and brought another Global
    War
  • British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain will
    always be remembered for his appeasement of
    Hitler. (Peace in Our Time) Munich Agreement

17
Why did the Allies appease Hitler?
  • Treaty of Versailles- Peace was too harsh
  • All consuming desire for peace
  • Rearmament
  • Nationalism- create one nation, racial, ethnic
    homogeneity, with strength and a traditional
    spiritual location
  • Anschluss-
  • Chamberlain and Munich Sudetenland,
  • 1939 Poland and the Polish Corridor-Danzig-
  • Nazi-Soviet Non-aggression Pact
  • 1941 Lebensraum and Operation Barbarossa-

18
Failure of the League of Nations
  • Recall the League of Nations was designed to
    prevent war
  • Problems US is not part of
  • It did not have an enforcement capability-
    especially could not use force
  • Only weapon was economic embargo and public
    pressure
  • When Japan, then Italy, and later Germany pursue
    aggression invading other countries (Manchuria,
    Somalia, Ethiopia, Spanish Civil War, and
    Czchoslovakia)
  • The international body will have little or no
    effect

19
China Still Weak
  • After WWI China remains weak
  • Open Door Reinforced
  • Nationalists (Kuomintang) Sun-Yat Sen and Chiang
    Kai-shek- Friendly to United States Fighting over
    control with Communist forces of Mao Tse Tung

20
Japan
  • Wanted to expand its empire similar to France,
    Britain, and the US.
  • Want to control Chinas abundant natural
    resources
  • Japan was angry regarding the Washington Naval
    Conference (1921- Harding Admin, set limit for
    Japanese Navy, subordinate position to US and
    Britain, reinforced the Open Door policy, all
    nations can trade with China.
  • Japanese nationalists rise in power and asserted
    that power in Manchuria

21
Japan invades Manchuria 1931
  • Russo-Japanese War- begins Japanese interest in
    Manchuria (Rivals of Russians, and economic
    interests, raw materials)
  • Japanese military asserted rights to Manchuria
  • Military- incident with Chinese forces is an
    excuse for full takeover of Manchuria, new name
    is Manchukuo.
  • Later to further weaken China, Japan will bomb
    Shanghai- over a boycott of Japanese goods

22
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23
Results of Japanese invasion of Manchuria
  • US President was Hoover (1932)
  • Hoover responds with the Stimson Doctrine-
    (Secretary of State under Hoover) refusing to
    acknowledge results of gains made by aggression-
  • US will not recognize territorial changes-
  • League of Nations condemns the attack on China
  • Japan subsequently withdraws from League of
    Nations (League is essentially ignored)
  • No country wants war and China will suffer
    greatly when Japan attacks full scale invasion
    1936(caution very graphic see Rape of Nanjing)
  • 300,000 civilians killed
  • Japan proclaims new order in Asia, and
    essentially closes the Open Door

24
Chinese Fight
  • Chiang Kai-shek resists the Japanese and moves
    capital to Chunking and even unites with the the
    Communists- Mao Tse Tung for the duration of the
    war.

25
American Neutrality
  • The Neutrality Act of 1935- members of congress,
    wanted to keep America out of war
  • Popular idea, US entered WWI because of bankers
    and industrialists
  • Imposed an embargo on warring nations
  • Forbade American sale of war goods and ships
    from transporting munitions to belligerent
    countries
  • Gave president power to prohibit Americans
    traveling on belligerent ships
  • Neutrality Act 1936- forbade loans to belligerent
    countries
  • Neutrality Act 1937- response to the Spanish
    Civil War
  • Goods from the US to warring nations had to be
    paid for in cash (2 years only)

26
More Neutrality
  • Many groups in America wanted Isolation
  • Irish, German- Americans
  • Midwesterners, Anti-Communists, Anti-Semites,
    liberals who wanted continue reform, and
    pacifists
  • Ludlow Amendment- Isolationist support was so
    great that- an amendment to Constitution was
    proposed, that only in case of attack or invasion
    could US declare war. (not approved)

27
Quarantine Speech
  • 1937 FDR
  • The Quarantine Speech FDR on 1937 calling for an
    international "quarantine of the aggressor
    nations" as an alternative to the political
    climate of American neutrality and isolationism
    that was prevalent at the time.
  • The speech intensified America's isolationist
    mood, causing protest by isolationists and foes
    to intervention.
  • The speech was a response to aggressive actions
    by Italy and Japan, and suggested the use of
    economic pressure, a forceful response, but less
    direct than outright aggression.

28
FDR Tries to Aide Chinese
  • Flying Tigers
  • American Volunteers
  • Fighting for Chinese
  • Read More on the Web

29
Spanish Civil War
  • Loyalists-Democratically elected Socialists are
    attacked by Francisco Franco-
  • Insurgents- Generalissimo Francisco Franco- Nazis
    and Italian Fascists support with 50,000 troops,
    planes, and tanks.
  • Loyalists are supported by Soviet Union and
    International Brigades (Foreign volunteers- For
    Whom the Bell Tolls)
  • American Neutrality Acts hurt the loyalist
    cause- Americans will not help the Spanish Gov.
  • FDR wanted to help but was hampered by
    isolationist law makers

30
Picassos painting of German bombing of ancient
city of Gurenica, during Span Civ War-
31
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32
German-Soviet Non Aggression Pact
  • August 23, 1939- Hitler and Stalin sign a secret
    agreement to partition Poland-
  • Germans invade Poland in the West
  • Russians invade Poland in the East
  • World War II in Europe begins- France and Britain
    had guaranteed Polish sovereignty
  • US responds with a renewed Neutrality act 1939-
    cash and carry

33
Non-Aggression Pact
34
Non Aggression Pact
Germans and Soviets share Poland-1939
35
The Phony War
  • Refers to the period between Polands Surrender
    and the attack on France and Britain.
  • September 1939-April 1940
  • Germany rapidly beat Poland Blitzkrieg
  • France and Britain mobilized and waited for
    attack
  • April 1940 Denmark, Norway,
  • May 1940 Belgium and France
  • Dunkirk- 300,000 British troops escape the
    continent- Churchill now in charge
  • Paris Falls June 1940
  • England stands alone Battle of Britain

36
Battle of Britain
  • Brits were alone as of June 1940
  • Winston Churchill, the new prime minister summed
    up the British attitude
  • We shall not flag or fail. We shall go on to the
    end. We shall fight in France, we shall fight on
    the seas and the oceans, we shall fight with
    growing confidence and growing strength in the
    air, we shall defend our island, whatever the
    cost may be. We shall fight on the beaches, we
    shall fight on the landing grounds, we shall
    fight in the fields and in the streets, we shall
    fight in the hills we shall never surrender.

37
What will
  • in God's good time, the New World, with all its
    power and might, steps forth to the rescue and
    the liberation of the old."

38
United States Reacts to WarDebate 1940
Isolationist or Internationalist
  • Isolationists
  • America First Committee
  • Charles A Lindberg
  • Intervention is detrimental to American
    interests
  • Internationalists
  • Committee to Defend America
  • Best way to keep US out of war is to Help allies
    fight the Germans
  • Roosevelt is sympathetic
  • Defend America by Aiding the Allies

39
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40
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41
FDR Calls for Preparedness
  • May 1940 FDR calls Congress to create an air
    force of 50,000 planes
  • And capacity to produce 50,000 planes per year
  • By June 1940 3 Billion was appropriated for
    defense
  • By October 1940, 17 Billion was appropriated for
    defense including Navy

42
FDR Aids the Allies
  • Summer 1940 FDR asks congress to allow trade of
    50 destroyers in exchange for 99 year leases for
    bases in the Atlantic
  • Although population does not want to enter the
    war, 73 support aid to Britain.

43
1941 Lend Lease
  • 1941 Lend Lease
  • Program to offer aid to Brits
  • FDR in a Fireside Chat If a neighbors home
    were on fire
  • lease, lend or otherwise dispose of any items
    not vital to the nations defense.
  • US is closer to the War- (US Ships secretly were
    supporting the British Navy by searching and
    reporting on U-boat locations)
  • Hitler afraid to attack American Ships

44
Atlantic Charter AUGUST 14, 1941
  • The President of the United States of America and
    the Prime Minister, Mr. Churchill, representing
    His Majesty's Government in the United Kingdom,
    being met together, deem it right to make known
    certain common principles in the national
    policies of their respective countries on which
    they base their hopes for a better future for the
    world.
  • First, their countries seek no aggrandizement,
    territorial or other
  • Second, they desire to see no territorial changes
    that do not accord with the freely expressed
    wishes of the peoples concerned
  • Third, they respect the right of all peoples to
    choose the form of government under which they
    will live and they wish to see sovereign rights
    and self government restored to those who have
    been forcibly deprived of them
  • Fourth, they will endeavor, with due respect for
    their existing obligations, to further the
    enjoyment by all States, great or small, victor
    or vanquished, of access, on equal terms, to the
    trade and to the raw materials of the world which
    are needed for their economic prosperity
  • Fifth, they desire to bring about the fullest
    collaboration between all nations in the economic
    field with the object of securing, for all,
    improved labor standards, economic advancement
    and social security
  • Sixth, after the final destruction of the Nazi
    tyranny, they hope to see established a peace
    which will afford to all nations the means of
    dwelling in safety within their own boundaries,
    and which will afford assurance that all the men
    in all lands may live out their lives in freedom
    from fear and want
  • Seventh, such a peace should enable all men to
    traverse the high seas and oceans without
    hindrance
  • Eighth, they believe that all of the nations of
    the world, for realistic as well as spiritual
    reasons must come to the abandonment of the use
    of force. Since no future peace can be maintained
    if land, sea or air armaments continue to be
    employed by nations which threaten, or may
    threaten, aggression outside of their frontiers,
    they believe, pending the establishment of a
    wider and permanent system of general security,
    that the disarmament of such nations is
    essential. They will likewise aid and encourage
    all other practicable measure which will lighten
    for peace-loving peoples the crushing burden of
    armaments.

45
Meeting Before the War
  • Before US enters War August, 1941 Newfoundland
  • Secret, FDR and Churchill meet to coordinate
  • Create the Atlantic Charter (a statement of
    principles agreed upon)
  • Condemned Aggression
  • Endorsed National Self Determination
  • Self Government as a universal right
  • Collective Security
  • Opposed forced, undemocratic territorial changes
  • Significance Became a great statement of
    Anglo-American Ideals and a precursor to the Post
    War ideals of the United Nations

46
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47
Selective Service Act Sept. 1940
  • TIME
  • (September 23, 1940)
  •        Last week Congress passed the conscription
    bill. This week the President signed it. A new
    thing had entered U.S. life although the U.S.
    had conscripted its citizens in two wars, never
    before had it conscripted them in peace. Some
    16,500.000 men, aged 21 to 36, forthwith became
    liable to compulsory military service. How, when,
    whether conscription would actually touch them
    was prescribed in 1) the bill, and 2) the
    selective system which the Army Navy had long
    since prepared against a martial day.
  •       The Bill laid down the general philosophy,
    rules, scope of conscription
  •       No more than 900,000 conscripts can be
    called in any one year (the  Army plans to call
    800,000 a year). They will be kept in training
    for  one year, will then enter an enlisted
    reserve where they will be subject to recall for
    emergency service for ten years or until they are
    45. They will not be subject to periodic recalls
    for further training. But if Congress finds the
    nation in peril before their initial year's 
    service ends, they can be held under arms
    indefinitely.

48
Election of 1940 then the Draft
  • FDR decides to Run for a third term
  • The Nation Needs emergency situation
  • War in Europe
  • Problems in Asia
  • Wants to protect New Deal reforms
  • Ran against Wendell Willkie
  • FDR Wins- then begins the process
  • Prepare for War
  • Draft
  • Armament build up

49
FDR Wins Unprecedented 3rd Term
50
Roosevelts Four Freedoms Speech January 1941
  • To congress, State of the Union, focus on war
    preparedness
  • the future of all the American Republics is
    today in serious danger.
  • That is why this Annual Message to the Congress
    is unique in our history.
  • The need of the moment is that our actions and
    our policy should be devoted primarily-almost
    exclusively--to meeting this foreign peril. For
    all our domestic problems are now a part of the
    great emergency.
  • Just as our national policy in internal affairs
    has been based upon a decent respect for the
    rights and the dignity of all our fellow men
    within our gates, so our national policy in
    foreign affairs has been based on a decent
    respect for the rights and dignity of all
    nations, large and small. And the justice of
    morality must and will win in the end.

51
Four Freedoms Continued
  • The first is freedom of speech and
    expression--everywhere in the world.
  • The second is freedom of every person to worship
    God in his own way--everywhere in the world.
  • The third is freedom from want--which, translated
    into world terms, means economic understandings
    which will secure to every nation a healthy
    peacetime life for its inhabitants-everywhere in
    the world.
  • The fourth is freedom from fear--which,
    translated into world terms, means a world-wide
    reduction of armaments to such a point and in
    such a thorough fashion that no nation will be in
    a position to commit an act of physical
    aggression against any neighbor--anywhere in the
    world.

52
Significance of Four Freedoms Speech
  • Represents FDRs view that America needs to
    prepare for war and support Britain.
  • FDR Prepares for War
  • Increased Military appropriations
  • Aliens are fingerprinted
  • Peace time draft to raise 2 million troops

53
October 1941 North Atlantic
  • FDR was determined to continue to support England
    with Lend Lease material
  • Extended an American defense zone around Iceland
  • Authorized Navy Destroyers to escort British
    merchant ships, and shoot U-Boats on sight
  • Greer and Reuben James Incidents cause the US
    Congress repeal last Neutrality Acts-
  • Allowed arming of merchant ships
  • Transport of goods through war zones
  • Navy Escorts allowed (FDR- was hoping for an
    incident)

54
Why did the Japanese Bomb Pearl Harbor?
  • Japanese wanted to expand their empire into
    China. China had abundant natural resources that
    would benefit the Japanese desire to build
    industry. In early 1930s Japan began aggression
    in Manchuria (Manchckou) and later in 1937 began
    a full invasion of the Chinese mainland.
  • The United States response was at first mild,
    Hoover-Stimson Doctrine. As Japan began the
    invasion of mainland China the US policy began to
    change to one of more active complaints and
    pressure on Japan in the form of economic
    embargo. At first the embargo only addressed
    limited goods like scrap metals, later oil was
    being added, all in an effort to dissuade the
    Japanese from further aggression in China.
  • Japan knew that war was probable so they made a
    plan to destroy the American Navy at Pearl Harbor
    and invade the natural resource rich area of
    South East Asia, including Malaysia, Indonesia
    (lots of oil), Philippines, and Indochina (lots
    of rubber, tin)

55
Pearl Harbor
  • American Reaction to Pearl Harbor American
    reaction to Pearl Harbor was swift and violent. 
  • Immediate calls for war and revenge were heard
    throughout the country. 
  • Congress declared war and thousands of soldiers
    volunteered to fight. 
  • Americans were mad and they would never forget
    the treachery of the Japanese.

56
Big Questions Winning the War
  • To what extent was the (industrial) mobilization
    for war a key factor in the American victory?
  • How is the American home front and mobilization
    in WWI similar to the home front and mobilization
    in WWII and how are they different?

57
Basics of WWII
  • The Home Front During the War
  • Wartime mobilization of the economy
  • Urban migration and demographic changes
  • Women, work, and family during the war
  • Civil liberties and civil rights during wartime
  • War and regional development
  • Expansion of government power
  • Fighting a multi-front war
  • Diplomacy, war aims, and wartime conferences
  • The United States as a global power in the Atomic
    Age

58
Be able to summarize the following
  • American response to Pearl Harbor
  • Arsenal of Democracy
  • Financing the war
  • Size of government
  • Internment of Japanese Americans

59
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60
A date that will live in Infamy
  • President Franklin D. Roosevelt Yesterday,
    December 7, 1941a date which will live in
    infamythe United States of America was suddenly
    and deliberately attacked by naval and air forces
    of the Empire of Japan.
  • The United States was at peace with that nation,
    and, at the solicitation of Japan, was still in
    conversation with its government and its emperor
    looking toward the maintenance of peace in the
    Pacific. Indeed, one hour after Japanese air
    squadrons had commenced bombing in the American
    island of Oahu, the Japanese ambassador to the
    United States and his colleague delivered to our
    secretary of state a formal reply to a recent
    American message. While this reply stated that it
    seemed useless to continue the existing
    diplomatic negotiations, it contained no threat
    or hint of war or armed attack.
  • It will be recorded that the distance of Hawaii
    from Japan makes it obvious that the attack was
    deliberately planned many days or even weeks ago.
    During the intervening time the Japanese
    government has deliberately sought to deceive the
    United States by false statements and expressions
    of hope for continued peace.

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63
  • Jay Noreski Yes sir. My name is Noreski. Jay
    Noreski. Im a World War veteran. 1917 and 18.
    The last time I went to fought for democracy.
    They told me to fight for democracy. And I went
    over. I volunteered. But next time, Im going to
    fight. Theres hate in my heart. Whats in me,
    whats in my veins. Im gonna kill, slaughter
    those Nazi ones if I come across a wounded one,
    wouldnt interest me. Id kill my own father if
    he dared fight against this country. Im an
    American, not by birth, but by choice. And Im
    mighty damn proud of it. What are you going to do
    in this county to chase every damn skunkGerman,
    Russian, Japanese, where they come fromand never
    bring them back in this country. If I hadI wish
    I was the President for about one year, I
    wouldthered be not a goddamn skunk left here in
    this country. And Im gonna tell you something
    elseUnited States never lost a war yet and never
    gonna lose it because five guys, we might
    inaudible about our presidents, about our
    Congressmen, about ourwhat do you call it? in
    charge of a state?

64
  • Andrew Smith My names Andrew Smith. And I tell
    you, what I feel about the war, theyve been
    talking war long enough. And theyve been talking
    long time that we should have been in it. Way I
    feel about itif itd been up to me wed a been
    fighting a year ago. When Hitler first started
    theyd been fighting, see, they would have
    stopped him before he got as far as they are.
    Theyd have stopped him, in fact, thats what I
    think this ones gonna come up to be to stop him.
    And thats the good thing that this really
    started, I think. As far as Japans concerned,
    why its just like he just said, its a stab in
    the back. They started something that nobody
    else, nobody gonna start, you know, and the man
    was supposed to be here, supposed tove been
    talking peace to our President, and they starting
    war over there. Well, I dont think it was
    justice. No justice there. Negro people would do
    their very best if they had a chance to do what
    they can, that they would do their very best to
    do what they can. See? But, if they have a chance
    to do it. All they want is a chance. Because if
    they dont get a chance, thats the only reason
    they dont do it because they really dont get a
    chance. See? But if they get a chance, why I
    really think they would do their very best,
    especially if they all feel like I feel.

65
Key Ideas Americas Response to Pearl Harbor and
War
  • US had started to prepare 1940
  • Airplane production/design
  • Draft/Selective Service-1940
  • Build the Arsenal of Democracy-Harness the
    Industrial and Economic power of the US- and
    focus it toward War.
  • Focus on building War material- Specifically Air
    power, Bombers, B17, B24, B29
  • Germany was the biggest threat, Focus of first
    phase of War
  • Then Japan

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Japan Offensive
  • Hitler and Mussolini both declared war on the
    United States as a sign of support for the
    Japanese.
  • Japan Attacks Polynesian Asia Immediately
    following the attack on Pearl Harbor Japanese
    forces began a systematic invasion of the
    Pacific.  Malaysia, Singapore, Burma, French
    Indochina, and the Philippines were overrun. 
    American forces in the Philippines were
    outnumbered and overwhelmed by Japanese forces.
  • 12,000 American prisoners were taken in the fall
    of the last Philippine strong hold called Bataan.
  • Bataan Death March

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Philippines Fall to Japanese link
  • April 9, 1942 - U.S. forces on Bata-an surrender
    unconditionally to the Japanese.Link another link

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How does America respond to Pearl Harbor?
  • Reading focus question
  • How does the war impact American society?
  • Use specific examples from reading

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American Arsenal of Democracy
  • America Mobilizes for War (WPB)
  • War Production Board- goal is to transform
    industrial production to War production, organize
    all industrial output
  • Board had much power to control resources
  • Limited civilian goods- Rationing of food, fuel
  • Automobile production stopped
  • Conservation and recycle movement, rubber, metal,
    grease,

72
Arsenal of Democracy
  • 320 Billion government spending- 1940-1945
  • Huge amount was 6 times that of Roosevelts first
    two terms.

73
Financing the War
  • Taxes increase
  • Income
  • 1941 7 million people file taxes
  • 1944 42 million people file taxes
  • Government starts withholding from workers
  • Loans/War Bonds
  • 100 billion in bonds sold

74
Problem of Inflation
  • Prices rise with full inflation
  • Full employment GDP Doubles 1940-1945 to 211.9
    billion
  • Office of Price Administration is created to
    manage prices
  • Freezes prices
  • Rations- Gas, tires, meat, sugar, shoes, coffee,
    canned goods (Ration books-needed coupons to
    purchase goods)

75
The Size of Government Explodes
  • Hundreds of agencies created
  • National War Labor Boards- to manage labor
    practices and prevent strikes
  • Office of War Mobilization- to help coordinate
    agencies
  • Local Draft Boards

76
Internment of Japanese Americans
  • Japanese immigrants had increased in the United
    States since the early 1900s (See Gentlemen's
    Agreement- TRoosevelt 1907)
  • Issei-Japanese immigrants, born in Japan
  • Nisei- US citizens- children of Japanese
    immigrants
  • When Japan bombed Pearl Harbor a great backlash
    was directed at Japanese Americans
  • February 1942 FDR signed an Executive Order 9066
  • Remove any and all persons who might pose a
    threat to national security.
  • March 18, 1942 - War Relocation Authority
    established in the U.S. which eventually will
    round up 120,000 Japanese-Americans and transport
    them to barb-wired relocation centers.
  • Farwell to Manzanar Book about Japanese
    Internment

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Japanese Relocation
  • Were accused of potentially aiding Japanese
    espionage
  • Racist attitudes greed were also factors some
    people wanted the opportunity to take Japanese
    land

78
Japanese Internment Camps
  • Japanese were relocated in Camps
  • Some Japanese sued for their rights
  • Korematus v. the United States
  • Supreme Court upheld the
  • Internment of the Japanese

79
Japanese internment
  • In the entire course of the war, 10 people were
    convicted of spying for Japan, all of whom were
    Caucasian.
  • Roosevelt interned 120,000 Japanese
  • 2/3 were American citizens and had never shown
    disloyalty

80
Japanese American Heroes
  • 33,000 Japanese Americans served
  • Japanese-Americans sign up and fight for the U.S.
    in Europe, including the 442nd Regimental Combat
    Team, the most decorated unit in U.S. history.

81
African Americans and the War
  • A. Phillip Randolph- African American Leader
  • Wanted more Civil Rights for African Americans
  • End of segregation in War Industries,
    Presidential Executive Order 8802
  • Segregation in Military continued

82
Women and the War
  • Rosie the Riveter
  • Women go to work in munitions factories, other
    jobs, and the military

83
War in Europe
  • Allies agreed that Europe was first priority
  • November 1942 North Africa 1942 Bombing campaign
    against Germany begun
  • July 1942 Battle of Stalingrad begins-ends
    January 1943 turning point in the war.- Germany
    is doomed
  • 1943- Sicily-
  • September 1943 Italy Surrenders (German Army
    occupies and holds Northern Italy)
  • 1944 Rome Falls
  • June 6, 1944 D-Day- Allied Invasion of Normandy
    France, the Second Front is opened.
  • December 16, 1944 Battle of the Bulge (German
    counter attack in the Ardennes Forrest, 200K
    Germans attack Allies)
  • May 8, 1945 Germany Surrenders (Hitler is dead,
    Russians conquer Berlin) V-E Day

84
Air Power is a Key Strategy
85
Eisenhower
  • Supreme Allied Commander WWII
  • Dwight David Eisenhower

86
War in the Pacific
  • Strategy of Island Hopping bypass some islands
    controlled by Japanese and attack specific
    islands, to obtain air bases in an effort to bomb
    Japan more efficiently and to build up forces in
    an effort to invade Japan.
  • Timeline of WWII (everything you wanted to know
    and more)
  • March 11, 1942 - Gen. MacArthur leaves
    Philippines and is flown to Australia.
  • April 9, 1942 US Troops surrender Philippines
  • June 4-5, 1942 Major victory at Midway Island US
    takes out Japanese aircraft carriers Link to
    Midway ENTERPRISE, HORNET, and YORKTOWN attack
  • August 7, 1942 First US Attack Guadalcanal in
    the Solomon Islands.
  • February 19, 1945 - U.S. Marines invade Iwo Jima.
  • July 5, 1945 Americans retake the Philippines
  • April 1, 1945 - Okinawa.
  • August 6, 1945 - First Atomic Bomb dropped on
    Hiroshima from a B-29 flown by Col. Paul Tibbets
  • Little Boy.
  • August 9, 1945 - Second Atomic Bomb is dropped on
    Nagasaki
  • Fat Man
  • VJ Day- August 15, 1945
  • Japanese Surrender

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Iwo Jima
89
Okinawa
  • April 1 1945
  • 77K army plus 20K militia Japanese defenders
  • Would not surrender
  • Buying time for home island fortification
  • Kamikaze attacks- 300 planes at a time
  • Killed 4,900 sailors, wounded 4,824,
  • Sank 36 ships and damaged 368 more
  • Japanese would not surrender
  • Mass suicides with grenades and cyanide
  • 50K Americans invade
  • Island is pacified in by June 1945
  • 7,000 Japanese survive
  • 7K Americans killed, 31,800 wounded 35.

90
Atomic Bomb Production
  • FDR authorized a secret program code named
    Manhattan Project
  • 1943, J. Robert Oppenheimer, led the team of
    physicists to develop and atomic weapon, to split
    the atom
  • Los Alamos, New Mexico
  • July 1945, the bomb was ready (Truman had no idea
    any bomb like this was being worked on, when he
    took office) Trinity

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Why did Truman Decide to Drop 2 bombs on Japan?
  • Every man in these fortifications will follow
    his superior officers order and fight to the end
    for the sake of the motherlandDo not suffer the
    shame of being taken prisoner.
  • Last words of commander at Okinawa
  • Japanese had 2 million men under arms and 4
    million in reserve in the home islands
  • 5000 Kamikaze waiting
  • The experience of Okinawa and Iwo Jima
  • Revealed the US casualties to invade Japan would
    number in the hundreds of thousands-
  • With an invasion force of 700K
  • When the Atomic bomb was ready it was seen as the
    only solution to saving American lives. The
    Japanese would not surrender.

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Atomic Bombing Web Site
  • Hiroshima
  • August 6, 1945
  • The Enola Gay
  • Captain Paul Tibbetts
  • Dropped Little Boy
  • Nagasaki
  • August 9, 1945
  • Fat Man
  • Japanese finally surrender
  • VJ Day- August 15, 1945

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Propaganda
  • Did the US engage in propaganda during this war?
  • How and who was involved?
  • Can you cite some examples?

100
Wartime Conferences
  • FDR (and later Truman) will coordinate the effort
    with Allied leaders Churchill, and later Stalin
  • Casablanca-1943 FDR, Churchill, agreed on war
    aims Sicily invasion, Unconditional Surrender-
    of Japan and Germany
  • Cairo-1943- FDR and Churchill, Chiang Kai-shek-
    discussed war aims in Asia, Japan will lose all
    islands acquired, Korea independent
  • Teheran-1943 The Big Three discussed 2nd front
    in Europe (France), Postwar Germany,
  • Yalta-February 1945 Big Three Discussed the
    fate of Poland, Stalin asserted need for Buffer
    Zone and sphere of influence Stalin promised to
    allow free elections planned for the division of
    Germany after the war Stalin promised to declare
    war on Japan in exchange for Japanese land/Kurile
    Islands (FDR is dying and will be criticized
    for being manipulated by Stalin and selling out
    Eastern Europe to the Russians.
  • Potsdam- Germany, July 1945, FDR dead, Truman,
    Churchill gone, new Brit- Clement Atlee, Stalin-
    discussed boundaries for Germany, German
    resources would pay for the war,

101
  • Casablanca 1943
  • Teheran 1943
  • Yalta-February 1945

102
Holocaust
  • Timeline of Holocaust
  • Anti-Semitic laws in Germany begin in 1935
    Nuremburg Laws
  • Holocaust begins when Germans invade Russia 1941

103
Holocaust Process
  • First Nazi takeover Starts with 1939 invasion
  • Identification and Segregation of Jews and others
    (Ghettos and the Yellow Star)
  • Invasion of Russia 1941- Shooting of Jews on Mass
    Scale- early Holocaust- Russia, Estonia, Latvia,
    Lithuania
  • More efficient killing methods developed- Killing
    Centers created- Death Camps poison Gas used
  • Ghettos Liquidated by train transport-

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German Atrocity
  • A Survivor's Eyewitness Accountby Dina
    Pronicheva
  • "It was dark already...They lined us up on a
    ledge which was so small that we couldn't get
    much of a footing on it. They began shooting us.
    I shut my eyes, clenched my fists, tensed all my
    muscles and took a plunge down before the bullets
    hit me. It seemed I was flying forever. But I
    landed safely on the bodies. After a while, when
    the shooting stopped, I heard the Germans
    climbing into the ravine. They started finishing
    off all those who were not dead yet, those who
    were moaning, hiccuping, tossing, writhing in
    agony. They ran their flashlights over the bodies
    and finished off all who moved. I was lying so
    still without stirring, terrified of giving
    myself away. I felt I was done for. I decided to
    keep quiet. They started covering the corpses
    over with earth. They must have put quite a lot
    over me because I felt I was beginning to
    suffocate. But I was afraid to move. I was
    gasping for breath. I knew I would suffocate.
    Then I decided it was better to be shot than
    buried alive. I stirred but I didn't know that it
    was quite dark already. Using my left arm I
    managed to move a little way up. Then I took a
    deep breath, summoned up my waning strength and
    crawled out from under the cover of earth. It was
    dark. But all the same it was dangerous to crawl
    because of the searching beams of flashlight and
    they continued shooting at those who moaned. They
    might hit me. So I had to be careful. I was lucky
    enough to crawl up one of the high walls of the
    ravine, and straining every nerve and muscle, got
    out of it."

107
FDR Dies April 12, 1945
  • FDR dies and Harry Truman takes over
  • FDR was elected to an unprecedented 4 terms
  • He was a extremely beloved leader.
  • Roosevelt had filled their lives through
    depression and war for more than a dozen years,
    allying their fears and giving them hope. Now he
    was gone
  • Election of 1944 running mate Harry S. Truman,
    from Missouri, a Democratic Senator, becomes
    President.

108
Harry Truman
  • Democrat, Missouri
  • Vet of WWI- Combat
  • Failed Business Haberdasher Men's clothing store
  • Political Machine Politician
  • Senator 1934
  • Loyal New Deal advocate

Honest- great concern for Public interest The
Buck Stops here. Scrappy Was ill-informed when
he took office. (FDR controlled all)
109
Manhattan Project
  • Oppenheimer
  • Alamogordo

110
Was dropping the bomb necessary?
111
GI Bill of Rights
  • GI is the term used for American soldiers in
    WWII. (G.I. means General Issue)
  • The Servicemens Readjustment Act
  • Provided veterans a series of benefits
  • Low interest loans for homes, business, and farms
  • Aid for education
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