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Causes of World War I

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Russia fell into a civil war during WWI-signed a peace treaty with Germany-had ... German infantry in the 1914 uniforms near the start of the war. Trench Warfare ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Causes of World War I


1
Causes of World War I
Europe at its peak 25 of worlds population
lived in Europe Modernization led to sense that
Europeans were at the peak of World Civilization
Imperial Tensions-European mations competed for
colonies
Militarism-Glorification of war and increase in
military spending
2
Nationalism Combined with militarism and imperial
competition, this increased tensions in Europe
The System of Alliances- web of treaties to
protect themselves
3
World War I -notes
Triple Alliance 1882 Germany Austria-
Hungary Italy
Triple Entente 1907 France Russia Britain
Nationalism-Devotion to the interests or culture
of a particular nation.
Imperialism-The policy of extenidng a nations
authority by territorial acquisition or by the
establishment of economic and authority over
other nations
Military Build-up -Military expenditures jumped
300between 1870 and 1914
4
Events leading to WWI
June 28,1914 in Sarajevo, Capital of Bosnia-
Archduke Francis Ferdinand, was murdered by 7
assassins from the Black Hand a Serbian
nationalist group. 19 year old Gavrillo Princip
shot the Archduke wife
July 28, 1914 Austria-Hungary declared war on
Serbia The next day Russia mobilized troops to
support Serbia.
August 1, 1914 Germany declared War on Russia. A
few days later Germany declared war on France.
5
Gavrilo Princip
Princip (second from right) being taken into
custody in Sarajevo
6
War Breaks Out
  • European nations are in alliances
  • Assassination of the Archduke
  • Germany gives Austria-Hungary blank Check of
    military support
  • Austria- Hungary gives Serbia ULTIMATUM
  • Austria-Hungary declares war on Serbia
  • Russia supported Serbia and Germany supported
    Austria-Hun.
  • -Germany declares war on Russia and France
  • -Britain declares war on Germany

7
Fronts of the War
  • THE WESTERN FRONT
  • Germany tried to take France quickly in the
    Western front and then turn to fight Russia
    instead battle lines formed in France and changed
    little.
  • Battle at Verdun-680,000 casualties, Somme- over
    one million casualties

8
  • THE EASTERN FRONT
  • Lack of modern technology caused Russia enormous
    defeats
  • Russia fell into a civil war during WWI-signed a
    peace treaty with Germany-had to give up 1/4 of
    their country.
  • THE ITALIAN FRONT
  • The Italians joined the Triple Entente in 1915
    and fought Austria-Hungary

9
New Weapons used in the War
  • THE MACHINE GUN
  • Modern industry replaced the single fire rifle
  • fired 8 rounds per second
  • ARTILLERY
  • greater power and could be fired a greater
    distance
  • big Bertha
  • 24 million shells used in the Battle of Verdun

10
Weapons of the Industrial Age
  • 75 different types of poison-gas bombs used
  • Flame throwers
  • Tanks
  • Airplanes

11
Casualties of Modern Weaponry
  • Tactics of sending masses of men toward enemy
    didnt work against mod. Weapons
  • Britain suffered 57,470 casualties on the first
    day of the battle of the Somme
  • Total losses for WWI exceeded 10 million

12
This type of mask was not effective in filtering
out the more deadly phosgene and diphosgene
gases. There was no mask that could
offerprotection from the blistering mustard gas
which attacks all exposed flesh.
13
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14
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15
Blistering Agent Dichlorethylsulphide the most
dreaded of all chemical weapons in World War I -
mustard gas. Unlike the other gases which attack
the respiratory system, this gas acts on any
exposed, moist skin. This includes, but is not
limited to, the eyes, lungs, armpits and groin.
A gas mask could offer very little protection.
The oily agent would produce large burn-like
blisters wherever it came in contact with skin.
It also had a nasty way of hanging about in low
areas for hours, even days, after being
dispersed. A soldier jumping into a shell crater
to seek cover could find himself blinded, with
skin blistering and lungs bleeding.
16
The first army issue gas masks were little more
than gauze bandages with ties.
In 1918 a German corporal by the name of Adolf
Hitler was temporarily blinded by a British gas
attack in Flanders. Having suffered the agonies
of gas first hand, his fear of the weapon would
prevent him from deploying it as a tactical
weapon on the battlefields of the Second World
War.
17
The shells they fired weighed 1,786 pounds and
they could fire one every 6 minutes.
18
German 42cm "Big Bertha", named for Bertha Krupp
19
French troops loading a 40cm shell into a railway
gun
20
As prey a crippled U-boat pursued by British
Curtiss 'Large America' flying boats. Painting
by C.R. Fleming-Williams
21
View from the tower as a torpedo hits home on a
merchant ship
22
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23
UC 44 Class U-boat 1) Aft torpedo tubes 2)
Electric motor 3) Main engine 4) Control room 5)
Mine tubes 6) Forward torpedo tubes 7) Crew
quarters
24
The Reality of Soldiers Lives
  • Patriotic Fervor
  • Many Europeans looked forward to war at the start
  • Attitudes change- Soldiers changes Euros
    optimistic fervor through letters about the
    horrors of war
  • The Return Home- no crowds or heroes welcome
    after the war

25
Typical British gear inluding rifle, gas mask and
helmet. Each soldier was expected to carry this
70 pounds of equipment into battle
26
German infantry in the 1914 uniforms near the
start of the war.
27
Trench Warfare
  • The Race to the Sea
  • 475 miles of trenches were dug across N. France
  • British troops used over 10 million shovels
  • LIFE IN THE TRENCHES-
  • charging over the top-crossing NO MANS LAND to
    reach enemy trenches
  • Boring, terrifying, and caused shell shock
  • Horrible living conditions

28
These vast German trenches near Bullecourt are
part of the heavily fortified Hindenburg Line
29
Effect of the War on the Home Front
  • Mobilizations for Total War
  • Civilians back home made huge sacrifices
  • Govts controlled industries, rationing
  • New Jobs for Women- took jobs men traditionally
    held.
  • Number in paid employment rose by over one
    million
  • Discovered autonomy and greater mobility
  • Women won the right to vote throughout Europe

30
British newspaper announces the first Zeppelin
raid on London, 31-May-1915.
31
All in all, the German Naval Airship Service made
a total of 159 sorties over Britain killing 557
people and inflicting 7,500,000 in property
damage.In the end, it hardly seemed worth the
effort.
32
Poster and Diagram Project
  • Draw a PROPAGANDA POSTER. You may choose
    either side to show your support. (Either the
    Alliance or Entente) Choose a topic or event
    which will stir emotions in your chosen country.
    Be sure it causes some kind of negative or
    positive emotions. The poster must then
    influence the peoples ideas about another
    country, and the event that took place.

33
Diagram
  • Create a diagram of TRENCH WARFARE. You must
    show in detail the trenches, what they include,
    outside of the trenches, and weapons used. ( Be
    sure to include any other useful information)
    Then include a detailed description of life in
    the trenches.

34
The Russian Revolution
  • 1914- Russian Army poorly organized and equipped.
  • Czar Nicholas II goes to the front to rally the
    troops.
  • 1917- March Revolution- people unhappy-
  • Defeats in the war, striking workers, discontent.
  • Soldiers ordered to shoot- join rioters
  • Czar -train is stopped, abdicates power

35
United States Involvement in WWI
  • 1914-Since the start of the war the US declared
    neutrality.
  • France and Britain spread propaganda in the US
    claiming how Germans were evil and cruel

36
1915
  • Germans begin sinking cargo merchant ships
  • German U-Boats sink the passenger ship Lusitania-
    128 Americans killed
  • U.S. upset- hatred of Germany begins
  • American banks loaned 1.5 billion to allied
    govts to buy needed supplies from the U.S.

37
1917
  • Zimmerman telegram intercepted- Germany proposes
    an alliance with Mexico
  • April 1917 U.S. Declares war on Germany

38
1918
  • Russia Withdraws from the war
  • Victory seems easy for Germans until the
    Americans arrive
  • Americas major contribution is in supplies
  • Allies halt the Germans at the battle of the
    Marne, becomes the decisive turning point of the
    war

39
Peace of Vengeance
  • France and Britain created a severe treaty that
    punished Germany
  • Germany had to
  • Return Alscace-Lorrain region to France
  • Keep area near France, called Rhineland,
    demilitarized
  • Pay war reparations of 32 billion dollars
  • Agree to war guilt clause

40
Woodrow Wilson tried to unite many countries in
the League of Nations - for all practical
purposes, it failed.
41
President Wilsons Fourteen Points
  • No secret treaties
  • Peace without Victory
  • Free and open trade
  • Fair treatment of colonial people
  • League of Nations
  • ONLY League of Nations was passed-and our
    congress didnt approve it

42
The Paris Peace Conference
  • Wilson Wanted a peace of Justice
  • Treaty of Versailles-became the first steps to
    WWII.
  • TEST FRIDAY STUDY!!!

http//sduhsd.k12.ca.us/ click on teachers pages-
Cassaw- WWI notes
43
HOW DO I STUDY?
  • CH. 8 begins on 272 in your text. Look back at
    the section review questions -especially the
    Define and Identify vocab.
  • Review the notes on powerpoint
  • Study the WWI Packet of hand outs and your
    answers to the questions.
  • (the first page of the hand out is titled Europe
    before World War I
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