Sleep Disorders: Everything You Need to Know - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Sleep Disorders: Everything You Need to Know


Learn everything there is to know about the various sleep disorders, including narcolepsy, insomnia, and sleep apnea. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Updated: 23 December 2022
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Title: Sleep Disorders: Everything You Need to Know

Sleep Disorders Everything You Need to Know
Sleep, a basic need of every living being, faces
a hindrance in the form of sleep disorders.
Sleep disorders often cause several issues, from
impaired daily functioning to health problems.
What are sleep disorders?
Getting rid of sleep disorders is not as easy as
buying a mattress online. To cure sleep
disorders and their side effects, you need to
learn everything about them.
  • Sleep disorder, or somnipathy, is a medical
    illness that affects a persons sleeping habits.
    Sleep Disorders interfere with the individuals
    physical, social, emotional, and mental
    functioning. A study shows significant
    impairment in life quality in insomnia patients.
  • Sleep disorders are common in children and
    adults. However, children may show different
    signs than adults, such as inattentiveness, motor
    overactivity, oppositional behavior, or
  • All sleep disorders may have more or less similar
    causes, such as Stress, unhealthy lifestyle,
    health issues, mental illness, physiological and
    psychological effects, traumatic brain injuries (
    TBI ), etc.
  • Below is the common sleep disorders list
  • Insomnia
  • Sleep apnea
  • Restless leg syndrome
  • Hypersomnia
  • Circadian rhythm disorders
  • Parasomnia
  • Narcolepsy
  • Types of Sleep Disorders, symptoms, and causes
  • Understanding various sleep disorders, their
    particular symptoms, and their fundamental
    causes is essential to find appropriate

  • What is Insomnia?
  • An Insomniac person finds it difficult to fall or
    remain asleep for the minimum number of hours.
    Transient, acute, and chronic Insomnia are the
    three forms of Insomnia.
  • Transient Insomnia may last for less than a week,
    and its mostly a sleep deprivation for various
    reasons. Acute Insomnia may last for a few days
    or weeks, while chronic Insomnia is a severe
    stage of Insomnia and lasts for months with at
    least three sleepless nights a week.
  • What are the symptoms of Insomnia?
  • Symptoms of Insomnia may include one or more
    reasons mentioned below
  • Not being able to fall asleep despite being tired

  • Difficulty staying asleep for long at night
  • Waking up several times at night
  • Daytime weariness and exhaustion
  • Depression, irritability, anxiety
  • Issues with focusing, memorizing, and paying
  • Frequent mistakes in daily chores
  • What are the causes behind Insomnia?
  • Reasons behind Insomnia may include one or more
    reasons mentioned below
  • An unhealthy lifestyle like lack of exercise,
    wrong eating timings, etc
  • Wrong sleeping habits like late night sleeping,
    napping during the day for hours, etc
  • Excessive blue screen usage such as mobile,
    laptop, etc
  • Bad eating habits such as eating heavy meals near
    bedtime, eating junk food or unhealthy food,
    excessive usage of caffeine or alcohol, etc
  • Working overtime, rotational shifts, constant
    meetings without appropriate breaks in between,
  • constant traveling within different time zones,
    jet lags,
  • Chronic health issues like cancer, or
    Neurological disorders, such as Alzheimers
    disease and Parkinsons disease
  • Anxiety, depression, or other mental or emotional
  • Side effects of medications for other health

  • What is Sleep apnea?
  • A person suffering from sleep apnea often goes
    through phases where their breathing stops for a
    short period or finds breathing difficult due to
    lack of oxygen.
  • Obstructive, central, and complicated sleep apnea
    are the three forms of apnea.
  • Obstructive sleep apnea is the most common sleep
    disorder. Obstructive sleep apnea occurs when a
    persons airways become completely or partially
    clogged due to soft tissue failure at the back of
    the throat.
  • In Central sleep apnea, a persons brain fails to
    send signals to breathing muscles due to the
    respiratory control systems issue.
  • Complex sleep apnea is the result of a mix of
    obstructive and central sleep apnea.

  • What are the symptoms of Sleep apnea?
  • A person with sleep apnea may find one or more
    symptoms mentioned below
  • Breathing issues that are detectable by a third
    person, such as stopped breathing or loud
  • A constant need to pee at night or night sweats
  • Fatigue, tiredness, or tired feeling all-day
  • Dry mouth, continuous feeling of thirst, and
  • Issues with concentration, memorizing, or
    focusing on the daily task
  • Depression, Stress, anxiety, irritability
  • What are the causes behind Sleep apnea?
  • Sleep apnea occurs more in men compared to women
    and can impact everyone despite gender or age
  • There could be one or more reasons behind sleep
  • A person with certain physical aspects, such as
    obesity or a large neck
  • Structural abnormalities such as low-hanging soft
    palate, nasal obstruction, or enlarged tonsils
    can reduce the upper airways diameter.
  • Physical, psychological, neurological, or
    hormonal medical conditions such as high blood
    pressure, type 2 diabetes, congestive heart
    failure, stroke, Parkinsons disease, hormonal
    disorder, polycystic ovary syndrome, chronic
    lung diseases like asthma
  • Age, genetic disorders,

  • What is Restless leg syndrome?
  • Restless leg syndrome, or Willis-Ekbom disease,
    is a sleeping disorder in which a person has a
    desperate urge to move their leg or arm.
    Sometimes people might get the same desire to
    move their legs or arms while sitting for long
    hours in one place.
  • Restless leg syndrome can occur in anyone
    contrary to age or gender. Also, in some cases,
    it could be genetic.
  • What are the symptoms of Restless leg syndrome?
  • A person with Restless leg syndrome may have any
    of below symptoms
  • Legs or arm discomfort, such as itching, burning,
    pulling, throbbing, or gnawing.
  • Intense urge to move limbs, legs, arms, or whole

  • Struggle while sleeping or feeling like going out
    for a walk instead of sleeping
  • Daytime sleepiness or drowsy and lazy feeling
  • Performance issues at work, school, or other
  • Mood swings, anxiety, Stress, or depression
  • What are the causes behind the Restless leg
  • There could be several causes behind restless leg
  • Iron deficiency
  • Kidney problems like Uremia, dialysis, or kidney
  • Hyperthyroidism, Fibromyalgia, Rheumatoid
    arthritis, or diabetes
  • Neurological disorders like Parkinsons disease
    or peripheral neuropathy
  • Pregnancy
  • Side effects of medicines
  • Caffeine, alcohol, or nicotine consumption
  • Hypersomnia

  • What is Hypersomnia?
  • People who suffer from Hypersomnia or excessive
    sleepiness feel like sleeping throughout the day
    despite sleeping for extensive periods at night.
  • Hypersomnia has two types based on the cause
    primary and secondary.
  • The primary condition is not related to any
    health problem, and the secondary condition
    results from another medical problem.
  • What are the symptoms of Hypersomnia?
  • There are several symptoms of Hypersomnia
  • Feeling exhausted all-day
  • Lack of energy
  • Anxiety

  • No appetite
  • Restlessness
  • Problems with remembering
  • Issues with focusing on daily tasks
  • Irritation
  • Inability to think properly or form coherent
  • What are the causes behind Hypersomnia?
  • There are one or more causes behind Hypersomnia
    mentioned below
  • Neurological problems,
  • Issues with brain functioning related to the
    sleep-wake schedule.
  • Other medical conditions
  • Other sleep disorders
  • Excessive consumption of alcohol or drugs
  • Head injury or low thyroid functioning
  • Circadian rhythm disorders

What are Circadian rhythm disorders? The
circadian rhythm is a natural cycle that governs
our bodys sleep-wake timings daily and repeats
itself every 24 hours. Thus, circadian rhythm
disorders are a type of sleep disorder in which
our normal sleep-wake cycle is disrupted, making
it difficult to sleep and get up on
time. Circadian rhythm disorders have two
sub-categories based on the causes behind them
intrinsic and extrinsic. Intrinsic-type
diseases, in which the internal cycle changes,
and includes sleep disorders such as Insomnia,
Narcolepsy, obstructive sleep apnea syndrome,
periodic limb movement disorder, and restless
legs. Extrinsic diseases develop when the
internal circadian clock and the external
environment are out of sync and include shift
work disorder or jet lag. What are the symptoms
of Circadian rhythm disorders?
  • Symptoms of Circadian rhythm disorders are
  • Excessive daytime sleepiness,
  • Issues with waking up in the morning
  • Other sleep disorders like Insomnia, Narcolepsy
  • Disturbed sleep pattern
  • Anxiety, irritability, Stress, and depression
  • Performance problems at the workplace, school, or
    other social gatherings
  • What are the causes behind Circadian rhythm
  • There could be one or more reasons behind
    circadian rhythm disorder
  • Poor sleep hygiene
  • Age factor
  • Genetic factors
  • Lack of exposure to sunlight
  • Brain injury due to medical conditions like
    stroke, dementia, or other intellectual
  • Frequently changing work shifts,
  • irregular sleep-wake time

  • What is Parasomnia?
  • Parasomnia is a sleep condition in which a person
    exhibits abnormal behavior during any stage of
    sleep that he is likely to forget the next day.
    Parasomniacs may move, talk, or perform strange
    activities while sleeping, resulting in
    disturbed sleep or sleep deprivation.
  • Some parasomnia disorders include sleepwalking,
    sleep talking, nightmares, groaning, night
    terrors, bedwetting, teeth grinding, confusional
    arousal, and REM sleep behavior.
  • What are the symptoms of Parasomnia?
  • Parasomniacs may face one or more symptoms
    mentioned below
  • Forgetfulness of activities done during sleep
  • Waking up with confusion
  • Not realizing the place after waking

  • Unfamiliar cuts or injuries on the body
  • Struggling to sleep all night
  • Daytime fatigue, sleepiness
  • What are the causes behind Parasomnia?
  • There could be one or more triggers that can
    cause Parasomnia
  • Stress, anxiety, or depression
  • Post-traumatic stress disorder or PTSD
  • Side effects of medicines
  • Other sleep disorders like insomnia or sleep
  • Irregular sleep-wake time
  • Neurological issues like Parkinsons disease,
  • Narcolepsy

What is Narcolepsy?
  • Narcolepsy is a severe sleep condition that
    significantly impacts the sleep- wake cycle,
    causing daytime tiredness and unpredictable sleep
  • Narcolepsy has three types Narcolepsy with
    cataplexy (sudden loss of muscular tone),
    Narcolepsy without cataplexy, and secondary
  • What are the symptoms of Narcolepsy?
  • Narcolepsy shows various symptoms, such as
  • Excessive daytime sleepiness or random sleep
  • Cataplexy or sudden loss of muscular tone
  • Sleep paralysis
  • Other sleep disorders like Insomnia, sleep apnea,
    restless leg syndrome
  • Hallucinations, fragmented sleep,
  • Changes in rapid eye movement sleep ( REM sleep)
  • What are the causes behind Narcolepsy?
  • There could be many causes behind Narcolepsy.
  • Brain injury due to tumor, trauma, or other
  • Less hypocretin, a brain chemical
  • Hormonal changes

  • Feeling drowsy while doing important tasks like
    driving, working, or in a meeting.
  • Inability to concentrate or pay attention at
    work, school, or at home
  • Performance issues at school, work
  • headaches
  • Tiredness
  • Fatigue
  • Failure to recollect memories
  • Slower responses
  • Mood swings or inability to control emotions
  • An uncontrollable desire for napping during the
  • You can self-analyze your sleep disorder symptoms
    or can take the help of a health expert. Health
    experts may ask you to perform several tests
  • Polysomnography or PSG This lab sleep study
    examines oxygen concentration, eye and body
    movements, and brain waves to see their effect
    on sleep.
  • Actigraphy This test uses wearable monitoring
    devices to observe and evaluate your sleep
    patterns and average motor activity for days or
  • Titration Study A CPAP Titration study is done
    by calibrating continuous positive airway
    pressure equipment to determine your ideal air
    pressure setting while sleeping.
  • Multiple Sleep Latency Testing (MSLT) This sleep
    study aims to evaluate how rapidly a person
    falls asleep throughout the day when they should
    be awake.
  • Also, doctors may suggest you maintain a sleep
    diary and do a home study to learn more about
    your issues. The sleep study data include eye
    movements, brain wave changes, breathing rate,
    blood pressure, heartbeats, and other muscle
  • How do sleep disorders affect health?

energy, and so on. Inadequate sleep impacts brain
functioning and aggravates health problems by
lowering recovery rates and other body
functions. Sleep deprivation raises the risk of
cardiovascular disease, diabetes, hypertension,
psychiatric disorder, and obesity. Poor sleep
impairs a persons social appearance by making
them grumpy, frustrated, less attentive, and
inactive. Similarly, physical disorders,
neurodegenerative diseases, and mental ailments
can create sleep problems. Respiratory problems,
heart diseases, or failure of any vital organs
result in sleepless nights. According to
research, patients with Parkinsons disease (PD)
suffer from sleep disorders such as REM sleep
behavior disorder, Insomnia, and
Hypersomnia. Alzheimers patients have more sleep
problems than Parkinsons patients. Individuals
suffering from mental illnesses such as
schizophrenia or bipolar disorder may exhibit
signs of sleep disorders such as excessive
daytime drowsiness, difficulties falling asleep,
nightmares, sleepwalking, atypical sleep
conditions, and so on. Can sleep disorders be
genetic? Due to personal, social, medical, or
economic reasons, one-third of the population in
the world suffers from sleep deprivation and
disorders. Another reason that you might suffer
from sleep disorders is your genes. Modern
genetic breakthroughs have confirmed the
significance of many genes in sleep
disorders. According to Monozygotic twins case
studies and other references, four rare sleep
disorders have an established genetic basis
fatal familial Insomnia, familial advanced
sleep-phase syndrome, chronic primary Insomnia,
and Narcolepsy with cataplexy. How can sleep
disorders be cured? Treatment for sleep disorders
varies depending on the severity of the
condition, underlying causes, symptoms, medical
and psychiatric history, age, and other factors.
  • Medicines
  • Doctors may recommend one or more therapeutic
  • sleeping pills,
  • melatonin tablets,
  • cold or allergy treatments,
  • medications for chronic health concerns.
  • breathing equipment or surgery to restore
    breathing in sleep apnea,
  • and a dental guard to stop teeth grinding
  • Lifestyle optimization
  • Making changes in lifestyle along with medical
    treatment helps you get better results and
    improves sleep quality.
  • Maintain routine
  • Create a sleep-wake schedule and follow it
    thoroughly without breaks. Use alarms to set
    reminders to sleep and wake up on time. Keep the
    alarm clock away from your bed to make you get
    up in the morning to turn it off.
  • Limit nap time

Eat nutritional food Dry fruits, dairy products,
white rice, fatty fish, and other food items
contain sleep-inducing nutrients. Add them to
your regular diet for better results. For
example, drinking warm milk before bed helps your
nerves relax, keeps you full, and provides you
with tryptophan, which helps your body produce
serotonin and melatonin. Avoid energy boosters
and alcohol Avoid food or drinks which contain
caffeine or alcohol, which keeps you from
sleeping. Eating spicy, fast, and fatty food
before going to bed is a bad idea for several
reasons. These foods are heavy and difficult to
digest also. Too much spice and fats create acid
reflux and keep you tossing and turning all
night. Do not eat food rich with High glycemic
index foods or added sugar to avoid sleep
disorders or sleep-related issues. Do
exercise Exercise is essential for a healthy
life, fitness, and better sleep. Regular 30 to
60 minutes of exercise improves your blood
circulation and burns calories. It exhausts your
body, causing it to send messages to your brain
to produce sleep-inducing hormones and sleep
better to restore energy. Meditation, Yoga,
Running, Walking, Aerobics, or Crossfit, any
exercise is helpful based on your preferences
and health. Create pre-bed routine A
pre-bedtime routine is equally helpful as a
sleep-wake schedule. Our brain generally follows
its own pattern based on several facts like
daylight, physical exhaustion, or activities
done by you. Following a pre-bed routine signals
your brain to prepare your body for sleep.
Activities like listening to music, reading
books, meditation, or relaxing before bed help
you fall asleep better than anything else. Pay
attention to the bedroom Creating a sleep-worthy
environment in your bedroom is vital for better
results. Ensure you use your bedroom only for
sleep and keep work, studies,
or electronic devices out of it. Keep the
temperature between 16 to 18 degrees with the
help of a ceiling fan, air cons, or windows open.
Turn off all lights, block sounds and create a
relaxed atmosphere to help you sleep
faster. Prepare your bed The most important
object for sleeping is your bed. Use a bed that
has a strong and sturdy frame and can support
your weight without breaking down. You can use
adjustable beds with different features like a
massager, zero gravity mode, and other positions
to help you sleep peacefully. Use clean bed
sheets or mattress protectors and select material
which will keep your body cool and allergy free.
Buy comforters that will keep you warm during
winter and keep you cozy. Use pillows that will
provide enough support for your head, neck, and
shoulders and do not create any pressure despite
any sleeping position. Another thing that you
must pay attention to is Mattress. Whether you
use a bed frame or sleep on the floor, the
Mattress plays a crucial part. How to choose a
sleeping mattress if you have sleep
disorders? Selecting a mattress to help ease the
struggle and pain caused by sleep disorders
requires some study and research. Whether you buy
Mattress online or from retail stores, pay
attention to their size, firmness, comfortness,
material, and cost. For better results, use
mattresses that will provide comfort and support
equally and prevent you from night sweats by
maintaining air circulation within mattress
fibers. The Sleep Companys SmartGRID mattresses
are the best solution for people who suffer from
sleep disorders.
Bottom Line
Sleep disorders may or may not be
life-threatening. However, lack of knowledge,
negligence towards symptoms, and ignorant
behavior may turn them into deadly weapons that
can spoil your life. If you are facing any
sleep-related issues or symptoms, then visit your
doctor before its too late and get treatment to
prevent further complications.
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