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WSU SOD Education Program Phytophthora ramorum educate to detect

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WSU SOD Education Program Phytophthora ramorum educate to detect Adapted from the national PRED program for WSU Extension By Norm Dart WSU Sudden Oak Death Education ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: WSU SOD Education Program Phytophthora ramorum educate to detect


1
WSU SOD Education Program Phytophthora ramorum
educate to detect
  • Adapted from the national PRED program for WSU
    Extension
  • By Norm Dart
  • WSU Sudden Oak Death Education Coordinator

2
What we will cover today
  • 1) History of P. ramorum (SOD/Ramorum Blight)
  • 2) Current state of P. ramorum in Washington
  • 3) WSU Extension SOD education program
  • 4) Recognizing symptoms and submitting samples
    for early detection

3
History of P. ramorum
  • Status in North American and European forests
  • Status in North American and European nurseries

4
Mysterious tree death
  • Mid 1990s hikers report dying tanoaks
  • Marin, Santa Cruz, Monterey counties
  • Canopies turn brown suddenly
  • Similar symptoms on coast live and black oaks
  • Scientists begin to investigate

Photo Marin County Fire Department
5
Sudden Oak Death
  • Trees death primarily along urban-wildland
    interface
  • Dying trees created hazards for residents
  • Name Sudden Oak Death coined
  • Search for cause continued

Photo Marin County Fire Department
6
Cause of Sudden Oak Death determined
  • 2000 UC scientists isolated organism causing SOD
  • Exotic Phytophthora species
  • Previously isolated from European nurseries in
    1993

Phytophthora ramorum in culture
Photo UC Davis UC Berkeley
7
Phytophthora ramorum
Sporangia releasing zoospores
  • New species named Phytophthora ramorum
  • Phytophthora spp.
  • thrive in wet conditions
  • Produces zoospores and chlamydospores
  • P. ramorum zoospores spread through air via mist
    and rain splash

Chlamydospores
8
Phytophthora species
  • There are many Phytophthora spp.
  • Most cause root rots
  • Common crop pathogens
  • P. infestans caused the Irish potato famine of
    1840s

9
Researcher discovered more hosts
  • Researchers isolated P. ramorum from other plant
    species
  • Many of these are foliar hosts
  • These hosts are not killed but develop leaf
    blight
  • Example California bay laurel

Photo Joseph OBrien, USDA-Forest Service
10
Two distinct diseases caused by Phytophthora
ramorum
  • Sudden Oak Death
  • Red oaks and tanoak
  • Stem lesions beneath the bark girdle and kill
    tree
  • Cankers often bleed or ooze
  • Can kill adult trees
  • P. ramorum foliar blight/Ramorum blight
  • Non-oak hosts
  • Spots and blotches on leaves shoot die back
  • Can kill juvenile plants, usually not lethal for
    mature plants

11
Curry County Oregon, Summer 2001
  • P. ramorum discovered in Oregon in 2001 killing
    tanoaks
  • Trees discovered during aerial survey

Photo Mike McWilliams, ODF
12
Photo Everett Hansen, Oregon State University
13
P. ramorum in forests
  • SOD currently found in 14 CA counties and 1 OR
    county
  • These counties are under quarantine
  • SOD not known to be established anywhere else in
    N.A. forests

Map from www.suddenoakdeath.org Kelly, UC-Berkeley
14
Risk of P. ramorum becoming established in U.S.
forests
Map USDA- Forest Service
15
European garden nursery finds
  • P. ramorum reported throughout Europe in
    nurseries and gardens
  • Same species but different mating type in N.A
    Europe
  • European strain more aggressive on nursery stock
  • Despite quarantine efforts P. ramorum is
    widespread in UK and Netherlands

Phytophthora ramorum infection on rhododendron in
Europe
Photo Hans DeGruyter, Netherlands Plant
Protection Institute
16
Infected trees reported in UK and Netherlands 2003
Red Oak Quercus rubra
Beech Fagus sylvatica
Photo DEFRA
17
  • North American nursery finds
  • 2003- P. ramorum found in 17 N.A. nurseries
  • 8 CA, 6 OR, 2 WA, 1 BC
  • Trace forwards and trace backs conducted
  • Both US and EUR genotypes found in WA and OR

Photo Jennifer Parke, Oregon State University
18
2005 National Nursery Survey
  • 3,663 nurseries visited
  • 64,814 samples collected

Washington survey 9 of the 16 were repeat
positives from 2004
19
What happens when P. ramorum is detected in a
nursery?
  • WSDA by authority of USDA-APHIS places host plant
    material on hold until the extent of infestation
    is determined
  • Infected and neighboring plants are destroyed in
    an effort to eradicate the pathogen (burned or
    buried)

20
Locations of nurseries testing positive for P.
ramorum in Washington (04-05)
21
Diversity of Native Host Plants in Washington
State
Bigleaf maple
Douglas-fir
Oregon ash
Madrone
Evergreen huckleberry
Western starflower
Maidenhair fern
22
Summary of P. ramorum in Washington
  • Only in nursery stock, not found in natural
  • or urban landscape
  • APHIS and WSDA conduct annual
  • survey to inspect production nurseries
  • DNR does forest surveys
  • Many plants native to Washington are
  • known hosts
  • Potential to impact native ecosystem
  • Quarantines may be imposed if detected in
    landscape

23
Current P. ramorum Education Projects at WSU
Puyallup
  • Online Education Surveys
  • (evaluate current knowledge)
  • 2) First Detector Training for Maser Gardeners
  • (mandated by USDA strategic plan)
  • 3) Developing Molecular Laboratory
  • (increase diagnostic/research capabilities)

24
Online Education Surveys
  • OBJECTIVES
  • Evaluate current understanding/knowledge of P.
    ramorum
  • Learn where people have been going for
    information
  • Determine what additional outreach efforts are
    needed
  • TARGET GROUPS
  • WSU Extension Educators (Completed)
  • Nursery and Landscape Professionals (Launched
    12/05)
  • Christmas Tree Professionals
  • Forest Product Industry Professionals

25
WSU Extension Educator Survey Result Highlights
  • WHO RESPONDED?
  • 27 responded (80 surveys sent)
  • 6 county agents
  • 18 master gardener affiliates
  • 3 unknown
  • 92 of responses were from Western Washington
  • 81 of respondents were moderately to highly
  • concerned about potential economic and ecological
    impact of P. ramorum in Washington


26
WSU Extension Educator Survey Result Highlights
  • CURRENT KNOWLEDGE
  • 93 of Master Gardener volunteers do not
  • feel sufficiently informed to perform outreach
    duties
  • 100 of county agents feel sufficiently informed
    to
  • perform outreach duties
  • 77 know where to direct the public to send
    samples for SOD testing/diagnosis
  • 78 do not feel comfortable determining if
    samples
  • should be sent for diagnosis


27
WSU Extension Educator Survey Result Highlights
  • SOURCES OF INFORMATION
  • 74 choose the internet as a source of
    information
  • 48 choose pamphlets and brochures as a source of
  • information
  • 43 chose talks/training sessions as a source of
  • information


28
WSU Extension Educator Survey Result Highlights
  • FUTURE OUTREACH
  • 76 would like to see future outreach efforts
  • 78 do not feel comfortable determining if
    samples
  • should be sent for diagnosis
  • 93 of master gardener volunteers do not feel
  • sufficiently informed to perform outreach duties



29
First Detector Training
  • Master Gardener Volunteers are major target
    audience
  • Curriculum adapted from USDA and NPDN training
  • Background/History of SOD
  • Status of SOD in Washington
  • Introduction to WSU SOD education Program
  • Recognizing symptoms
  • Submitting samples
  • Five training sessions scheduled this spring in
  • King, Pierce, Kitsap. Grays Harbor/Pacific,
  • Snohomish counties

30
Important Considerations for First Detectors
  • Master Gardeners and County Agents play a major
    role
  • as first detectors
  • Important to realize that P. ramorum can be a
    sensitive issue
  • Education is a balancing act
  • Inform but do not scare public!
  • Realize what is at stake
  • Economically for Washington Ag./forest industries
  • Potential ecological impact to nations forests

31
Developing Molecular Capabilities
  • Objectives
  • For rapid and reliable detection of SOD
  • Tool for basic and applied research at
  • WSU Puyallup
  • Quantifying plankton communities
  • Population genetics of PNW salmon
  • Sexual recombination of pathogenic fungi
  • Detecting traits in breeding programs

32
Recognizing Symptoms
  • Sudden Oak Death of oaks
  • Ramorum blight of other hosts
  • Key to determine if samples should be submitted
    for P. ramorum testing in Washington
  • focus on recently purchased (or near recently
    purchased) camellia, kalmia, lilac, pieris,
    rhododendron, or viburnum

33
Sudden Oak Death Disease of members of the oak
family (Fagaceae)
  • True oaks (Quercus spp.) (NA EUR)
  • Tanoak (Lithocarpus densiflorus) (NA)
  • Chestnut (Castanea) (EUR)
  • Beech (Fagus) (EUR)

34
Sudden Oak Death of coast live oak in California
Photo Pavel Svihra, UC Cooperative Extension
35
Bleeding canker on tree trunk
  • Bleeding or oozing on the bark
  • Not associated with cracks in bark or insect
    holes
  • Usually on the lower 6 ft. of tree trunks

Photo Garbelotto lab, UC Berkeley
36
Phytophthora ramorum
Younger active bleeding cankers
Older infections with washed out bleeding cankers
Photos Mike McWilliams, ODF Bruce Moltzen,
Missouri Dept. of Conservation
37
Phytophthora ramorum
Cankers (in inner bark) are surrounded by a
black line
Photo Dave Rizzo, UC Davis
38
P. ramorum cankers of tanoak
outer bark
inner bark
Photo Bruce Moltzen, Missouri Department of
Conservation
39
Similar symptoms not P. ramorum
outer bark
inner bark
Bleeding canker caused by Armillaria
Photo Steve Oak, USDA-Forest Service
40
Similar symptoms not P. ramorum
outer bark
inner bark
Bleeding canker caused by inner-bark boring
insect
Photo Steve Oak, USDA-Forest Service
41
Similar symptoms submit sample
outer bark
inner bark
Bleeding canker caused by Inonotus hispidus
Photo Steve Oak, USDA-Forest Service
42
Other common diseases injuries
  • Bacterial wetwood
  • Boring insects
  • Mechanical injury
  • Fungi

43
Recognizing P. ramorum foliar blight, aka
ramorum blight
  • Honeysuckle
  • Yew
  • Douglas-fir
  • Grand fir
  • Coast redwood
  • Camellia
  • Rhododendron
  • Viburnum
  • Pieris
  • Mountain laurel
  • Lilac

44
Symptoms on camellia
Brown lesions irregular and restricted to leaf
tip
Lesions edges less distinct under humid
conditions
Photos Oregon Dept. of Agriculture Cheryl
Blomquist, CDFA
45
Symptoms on camellia
Photo Cheryl Blomquist, CDFA
46
Symptoms on camellia
  • Symptoms can be subtle
  • Look for irregular-shaped brown lesions on the
    leaves
  • Sometimes only the tips of leaves are brown
  • Look for lower leaves that have fallen off

Photo Cheryl Blomquist, CDFA
47
Similar symptoms submit sample
Sun scorch on camellia
Photo Carrie Harmon, University of Florida
48
Similar symptoms submit sample
Cold injury on camellia
Photo Richard Regan, Oregon State University
49
P. ramorum symptoms on native rhododendron
Shoot dieback
Foliar blight
Foliar blight
Rhododendron macrophyllum
Photo Everett Hansen, Oregon State University
50
P. ramorum symptoms on rhododendron
Rhododendron macrophyllum
Photo Everett Hansen, Oregon State University
51
P. ramorum symptoms on rhododendrons in nurseries
Photo Bruce Moltzen, Missouri Dept. of
Conservation
52
P. ramorum symptoms on rhododendron
Rhododendron Unique
Photo Jennifer Parke, Oregon State University
53
P. ramorum symptoms on eastern native
rhododendrons (inoculation trials)
Photo Paul Tooley, USDA-ARS
54
Similar symptoms submit sample
Foliar blight caused by Phytophthora syringae
Photo Jay Pscheidt, Oregon State University
55
Similar symptoms submit sample
Foliar blight caused by Phytophthora species
Photo Mike Benson, NCSU
56
Similar symptoms not P. ramorum
Phytophthora root rot - not caused by P. ramorum
Photo Jay Pscheidt, Oregon State University
57
Similar symptoms not P. ramorum
Sun scorch, lesion does not extend down leaf
midrib
Gray blight can develop on sun scorched
rhododendron leaves
Photo Rich Regan, Oregon State University
58
Symptoms on pieris
Pieris japonica
Photo Oregon Dept. of Agriculture
59
P. ramorum symptoms on pieris
Pieris japonica
Photo Oregon Dept. of Agriculture
60
P. ramorum symptoms on viburnum
Viburnum x bodnantense Dawn
Photo Oregon Dept. of Agriculture
61
P. ramorum symptoms on viburnum
Viburnum x bodnantense Dawn
Photo Oregon Dept. of Agriculture
62
P. ramorum symptoms on viburnum
Viburnum plicatum tomentosum Mariesii
Photo Jennifer Parke, Oregon State University
63
P. ramorum symptoms on viburnum
stem canker
Photo Sabine Werres, Institut für Pflanzenschutz
im Gartenbau, Germany
64
P. ramorum symptoms on kalmia (mountain laurel)
Photo DEFRA
65
Similar symptoms submit sample
Kalmia latifolia (mountain laurel)
Photo Robert Linderman, USDA-ARS
66
Similar symptoms submit sample
Kalmia latifolia (mountain laurel)
Photo Peter Angwin, USDA-Forest Service
67
P. ramorum symptoms on lilac
Photo Alexandra Schlenzig, Scottish Agricultural
Science Agency


68
Similar symptoms submit sample
Bacterial blight on lilac
Photo Jay Pscheidt, Oregon State University
69
P. ramorum symptoms on conifers
Grand fir
Douglas-fir
Photo Santa Clara Co. (CA) Agriculture Dept.
Dave Rizzo, UC Davis
70
Screening Questions
  • Plants likely to be infected by Phytophthora
    ramorum
  • Affected plant is on host list and purchased
    since 2002
  • Affected plant is near a recently purchased host
    plant
  • Symptoms are consistent with Phytophthora
    ramorum

71
Sample referral and submission
  • In Washington state Master Gardeners and
    Extension Agents are asked to submit suspect
    samples to the WSU Puyallup Plant Clinic
  • If you determine a sample should be submitted
  • Download and fill out plant clinic sample form
    and follow approved procedures http//www.puyallup
    .wsu.edu/plantclinic/samples.htss.html
  • Please consult the plant clinic before sending
    samples

72
Dont Cause Panic!
  • Avoid alarming behavior. Dont jump to
    conclusions.
  • Wait for lab result
  • Maintain confidentiality

73
Procedures for submitting a sample
  • Collect leaves that show various stages of
    symptom development.
  • Take pictures of symptoms and environment.

74
Packaging a sample
  • Place sample on a paper towel. Do not wet the
    towel.
  • Double bag and seal the sample in zippable bags.
  • If shipping, use a crush proof box with seams
    sealed completely with tape.
  • Be sure to include the sample submission form
    required by the Plant Clinic.

75
Sending a sample
  • Contact the sample recipient.
  • Samples must be fresh and in good condition.
  • Rapid delivery is critical (no Friday shipments).
  • Remember to double bag samples and send in
    crush-proof box or sturdy envelope

76
Sampling reminders
  • The accuracy of a disease diagnosis can only be
    as good as the sample and information provided.
  • Sample must be representative of symptoms and
    severity in the field and must contain the right
    material.

77
Diagnostics laboratory tests
  • There are three detection methods
  • Antibody test (ELISA)
  • Plating on selective media
  • DNA (PCR)
  • Relatively expensive
  • Time consuming

Photo Natalie Goldberg, New Mexico State
University
78
Acknowledgments
  • Original Reviewers
  • Kitty Caldwell Bill Hoffman
  • Eugene Erickson Steve Oak
  • Jonathan Jones Melodie Putnam
  • Natalie Goldberg Susan Ratcliffe
  • Everett Hansen David Rizzo
  • Carrie Harmon Stacy Scott
  • John Hartman
  • WSU Puyallup
  • Gary Chastagner
  • Jenny Glass
  • Original Authors of National
  • PRED Program
  • Jennifer Parke
  • Susan Frankel
  • Janice Alexander
  • Carla Thomas

79
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