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Cancer 101: A Cancer Education and Training Program for [Target Population]

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Title: Cancer 101: A Cancer Education and Training Program for [Target Population]


1
Cancer 101 A Cancer Education and Training
Program for Target Population
  • Date
  • Location

Presented by Presenter 1 Presenter 2
2
Cancer Screening and Early Detection
Cancer 101 Learning Module 5
3
Learning Objectives
  • At the completion of Module 5, you will be able
    to
  • Describe the importance of early detection.
  • Describe two screening methods used in the
    detection of cancer.
  • Describe two barriers associated with practicing
    early detection.
  • Describe three symptoms of cancer.

4
Why is early detection important?
  • The goal of early detection is to discover and
    stop a cancerous tumor before it grows and
    spreads (metastasizes).
  • A persons chance for full recovery is better if
    cancer is detected and treated earlier.

5
What is cancer screening?
  • Checking for cancer in a person who does not have
    any symptoms is called screening.

6
Cancer Screening (contd)
  • Medical screening tests are effective tools for
    the early detection of cancer.
  • A few types of cancer have specific tests that
    aid in detecting cancer.

7
Cancer Screening Prevention
  • Screening tests for common types of cancer
  • Breast mammogram
  • Cervix Pap test
  • Colon rectum fecal occult blood test,
    sigmoidoscopy, colonoscopy, digital rectal exam
  • Prostate digital rectal exam, PSA test

8
Screening for Breast Cancer
  • Mammogram
  • Screening
  • Diagnostic
  • Digital
  • Clinical breast exam (CBE)
  • Breast self exam (BSE)
  • See your provider and get a mammogram every 1-2
    years after age 40.

Image Source National Cancer Institute
9
Screening for Cervical Cancer
  • Papanicolaou (Pap Test)
  • Pelvic Exam
  • Cervical cancer screening should begin 3 years
    after a woman begins having sexual intercourse,
    but no later than age 21.
  • Women should have a Pap test at least once every
    3 years

Image Source National Cancer Institute
10
How should women prepare for a Pap test?
  • Doctors suggest the following tips
  • For 48 hours before the test
  • Do not douche
  • Do not have sexual intercourse
  • Do not use vaginal medicines (except as directed
    by doctor), birth control foams, jellies, or
    creams
  • Schedule your test 10-20 days after the first day
    of your menstrual period.

11
Screening for Colon Rectal Cancer
  • Fecal occult blood test (FOBT)
  • Guaiac FOBT
  • Fecal immunochemical test (FIT)
  • Sigmoidoscopy
  • Colonoscopy
  • Barium enema
  • Digital rectal exam

Images Source National Cancer Institute
12
Images Source National Cancer Institute
13
Virtual Colonoscopy
  • Computed tomographic (CT) colonography
  • Less invasive, less discomfort
  • Detects large polyps
  • Evolving test, still being studied

Virtual colonoscopy image of the inside of a
colon. The red colored area indicates a polyp.
Image courtesy of Dr. R.M. Summers, National
Institutes of Health.
14
Case Study
  • Martha is 55 years old.
  • She just went in for a check-up, and her doctor
    recommended that she schedule appointments for
  • A Pap test. Her last one was three years ago.
    It was normal.
  • A mammogram. She had one two years ago. It was
    normal.
  • A colonoscopy. She has not had any type of
    colorectal screening since she turned 50.

15
Screening for Prostate Cancer
  • Digital Rectal Exam (DRE)
  • Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA) blood test

Image Source National Cancer Institute
16
Cancer Screening Early Detection
  • Awareness of body changes may help detect early
    signs of cancer.
  • Examples of changes to note
  • Breast tissue
  • Testicular tissue

17
Barriers to Cancer Screening Early Detection
  • There are many barriers that may affect ones
    decision to participate in cancer screening and
    early detection.
  • What barriers might Martha face?

18
Barriers to Cancer Screening Early Detection
  • Examples of barriers include
  • Fear of cancer
  • Lack of knowledge
  • Modesty
  • Communication
  • Beliefs around illness
  • Are there others you can think of?

19
Possible Symptoms of Cancer
  • There are many different symptoms known to be
    associated with certain types of cancers.
  • A symptom is a sign that something is not right
    in the body and does NOT always indicate cancer.

20
Pay attention to your body if there is
  • A change in bowel or bladder habits
  • A sore that does not heal
  • Unusual bleeding or discharge
  • Thickening, lump, or swelling in the breast or
    any other part of the body
  • Indigestion or difficulty swallowing
  • Recent change in wart or mole
  • Nagging cough or hoarseness

21
Pay attention to your body if there are
  • Unexplained symptoms such as
  • Progressive weight loss
  • Fever
  • Skin changes
  • Fatigue
  • Pain

22
In Summary
  • You now have an understanding of
  • The components of early detection
  • Importance of recognizing the barriers to
    practicing early detection
  • The symptoms of cancer
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