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The Philippine educational System

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Title: The Philippine educational System


1
The Philippine educational System
2
HISTORY
  • Education From Ancient Early Filipinos
  • - Children were provided more vocational
    training but less academics in their houses by
    their parents and in the houses of their tribal
    tutors. They were using a unique system of
    writing known as the baybayin.
  • Spanish Period
  • - During the early Spanish period most education
    was carried out by the religious orders. The
    schools focused on the Christian Doctrines.

3
  • First Republic
  • -The schools maintained by Spain for more than
    three centuries were closed for a short period
    but were reopened on August 29, 1898 by the
    Secretary of Interior. The Burgos Institute in
    Malolos, the Military Academy of Malolos, and the
    Literary University of the Philippines were
    established. Article 23 of the Malolos
    Constitution mandated that public education would
    be free and obligatory in all schools of the
    nation under the First Philippine Republic.

4
  • American Period
  • -Building on the education system created in
    1863, an improved public school system was
    established during the first decade of American
    rule upon the recommendation of the Schurman
    Commission. Free primary instruction that trained
    the people for the duties of citizenship and
    avocation was enforced by the Taft Commission per
    instructions of President William McKinley.
  • -Education during this time also emphasized
    nationalism, vocational education and good
    manners and discipline.

5
  • After World War II
  • -In 1947, by the virtue of Executive Order No.
    94, the Department of Instruction was changed to
    the Department of Education. During this period,
    the regulation and supervision of public and
    private schools belonged to the Bureau of Public
    and Private Schools.
  • Marcos Era
  • -In 1972, the Department of Education became the
    Department of Education and Culture by the virtue
    of Proclamation 1081 which was signed
    by President Ferdinand Marcos.

6
  • Fifth Republic
  • -On February 2, 1987, a new Constitution for the
    Philippines was ratified. Section 3, Article
    XIV of the 1987 Constitution contains the ten
    fundamental aims of education in the Philippines.
  • -In 1987 by virtue of Executive Order No. 117,
    the Ministry of Education, Culture and Sports,
    became the Department of Education, Culture and
    Sports. The structure of DECS as embodied in the
    order remained practically unchanged until 1994.

7
  • Implementation Of The K-12 Program
  • - The implementation of the K-12 program is
    "phased". The first phase of the implementation
    will start on SY 2012-2013. During this school
    year, universal kindergarten will be finally
    offered, and will now be a part of the compulsory
    education system and a new curriculum for Grade
    1 and Grade 7 students would be introduced. By SY
    2016-2017, Grade 11/Year 5 will be introduced,
    and Grade 12/Year 6 by SY 2017-2018 with the
    phased implementation of the new curriculum
    finished by the SY 2017-2018. Students in 2nd
    year to 4th year high school this SY 2012-2013
    are not included in the program. It is only
    applicable to students from Kinder to 1st year
    high school which is now called Grade 7.

8
EDUCATION SYSTEM
  • Three Modes On Delivery Of Instructions
  • Normal Education
  • Alternative Learning System
  • Alternative Delivery Mode

9
COMPULSORY EDUCATION(Pattern of Education)
  • Elementary School
  • - Elementary school, sometimes called primary
    school or grade school (Filipino paaralang
    elementaryamababang paaralan), is the first part
    of the educational system, and it includes the
    first six years of compulsory education (grades
    1-6). These grades are further grouped
    (informally) accordingly into primary level,
    which includes the first three grades (grades
    1-3), and intermediate level, which includes the
    last three grades (grades 4-6).
  • The elementary school education covers a smaller
    but wider than the junior and senior high school
    because of the spiral approach educational
    technique.

10
  • Secondary School
  • - Secondary school in the Philippines, more
    commonly known as "high school"
    (Filipino paaralang sekundarya, sometimes mataas
    na paaralan), consists of four levels largely
    based on the American schooling system as it was
    until the advent of the comprehensive high
    schools in the US in the middle of last century.
    The Philippine high school system has not moved
    much from where it was when the Philippines
    achieved independence from the US in 1946. It
    still consists of only four levels with each
    level partially compartmentalized, focusing on a
    particular theme or content.

11
  • Tertiary Education
  • -Tertiary education in the Philippines is
    increasingly less cosmopolitan. From a height of
    5,284 foreign of students in 19951996 the number
    steadily declined to 2,323 in 20002001, the last
    year CHED published numbers on its website.
  • Technical and Vocational Education
  • -Technical and vocational education is offered
    to enhance students' practical skills at
    institutions usually accredited and approved
    by TESDA. 

12
Government Sector
  • The government has 3 main branches that manage
    education system in the Philippines these are
    the
  • Department of Education (DepEd)
  • Commission on higher Education (CHED)
  • Technical Education and Skills Development
    Authority (TESDA).

13
  • The K to 12 Program
  • The K to 12 Program covers kindergarten and 12
    years of basic education (six years of primary
    education, four years of junior high school, and
    two years of senior high school SHS) to provide
    sufficient time for mastery of concepts and
    skills, develop lifelong learners, and prepare
    graduates for tertiary education, middle-level
    skills development, employment, and
    entrepreneurship.

14
  • A.   Salient Features
  • 1. Universal Kindergarten Education
  • Kindergarten has now been integrated into the
    basic education system to ensure that all grade 1
    students are ready for academic
    learning. Universal kindergarten started in SY
    20112012 with a budget of P2.3 billion and was
    made mandatory starting SY 20122013 through the
    signing of Republic Act No. 10157 entitled An
    Act Institutionalizing the Kindergarten Education
    into the Basic Education System and Appropriating
    Funds Therefor on January 20, 2012.

15
  • 2. Mother Tongue-Based Multilingual Education.
  • The mother tongue will be the medium of
    instruction from kindergarten to grade 3. This
    includes the following Tagalog, Kapampangan,
    Pangasinense, Iloko, Bikol, Cebuano, Hiligaynon,
    Waray, Tausug, Maguindanaoan, Maranao, and
    Chabacano. Medium of instruction will be English
    and Filipino starting grade 4.

16
  • 3. Core Academic Areas.
  • The core academic areas include Math Filipino
    English Araling Panlipunan Edukasyon sa
    Pagpapakatao and Music, Arts, Physical
    Education, and Health (MAPEH). These are based on
    the College Readiness Standards of the Commission
    on Higher Education and are equivalent to the
    courses offered under the General Education
    Curriculum of Higher Education Institutions.

17
  • Science will be taught in grade 3, but its
    concepts will be integrated in other subjects
    like Health (under MAPEH), Math, and Languages in
    grades 1 and 2. Edukasyong Pangtahanan at
    Pangkabuhayan will be taught starting in grade 4.
    Technology and Livelihood Education and
    technicalvocational specializations, consistent
    with the Technical Education and Skills
    Development Authority training regulations, will
    start in grade 7.

18
  • 4. Specializations.
  • The additional two years (grades 11 and 12) or
    SHS will allow students to choose among academic,
    technicalvocational, or sports and arts tracks
    depending on their interest, the community needs,
    and the results of their skills assessment. The
    SHS will allow mastery of core competencies for
    lifelong learning and preparedness for work,
    higher education, middle-level skills
    development, or entrepreneurship.

19
  • B.   Implementation and Transition Management
  • Program implementation will be in phases
    starting this June for SY 20122013. Grade 1
    entrants in SY 20122013 will be the first batch
    to fully undergo the program, and incoming
    first-year high school students (or grade 7) in
    SY 20122013 will be the first to undergo the
    junior high school curriculum. To prepare
    teachers for the new curriculum, a nationwide
    summer training program for about 140,000 grades
    1 and 7 public school teachers will be held in
    May. The Department of Education (DepEd) is also
    working with various private school associations
    to cover teachers in private schools. To
    facilitate the transition from the existing
    ten-year basic education to 12 years, the DepEd
    will also implement the SHS Readiness
    Assessment and K to 12 Modeling.

20
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21
  • C.   Social Benefits of the Program
  • The perceived benefits of the program include
    i) placing the Philippine education system at par
    with international standards, following the
    Washington Accord and the Bologna Accord and ii)
    contributing to the development of a better
    educated society capable of pursuing productive
    employment, entrepreneurship, or higher education
    disciplines.

22
  • D.   Ensuring Sustainability of the Program
  • Enhancing the basic education curriculum and
    increasing the number of years for basic
    education was adopted as a Common Legislative
    Agenda during the February 28, 2011
    LegislativeExecutive Development Advisory
    Council (LEDAC) meeting. The administration-suppor
    ted bills that aim to increase the number of
    years for basic education are Senate Bill 2713
    (Recto), House Bill (HB) 4219 (Belmonte), and HB
    4199 (Escudero). These bills are pending at the
    Committee Level.

23
ISSUES
  • Budget
  • kuwang ang budget nga gihatag sa government
    then probably korakoton pa jd so mao nang na.ay
    mga issues.
  • E.g
  • Sub-standard textbooks, overworked and under paid
    teachers, contractualization of teachers and
    mediocer classrooms.

24
  • Eurocentric
  • sunod-sunod rata sa mga taga gawas.. Wla jud
    ka.ayo mga laking pinoy. Mas importante and
    IMPORTED kay sa LOCAL
  • E.g
  • colonial histography

25
  • Fly-by-night educational institutions.
  • By any measure, the proliferation of fly-by-night
    educational institutions is counter-productive.
    In the long run, it produces a pool of
    half-baked, unprepared, and incompetent
    graduates. Alarmingly, the country is having an
    over-supply already. Some would even consider
    them as liabilities than assets. This case is
    true for both undergraduate and graduate
    studies. 

26
  • Culturally and gender insensitive educational
    system.
  • Women, the common tao and the indigenous people
    are almost historically excluded from the
    Philippine historiography in favor of the men,
    heroes from Luzon and the power elite. Women are
    marginalized and trivialized even in language of
    education. Take the case of the terms female
    lawyer (as if lawyer as a profession is exclusive
    only to men) and manpower (which should have been
    human resources or human capital to be more
    politically correct).

27
  • State abandonment of education.
  • In the name of imperialist globalization, the
    statein an incremental fashionis abandoning its
    role to subsidize public education particularly
    in the tertiary level. This comes in the form of
    matriculation, laboratory and miscellaneous fee
    increases in order to force state colleges and
    universities (SCUs) to generate their own sources
    of fund. Ironically, the bulk of the budget (in
    fact, more than one-third in the case of 2005
    National Budget) goes to debt servicing.

28
  • Sub-standard textbooks.
  • Some textbooks which are already circulation are
    both poorly written and haphazardly edited. Take
    the case of the Asya Noon at Ngayon with an
    identified total number of more than 400
    historical errors. Unfortunately, it is just one
    of the many other similar atrociously written
    textbooks which are yet to be identified and
    exposed. This is a classic case of
    profit-centeredness without regard to social
    accountability.

29
  • Widespread contractualization.
  • In the name of profit, owners and administrators
    of several private schools commonly practice
    contractualization among their faculty members.
    Contractual employees unlike their
    regular/tenured counterparts are not entitled to
    fringe benefits which consequently reduces the
    over-all cost of their business operation. Job
    insecurity demeans the ranks of the faculty
    members.

30
  • Undue disregard for specialization.
  • Some colleges and universities encourage their
    faculty pool to be generalists (under the guise
    of multidisciplinary approach to learning) in
    order to be able to handle various subjects all
    at once. But some faculty members have turned out
    to be objects of mockery and have lost their
    self-esteem since some of them were pushed to
    handle Technical Writing, General Psychology,
    Filipino, and Algebra at the same time. This is
    prevalent among some franchised academic
    institutions even if the subjects are already
    off-tangent their area of interest and
    specialization.

31
  • Copy-pasting culture.
  • Over-dependence to the cyberspace has
    dramatically reduced the capability of students
    (even teachers) to undertake research.
    Copy-pasting has even turned into a norm among
    some students whenever they are tasked to submit
    a research paper or even a film review. Needless
    to say, plagiarism has already transformed into a
    more sophisticated form in the context of todays
    electronic age.

32
  • Mcdonaldized education.
  • The system, methodology, and even content of
    education in the Philippines are mere haphazard
    transplantation from the West. It is therefore
    Eurocentric, culturally insensitive, and
    non-reflective of the local milieu. This is based
    on the xenocentric (foreign-centered) premise
    that other culture or system is far more superior
    than ones own.

33
  • The problem of non-sustainability and
    non-continuity.
  • Teachers, administrators and publishers are all
    left in limbo whenever the DepEd would come up
    with another totally different directive from
    what it used to have in a rather very sudden
    interval. Take the case of the grading system,
    timeframe allotted to various subjects, MAKABAYAN
    program, readiness test, and learning
    competencies (LC). 

34
  • Poor regard for liberal art/education.
  • Liberal education is intended to form a holistic
    individual equipped with communication, critical
    thinking, mathematical, creative, inter-personal
    and intra-personal skills. This explains why we
    also have Philosophy, Languages, Humanities,
    Natural Science, Social Science, Physical
    Education and even Theology in our college
    curriculum, and not only our major subjects. The
    curriculum is specifically designed to produce a
    total person, and not only a technical
    specialist. Unfortunately, the desired objective
    is not being met at all since liberal education
    is regarded only as a set of minor subjects.

35
  • Continuation of Poor Regard For Liberal
    Art/Education
  • With the way these subjects are being handled
    (taking into account both content and
    methodology), students view the entire exercise
    as an unnecessary duplication of what they have
    already covered in high school. Equally alarming
    is the lack of enthusiasm and motivation
    exhibited by some professors to handle the
    subject especially if they believe that it has
    nothing to do with the course or area of
    specialization of their students (say, Art
    Appreciation for Accounting majors or Algebra for
    Creative Writing majors). 

36
  • Education a purveyor of myth.
  • Education has been very effective in
    mainstreaming and perpetuating the social myths
    in a subtle and indirect manner. Some of these
    myths are the perceived superiority of white,
    educated men, official history as advanced by
    the western point of view, globalization as the
    only way to achieve economic development, and
    stereotypes against the minoritized and the
    disenfranchised. 

37
  • Further marginalization of the undersubscribed
    courses.
  • In the name of profit and as a response to the
    dictates of the market forces, colleges and
    universities prefer to offer more courses in line
    with the health sciences like nursing, medical
    transcription, and care-giving. This is done at
    the expense of the already undersubscribed yet
    relevant courses like Area Studies,
    Pilipinolohiya (Philippine Studies), Development
    Studies, Philippine Arts, Art Studies, Community
    Development, Social Work, Islamic Studies,
    Clothing Technology, and Ceramics Engineering.

38
  • Monolithic education.
  • Some educators in the name of conservatism and
    for the sake of convenience, prefer the old-style
    teaching paradigm where they view themselves as
    the fountain of knowledge and their students as
    nothing but empty vessels to be filled up
    (banking method of education). Modern education
    has ushered in learner-centered approach to
    education (from being the sage in the stage to
    just a guide on the side). 

39
  • Atrociously boring teachers.
  • As I always underscore, there are no boring
    subjects, only boring teachers. But at least we
    should recognize them because they still serve a
    purpose. They serve as bad examples. 
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