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Title: An%20Overview%20of%20RTI/The%20Classroom%20Teacher%20as%20the%20


1
An Overview of RTI/The Classroom Teacher as the
First Responder Jim Wright www.interventioncent
ral.org
2
Workshop Agenda
3
Workshop PPTs and Handout Available at
http//www.interventioncentral.org/ppcsd
4
School Instructional Time The Irreplaceable
Resource
  • In the average school system, there are 330
    minutes in the instructional day, 1,650 minutes
    in the instructional week, and 56,700 minutes in
    the instructional year. Except in unusual
    circumstances, these are the only minutes we have
    to provide effective services for students. The
    number of years we have to apply these minutes is
    fixed. Therefore, each minute counts and schools
    cannot afford to support inefficient models of
    service delivery. p. 177

Source Batsche, G. M., Castillo, J. M., Dixon,
D. N., Forde, S. (2008). Best practices in
problem analysis. In A. Thomas J. Grimes
(Eds.), Best practices in school psychology V
(pp. 177-193).
5
RTI Assumption Struggling Students Are Typical
Until Proven Otherwise
  • RTI logic assumes that
  • A student who begins to struggle in general
    education is typical, and that
  • It is general educations responsibility to find
    the instructional strategies that will unlock the
    students learning potential
  • Only when the student shows through
    well-documented interventions that he or she has
    failed to respond to intervention does RTI
    begin to investigate the possibility that the
    student may have a learning disability or other
    special education condition.

6
Five Core Components of RTI Service Delivery
  1. Student services are arranged in a multi-tier
    model
  2. Data are collected to assess student baseline
    levels and to make decisions about student
    progress
  3. Interventions are evidence-based
  4. The procedural integrity of interventions is
    measured
  5. RTI is implemented and developed at the school-
    and district-level to be scalable and sustainable
    over time

Source Glover, T. A., DiPerna, J. C. (2007).
Service delivery for response to intervention
Core components and directions for future
research. School Psychology Review, 36, 526-540.
7
NYSED RTI Guidance Memo April 2008
Source DeLorenzo, J. P., Stevens, J. C. (April
2008). Implementation of response to intervention
programs. Memorandum issued by New York State
Education Department. Retrieved November 25,
2008, from http//www.vesid.nysed.gov/specialed/pu
blications/policy/RTI.htm
8
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9
The Regents policy framework for RtI
  • Authorizes the use of RtI in the State's criteria
    to determine learning disabilities (LD) and
    requires, effective July 1, 2012, that all school
    districts have an RtI program in place as part of
    the process to determine if a student in grades
    K-4 is a student with a learning disability in
    the area of reading.  Effective on or after July
    1, 2012, a school district shall not use the
    severe discrepancy criteria to determine that a
    student in kindergarten through grade four has a
    learning disability in the area of reading. 
       8 NYCRR section 200.4(j)

Source DeLorenzo, J. P., Stevens, J. C. (April
2008). Implementation of response to intervention
programs. Memorandum issued by New York State
Education Department. Retrieved November 25,
2008, from http//www.vesid.nysed.gov/specialed/pu
blications/policy/RTI.htm
10
RTI Pyramid of Interventions
11
NYSED RTI Guidance Document October 2010
Source New York State Education Department.
(October 2010). Response to Intervention
Guidance for New York State School Districts.
Retrieved November 10, 2010, from
http//www.p12.nysed.gov/specialed/RTI/guidance-oc
t10.pdf
12
Source New York State Education Department.
(October 2010). Response to Intervention
Guidance for New York State School Districts.
Retrieved November 10, 2010, from
http//www.p12.nysed.gov/specialed/RTI/guidance-oc
t10.pdf p. 12
13
Tier 1 Core Instruction
  • Tier I core instruction
  • Is universalavailable to all students.
  • Can be delivered within classrooms or throughout
    the school.
  • Is an ongoing process of developing strong
    classroom instructional practices to reach the
    largest number of struggling learners.
  • All children have access to Tier 1
    instruction/interventions. Teachers have the
    capability to use those strategies without
    requiring outside assistance.
  • Tier 1 instruction encompasses
  • The schools core curriculum.
  • All published or teacher-made materials used to
    deliver that curriculum.
  • Teacher use of whole-group teaching
    management strategies.
  • Tier I instruction addresses this question Are
    strong classroom instructional strategies
    sufficient to help the student to achieve
    academic success?

14
Tier I (Classroom) Intervention
  • Tier 1 intervention
  • Targets red flag students who are not
    successful with core instruction alone.
  • Uses evidence-based strategies to address
    student academic or behavioral concerns.
  • Must be feasible to implement given the resources
    available in the classroom.
  • Tier I intervention addresses the question Does
    the student make adequate progress when the
    instructor uses specific academic or behavioral
    strategies matched to the presenting concern?

15
Source New York State Education Department.
(October 2010). Response to Intervention
Guidance for New York State School Districts.
Retrieved November 10, 2010, from
http//www.p12.nysed.gov/specialed/RTI/guidance-oc
t10.pdf p. 13
16
Tier 2 Supplemental (Group-Based)
Interventions (Standard Treatment Protocol)
  • Tier 2 interventions are typically delivered in
    small-group format. About 5-10 of students in
    the typical school will require Tier
    2/supplemental intervention support. Group size
    for Tier 2 interventions is limited to 3-5
    students. Students placed in Tier 2
    interventions should have a shared profile of
    intervention need.
  • Programs or practices used in Tier 2
    interventions should be evidence-based.
  • The progress of students in Tier 2
    interventions are monitored at least 2 times per
    month.

Source Burns, M. K., Gibbons, K. A. (2008).
Implementing response-to-intervention in
elementary and secondary schools. Routledge New
York.
17
Scheduling Elementary Tier 2 Interventions
Option 3 Floating RTIGradewide Shared
Schedule. Each grade has a scheduled RTI time
across classrooms. No two grades share the same
RTI time. Advantages are that outside providers
can move from grade to grade providing push-in or
pull-out services and that students can be
grouped by need across different teachers within
the grade.
Anyplace Elementary School RTI Daily Schedule
Classroom 1
Classroom 2
Classroom 3
Grade K
900-930
Classroom 1
Classroom 2
Classroom 3
Grade 1
945-1015
Classroom 1
Classroom 2
Classroom 3
Grade 2
1030-1100
Classroom 1
Classroom 2
Classroom 3
Grade 3
1230-100
Classroom 1
Classroom 2
Classroom 3
Grade 4
115-145
Grade 5
Classroom 1
Classroom 2
Classroom 3
200-230
Source Burns, M. K., Gibbons, K. A. (2008).
Implementing response-to-intervention in
elementary and secondary schools Procedures to
assure scientific-based practices. New York
Routledge.
18
Source New York State Education Department.
(October 2010). Response to Intervention
Guidance for New York State School Districts.
Retrieved November 10, 2010, from
http//www.p12.nysed.gov/specialed/RTI/guidance-oc
t10.pdf p. 14
19
Tier 3 Intensive Individualized
Interventions (Problem-Solving Protocol)
  • Tier 3 interventions are the most intensive
    offered in a school setting.
  • Students qualify for Tier 3 interventions
    because
  • they are found to have a large skill gap when
    compared to their class or grade peers and/or
  • They did not respond to interventions provided
    previously at Tiers 1 2.
  • Tier 3 interventions are provided daily for
    sessions of 30 minutes or more. The
    student-teacher ratio is flexible but should
    allow the student to receive intensive,
    individualized instruction.
  • The reading progress of students in Tier 3
    interventions is monitored at least weekly.

Source Burns, M. K., Gibbons, K. A. (2008).
Implementing response-to-intervention in
elementary and secondary schools. Routledge New
York.
20
RTI Challenge Defining the Key Role of Classroom
Teachers in RTI
21
The Key Role of Classroom Teachers as
Interventionists in RTI 6 Steps
  1. The teacher defines the student academic or
    behavioral problem clearly.
  2. The teacher decides on the best explanation for
    why the problem is occurring.
  3. The teacher selects evidence-based
    interventions.
  4. The teacher documents the students Tier 1
    intervention plan.
  5. The teacher monitors the students response
    (progress) to the intervention plan.
  6. The teacher knows what the next steps are when a
    student fails to make adequate progress with Tier
    1 interventions alone.

22
RTI Intervention Key Concepts p. 5
23
Core Instruction, Interventions, Accommodations
Modifications Sorting Them Out
  • Core Instruction. Those instructional strategies
    that are used routinely with all students in a
    general-education setting are considered core
    instruction. High-quality instruction is
    essential and forms the foundation of RTI
    academic support. NOTE While it is important to
    verify that good core instructional practices are
    in place for a struggling student, those routine
    practices do not count as individual student
    interventions.

24
Core Instruction, Interventions, Accommodations
Modifications Sorting Them Out
  • Intervention. An academic intervention is a
    strategy used to teach a new skill, build fluency
    in a skill, or encourage a child to apply an
    existing skill to new situations or settings. An
    intervention can be thought of as a set of
    actions that, when taken, have demonstrated
    ability to change a fixed educational trajectory
    (Methe Riley-Tillman, 2008 p. 37).

25
Core Instruction, Interventions, Accommodations
Modifications Sorting Them Out
  • Accommodation. An accommodation is intended to
    help the student to fully access and participate
    in the general-education curriculum without
    changing the instructional content and without
    reducing the students rate of learning (Skinner,
    Pappas Davis, 2005). An accommodation is
    intended to remove barriers to learning while
    still expecting that students will master the
    same instructional content as their typical
    peers.
  • Accommodation example 1 Students are allowed to
    supplement silent reading of a novel by listening
    to the book on tape.
  • Accommodation example 2 For unmotivated
    students, the instructor breaks larger
    assignments into smaller chunks and providing
    students with performance feedback and praise for
    each completed chunk of assigned work (Skinner,
    Pappas Davis, 2005).

26
Teaching is giving it isnt taking away.
(Howell, Hosp Kurns, 2008 p. 356).


Source Howell, K. W., Hosp, J. L., Kurns, S.
(2008). Best practices in curriculum-based
evaluation. In A. Thomas J. Grimes (Eds.), Best
practices in school psychology V (pp.349-362).
Bethesda, MD National Association of School
Psychologists..
27
Core Instruction, Interventions, Accommodations
Modifications Sorting Them Out
  • Modification. A modification changes the
    expectations of what a student is expected to
    know or do in core instructiontypically by
    lowering the academic standards against which the
    student is to be evaluated. Examples of
    modifications
  • Giving a student five math computation problems
    for practice instead of the 20 problems assigned
    to the rest of the class
  • Letting the student consult course notes during a
    test when peers are not permitted to do so

28
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29
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30
The Classroom Teacher as the First Responder
Interventions to Fix Student Reading
Problems Jim Wright www.interventioncentral.org
31
Workshop PPTs and Handout Available
at http//www.interventioncentral.org/nfrc
32
Teacher as RTI First Responder Areas of
Inquiry
33
RTI Pyramid of Interventions
34
The Teacher as First Responder Focus of
Inquiry What are the specific expectations of
the general-education classroom teacher to serve
as an interventionist?
35
Risk for reading failure always involves the
interaction of a particular set of child
characteristics with specific characteristics of
the instructional environment. Risk status is not
entirely inherent in the child, but always
involves a mismatch between child
characteristics and the instruction that is
provided. (Foorman Torgesen, 2001 p. 206).


Source Foorman, B. R., Torgesen, J. (2001).
Critical elements of classroom and small-group
instruction promote reading success in all
children. Learning Disabilities Research
Practice, 16, 203-212.
36
The Key Role of Classroom Teachers as
Interventionists in RTI 6 Steps
  1. The teacher defines the student academic or
    behavioral problem clearly.
  2. The teacher decides on the best explanation for
    why the problem is occurring.
  3. The teacher selects research-based
    interventions.
  4. The teacher documents the students Tier 1
    intervention plan.
  5. The teacher monitors the students response
    (progress) to the intervention plan.
  6. The teacher knows what the next steps are when a
    student fails to make adequate progress with Tier
    1 interventions alone.

37
RTI Interventions What If There is No Commercial
Intervention Package or Program Available?
  • Although commercially prepared programs and the
    subsequent manuals and materials are inviting,
    they are not necessary. A recent review of
    research suggests that interventions are research
    based and likely to be successful, if they are
    correctly targeted and provide explicit
    instruction in the skill, an appropriate level of
    challenge, sufficient opportunities to respond to
    and practice the skill, and immediate feedback on
    performanceThus, these elements could be used
    as criteria with which to judge potential
    interventions. p. 88

Source Burns, M. K., Gibbons, K. A. (2008).
Implementing response-to-intervention in
elementary and secondary schools. Routledge New
York.
38
Motivation Deficit 1 The student is unmotivated
because he or she cannot do the assigned work.
  • Profile of a Student with This Motivation
    Problem The student lacks essential skills
    required to do the task.

39
Motivation Deficit 1 Cannot Do the Work
  • Profile of a Student with This Motivation Problem
    (Cont.) Areas of deficit might include
  • Basic academic skills. Basic skills have
    straightforward criteria for correct performance
    (e.g., the student defines vocabulary words or
    decodes text or computes math facts) and
    comprise the building-blocks of more complex
    academic tasks (Rupley, Blair, Nichols, 2009).
  • Cognitive strategies. Students employ specific
    cognitive strategies as guiding procedures to
    complete more complex academic tasks such as
    reading comprehension or writing (Rosenshine,
    1995
  • Academic-enabling skills. Skills that are
    academic enablers (DiPerna, 2006) are not tied
    to specific academic knowledge but rather aid
    student learning across a wide range of settings
    and tasks (e.g., organizing work materials, time
    management).

40
Motivation Deficit 1 Cannot Do the Work (Cont.)
  • What the Research Says When a student lacks the
    capability to complete an academic task because
    of limited or missing basic skills, cognitive
    strategies, or academic-enabling skills, that
    student is still in the acquisition stage of
    learning (Haring et al., 1978). That student
    cannot be expected to be motivated or to be
    successful as a learner unless he or she is first
    explicitly taught these weak or absent essential
    skills (Daly, Witt, Martens Dool, 1997).

41
Motivation Deficit 1 Cannot Do the Work (Cont.)
  • How to Verify the Presence of This Motivation
    Problem The teacher collects information (e.g.,
    through observations of the student engaging in
    academic tasks interviews with the student
    examination of work products, quizzes, or tests)
    demonstrating that the student lacks basic
    skills, cognitive strategies, or
    academic-enabling skills essential to the
    academic task.

42
Motivation Deficit 1 Cannot Do the Work (Cont.)
  • How to Fix This Motivation Problem Students who
    are not motivated because they lack essential
    skills need to be taught those skills.
    Direct-Instruction Format. Students learning
    new material, concepts, or skills benefit from a
    direct instruction approach. (Burns,
    VanDerHeyden Boice, 2008 Rosenshine, 1995
    Rupley, Blair, Nichols, 2009).

43
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44
Motivation Deficit 1 Cannot Do the Work (Cont.)
  • How to Fix This Motivation Problem When
    following a direct-instruction format, the
    teacher
  • ensures that the lesson content is appropriately
    matched to students abilities.
  • opens the lesson with a brief review of concepts
    or material that were previously presented.
  • states the goals of the current days lesson.
  • breaks new material into small, manageable
    increments, or steps.

45
Motivation Deficit 1 Cannot Do the Work (Cont.)
  • How to Fix This Motivation Problem When
    following a direct-instruction format, the
    teacher
  • throughout the lesson, provides adequate
    explanations and detailed instructions for all
    concepts and materials being taught. NOTE Verbal
    explanations can include talk-alouds (e.g., the
    teacher describes and explains each step of a
    cognitive strategy) and think-alouds (e.g., the
    teacher applies a cognitive strategy to a
    particular problem or task and verbalizes the
    steps in applying the strategy).
  • regularly checks for student understanding by
    posing frequent questions and eliciting group
    responses.

46
Motivation Deficit 1 Cannot Do the Work (Cont.)
  • How to Fix This Motivation Problem When
    following a direct-instruction format, the
    teacher
  • verifies that students are experiencing
    sufficient success in the lesson content to shape
    their learning in the desired direction and to
    maintain student motivation and engagement.
  • provides timely and regular performance feedback
    and corrections throughout the lesson as needed
    to guide student learning.

47
Motivation Deficit 1 Cannot Do the Work (Cont.)
  • How to Fix This Motivation Problem When
    following a direct-instruction format, the
    teacher
  • allows students the chance to engage in practice
    activities distributed throughout the lesson
    (e.g., through teacher demonstration then group
    practice with teacher supervision and feedback
    then independent, individual student practice).
  • ensures that students have adequate support
    (e.g., clear and explicit instructions teacher
    monitoring) to be successful during independent
    seatwork practice activities.

48
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49
Alphabetics/Phonics Intervention Letter Cube
Blending Focus of Inquiry What is the
definition of research-based for classroom
interventions?
50
Letter Cube Blending
d
i
r
  • The Letter Cube Blending intervention targets
    alphabetic (phonics) skills. The student is given
    three cubes with assorted consonants and vowels
    appearing on their sides. The student rolls the
    cubes and records the resulting letter
    combinations on a recording sheet. The student
    then judges whether each resulting word
    composed from the letters randomly appearing on
    the blocks is a real word or a nonsense word. The
    intervention can be used with one student or a
    group. (Florida Center for Reading Research,
    2009 Taylor, Ding, Felt, Zhang, 2011).

Sources Florida Center for Reading Research.
(2009). Letter cube blending. Retrieved from
http//www.fcrr.org/SCAsearch/PDFs/K-1P_036.pdfTay
lor, R. P., Ding, Y., Felt, D., Zhang, D.
(2011). Effects of Tier 1 intervention on
lettersound correspondence in a
Response-to-Intervention model in first graders.
School Psychology Forum, 5(2), 54-73.
51
Letter Cube Blending
  • PREPARATION Here are guidelines for preparing
    Letter Cubes
  • Start with three (3) Styrofoam or wooden blocks
    (about 3 inches in diameter). These blocks can be
    purchased at most craft stores.
  • With three markers of different colors (green,
    blue, red), write the lower-case letters listed
    below on the sides of the three blocks--with one
    bold letter displayed per side. - Block 1
    t,c,d,b,f,m green marker - Block 2 a,e,i,o.u,i
    (The letter I appears twice on the block.) blue
    marker - Block 3 b,d,m,n,r,s red marker
  • Draw a line under any letter that can be confused
    with letters that have the identical shape but a
    different orientation (e.g., b and d).

Sources Florida Center for Reading Research.
(2009). Letter cube blending. Retrieved from
http//www.fcrr.org/SCAsearch/PDFs/K-1P_036.pdfTay
lor, R. P., Ding, Y., Felt, D., Zhang, D.
(2011). Effects of Tier 1 intervention on
lettersound correspondence in a
Response-to-Intervention model in first graders.
School Psychology Forum, 5(2), 54-73.
52
Letter Cube Blending
  • INTERVENTION STEPS At the start of the
    intervention, each student is given a Letter Cube
    Blending Recording Sheet. During the Letter Cube
    Blending activity
  • Each student takes a turn rolling the Letter
    Cubes. The student tosses the cubes on the floor,
    a table, or other flat, unobstructed surface. The
    cubes are then lined up in 1-2-3 (green blue
    red) order.
  • The student is prompted to sound out the letters
    on the cubes. The student is prompted to sound
    out each letter, to blend the letters, and to
    read aloud the resulting word.

Sources Florida Center for Reading Research.
(2009). Letter cube blending. Retrieved from
http//www.fcrr.org/SCAsearch/PDFs/K-1P_036.pdfTay
lor, R. P., Ding, Y., Felt, D., Zhang, D.
(2011). Effects of Tier 1 intervention on
lettersound correspondence in a
Response-to-Intervention model in first graders.
School Psychology Forum, 5(2), 54-73.
53
Letter Cube Blending
  • INTERVENTION STEPS (Cont.)
  • The student identifies and records the word as
    real or nonsense. The student then identifies
    the word as real or nonsense and then writes
    the word on in the appropriate column on the
    Letter Cube Blending Recording Sheet.
  • The activity continues to 10 words. The activity
    continues until students in the group have
    generated at least 10 words on their recording
    sheets.

Sources Florida Center for Reading Research.
(2009). Letter cube blending. Retrieved from
http//www.fcrr.org/SCAsearch/PDFs/K-1P_036.pdfTay
lor, R. P., Ding, Y., Felt, D., Zhang, D.
(2011). Effects of Tier 1 intervention on
lettersound correspondence in a
Response-to-Intervention model in first graders.
School Psychology Forum, 5(2), 54-73.
54
Letter Cube Blending Sample Recording Sheet
d
i
r
Sources Florida Center for Reading Research.
(2009). Letter cube blending. Retrieved from
http//www.fcrr.org/SCAsearch/PDFs/K-1P_036.pdf Ta
ylor, R. P., Ding, Y., Felt, D., Zhang, D.
(2011). Effects of Tier 1 intervention on
lettersound correspondence in a
Response-to-Intervention model in first graders.
School Psychology Forum, 5(2), 54-73.
55
Classroom Interventions How Do We Define
Research-Based?
  • Problem School districts (and NYSED) require
    that teachers classroom interventions be
    research-based.
  • However, school districts often have not adopted
    any formal criteria for defining
    research-based. For example
  • How many studies must have been carried out to
    validate an intervention program or strategy?
  • Are there particular journals that are considered
    more reputable sources of research-based
    interventions?
  • Do single-subject studies count as
    research-based, or are studies with control and
    treatment groups required?

56
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57
Question Are FCRR Resources Research-Based?
  • The Florida Center for Reading Research makes
    many instructional/intervention reading lessons
    available to teachers.
  • Most of the lessons lack research citations.
  • Do FCRR materials meet a standard definition of
    research-based?

58
Classroom Interventions Untying the Knot of
Research-Based
  • Here are recommendations to give teachers
    flexibility and ownership with Tier 1
    interventions
  • Train Teachers in Principles of Direct
    Instruction. Teachers should be trained in
    principles of direct instruction that allow them
    to effectively deliver any educational content to
    struggling students in the classroom (Tier 1).
  • Catalog Definitions of Essential Skills Matched
    to Common Areas of Student Deficit. When
    possible, schools should catalog definitions of
    essential skills that are recommended by
    research to match specific areas of academic
    deficit.
  • Encourage Teachers to Create Interventions Based
    on Definitions of Essential Skills. When given
    the prescription of definitions of essential
    skills that would benefit a particular student,
    teachers should then be encouraged to find or
    create intervention lessons that conform to the
    prescribed practices.

59
Classroom Interventions Untying the Knot of
Research-Based
  • Here are recommendations to give teachers
    flexibility and ownership with Tier 1
    interventions
  • Train Teachers in Principles of Direct
    Instruction. Teachers should be trained in
    principles of direct instruction that allow them
    to effectively deliver any educational content to
    struggling students in the classroom (Tier 1).
  • Example. A 1st-grade teacher , Mrs. Alicea,
    receives training in direct instruction and is
    encouraged to consult a special educator in her
    school on DI as needed.

60
Classroom Interventions Untying the Knot of
Research-Based
  • Here are recommendations to give teachers
    flexibility and ownership with Tier 1
    interventions
  • Catalog Definitions of Essential Skills Matched
    to Common Areas of Student Deficit. When
    possible, schools should catalog definitions of
    essential skills that are recommended by
    research to match specific areas of academic
    deficit.
  • Example. The school defined one important
    essential student academic skill as
    Alphabetics/Phonics The student is able to map
    sounds to their corresponding alphabetic
    representations and to use rules of phonics to
    sound out written words.

61
Classroom Interventions Untying the Knot of
Research-Based
  • Here are recommendations to give teachers
    flexibility and ownership with Tier 1
    interventions
  • Encourage Teachers to Create Interventions Based
    on Definitions of Essential Skills. When given
    the prescription of definitions of essential
    skills that would benefit a particular student,
    teachers should then be encouraged to find or
    create intervention lessons that conform to the
    prescribed practices.
  • Example. Using DIBELS winter screening results,
    Mrs. Alicea identified four children in her class
    who were at some risk in alphabetics/phonics .
    The teacher located several group lessons from
    the Florida Center for Reading Research, among
    them Letter Cube Blending, that could be expected
    to promote the essential skill of
    alphabetics/phonics. She set aside time daily to
    implement these intervention lessons with this
    small group, using a direct instructional
    approach.

62
Classroom Interventions Untying the Knot of
Research-Based (Cont.)
  • Recommendations to Give Flexibility and Ownership
    with Tier 1 Interventions
  • Train in Principles of Direct Instruction.
  • Catalog Definitions of Essential Skills Matched
    to Common Areas of Student Deficit.
  • Encourage Teachers to Create Interventions Based
    on Definitions of Essential Skills.
  • A teacher-made intervention constructed
    according to these recommendations could be
    considered research-based in two crucial
    respects
  • The teacher-selected activities logically address
    academic deficits that have already been shown to
    be important through intervention research.
  • The direct-instructional approach used by the
    teacher to present the activities is also
    validated through research Good instruction is
    research-based.

63
As Student Stakes Grow, So Does the Weight of
Research Evidence Needed for Interventions
  • As described in previous slides, teachers should
    be allowed flexibility at Tier 1 when selecting
    or constructing intervention ideas, so long as
    those ideas match a target students deficits in
    essential skills.
  • However, because student stakes are higher at
    Tiers 2 and 3, interventions at these levels
    should be held to a higher standard of research
    evidence.
  • When possible, programs or practices at Tiers 2
    and 3 should be supported by studies published in
    reputable, peer-reviewed journals.

64
Reading Fluency Intervention HELPS
Program Focus of Inquiry What is the potential
for the Internet community to support the
development of high-quality open source
intervention materials?
65
HELPS Program Reading Fluency www.helpsprogram.or
g
  • HELPS (Helping Early Literacy with Practice
    Strategies) is a free tutoring program that
    targets student reading fluency skills. Developed
    by Dr. John Begeny of North Carolina State
    University, the program is an evidence-based
    intervention package that includes
  • adult modeling of fluent reading,
  • repeated reading of passages by the student,
  • phrase-drill error correction,
  • verbal cueing and retell check to encourage
    student reading comprehension,
  • reward procedures to engage and encourage the
    student reader.

66
Reading Comprehension Intervention Phrase-Cued
Text Lessons Focus of Inquiry How can
affordable technology make interventions more
feasible for teachers?
67
Phrase-Cued Text Lessons
  • Phrase-cued texts are a means to train students
    to recognize the natural pauses that occur
    between phrases in their reading. Because phrases
    are units that often encapsulate key ideas, the
    students ability to identify them can enhance
    comprehension of the text (Rasinski, 1990, 1994).

Sources Rasinski, T.V. (1990). The effects of
cued phrase boundaries on reading performance A
review. Kent, Ohio Kent State University. (ERIC
Document Reproduction Service No.
ED313689). Rasinski, T. V. (1994). Developing
syntactic sensitivity in reading through
phrase-cued texts. Intervention in School and
Clinic, 29, 165-168.
68
Phrase-Cued Text Lessons
  • MATERIALS
  • Two copies of a student passage One annotated
    with phrase-cue marks and the other left without
    annotation.

Sources Rasinski, T.V. (1990). The effects of
cued phrase boundaries on reading performance A
review. Kent, Ohio Kent State University. (ERIC
Document Reproduction Service No.
ED313689). Rasinski, T. V. (1994). Developing
syntactic sensitivity in reading through
phrase-cued texts. Intervention in School and
Clinic, 29, 165-168.
69
Phrase-Cued Text Lessons
  • PREPARATION Here are guidelines for preparing
    phrase-cued passages
  • Select a Passage. Select a short (100-250 word)
    passage that is within the students
    instructional or independent level.
  • Mark Sentence Boundaries. Mark the sentence
    boundaries of the passage with double slashes
    (//).
  • Mark Within-Sentence Phrase-Breaks. Read through
    the passage to locate phrase breaks naturally
    occurring pause points that are found within
    sentences. Mark each of these phrase breaks with
    a single slash mark (/).

Sources Rasinski, T.V. (1990). The effects of
cued phrase boundaries on reading performance A
review. Kent, Ohio Kent State University. (ERIC
Document Reproduction Service No.
ED313689). Rasinski, T. V. (1994). Developing
syntactic sensitivity in reading through
phrase-cued texts. Intervention in School and
Clinic, 29,
70
Example Passage With Phrase-Cued Text Annotation
71
Phrase-Cued Text Lessons
  • INTERVENTION STEPS Phrase-cued text lessons
    should be carried out in 10 minute sessions 3-4
    times per week. Here are steps to carrying out
    this intervention
  • When first using this strategy Introduce
    Phrase-Cued Texts to the Student. Say to the
    student Passages are made up of key ideas, and
    these key ideas are often contained in units
    called phrases. Several phrases can make up a
    sentence. When we read, it helps to read phrase
    by phrase to get the full meaning of the text.
    Show the student a prepared passage with
    phrase-cue marks inserted. Point out how
    double-slash marks signal visually to the reader
    the longer pauses at sentence boundaries and
    single slash marks signal the shorter phrase
    pauses within sentences.

Sources Rasinski, T.V. (1990). The effects of
cued phrase boundaries on reading performance A
review. Kent, Ohio Kent State University. (ERIC
Document Reproduction Service No.
ED313689). Rasinski, T. V. (1994). Developing
syntactic sensitivity in reading through
phrase-cued texts. Intervention in School and
Clinic, 29,
72
Phrase-Cued Text Lessons
  • INTERVENTION STEPS (Cont.)
  • Follow the Phrase-Cued Text Reading Sequence The
    tutor prepares a new phrase-cued passage for each
    session and follows this sequence
  • The tutor reads the phrase-cued passage aloud
    once as a model, while the student follows along
    silently.
  • The student reads the phrase-cued passage aloud
    2-3 times. The tutor provides ongoing feedback
    about the student reading, noting the students
    observance of phrase breaks.
  • The session concludes with the student reading
    aloud a copy of the passage without phrase-cue
    marks. The tutor provides feedback about the
    students success in recognizing the natural
    phrase breaks in the students final read-aloud.

Sources Rasinski, T.V. (1990). The effects of
cued phrase boundaries on reading performance A
review. Kent, Ohio Kent State University. (ERIC
Document Reproduction Service No.
ED313689). Rasinski, T. V. (1994). Developing
syntactic sensitivity in reading through
phrase-cued texts. Intervention in School and
Clinic, 29,
73
Phrase-Cued Text Lessons
  • Additional Ideas for Using Phrase-Cued Texts.
    Educators might consider these additional ideas
    for using this strategy (Rasinski, 1994)
  • Use Phrase-Cued Texts in a Group-Lesson Format.
    The teacher would modify the intervention
    sequence (described above) to accommodate a group
    or class. The teacher models reading of the
    phrase-cued passage the teacher and students
    next read through the passage chorally then
    students (in pairs or individually) practice
    reading the phrase-cued text aloud while the
    instructor circulates around the room to observe.
    Finally, students individually read aloud the
    original passage without phrase-cue marks.
  • Encourage Parents to Use the Phrase-Cued Text
    Strategy. Parents can extend the impact of this
    strategy by using it at home, with training and
    materials provided by the school.

Sources Rasinski, T.V. (1990). The effects of
cued phrase boundaries on reading performance A
review. Kent, Ohio Kent State University. (ERIC
Document Reproduction Service No.
ED313689). Rasinski, T. V. (1994). Developing
syntactic sensitivity in reading through
phrase-cued texts. Intervention in School and
Clinic, 29,
74
(No Transcript)
75
Reading Comprehension Intervention Student
Fix-Up Skills Focus of Inquiry How can the
student be enlisted to serve as an
interventionist?
76
Reading Comprehension Fix-Up Skills A Toolkit
  • Good readers continuously monitor their
    understanding of informational text. When
    necessary, they also take steps to improve their
    understanding of text through use of reading
    comprehension fix-up skills.
  • Presented here are a series of fix-up skill
    strategies that can help struggling students to
    better understand difficult reading assignments

77
Reading Comprehension Fix-Up Skills A Toolkit
(Cont.)
  • Core Instruction Providing Main Idea Practice
    through Partner Retell (Carnine Carnine,
    2004). Students in a group or class are assigned
    a text selection to read silently. Students are
    then paired off, with one student assigned the
    role of reteller and the other appointed as
    listener. The reteller recounts the main idea
    to the listener, who can comment or ask
    questions. The teacher then states the main idea
    to the class. Next, the reteller locates two key
    details from the reading that support the main
    idea and shares these with the listener. At the
    end of the activity, the teacher does a spot
    check by randomly calling on one or more students
    in the listener role and asking them to recap
    what information was shared by the reteller.

78
Reading Comprehension Fix-Up Skills A Toolkit
(Cont.)
  • Student Strategy Promoting Understanding
    Building Endurance through Reading-Reflection
    Pauses (Hedin Conderman, 2010). The student
    decides on a reading interval (e.g., every four
    sentences every 3 minutes at the end of each
    paragraph). At the end of each interval, the
    student pauses briefly to recall the main points
    of the reading. If the student has questions or
    is uncertain about the content, the student
    rereads part or all of the section just read.
    This strategy is useful both for students who
    need to monitor their understanding as well as
    those who benefit from brief breaks when engaging
    in intensive reading as a means to build up
    endurance as attentive readers.

79
Reading Comprehension Fix-Up Skills A Toolkit
(Cont.)
  • Student Strategy Identifying or Constructing
    Main Idea Sentences (Davey McBride, 1986
    Rosenshine, Meister Chapman, 1996). For each
    paragraph in an assigned reading, the student
    either (a) highlights the main idea sentence or
    (b) highlights key details and uses them to write
    a gist sentence. The student then writes the
    main idea of that paragraph on an index card. On
    the other side of the card, the student writes a
    question whose answer is that paragraphs main
    idea sentence. This stack of main idea cards
    becomes a useful tool to review assigned
    readings.

80
Reading Comprehension Fix-Up Skills A Toolkit
(Cont.)
  • Student Strategy Restructuring Paragraphs with
    Main Idea First to Strengthen Rereads (Hedin
    Conderman, 2010). The student highlights or
    creates a main idea sentence for each paragraph
    in the assigned reading. When rereading each
    paragraph of the selection, the student (1) reads
    the main idea sentence or student-generated
    gist sentence first (irrespective of where that
    sentence actually falls in the paragraph) (2)
    reads the remainder of the paragraph, and (3)
    reflects on how the main idea relates to the
    paragraph content.

81
Reading Comprehension Fix-Up Skills A Toolkit
(Cont.)
  • Student Strategy Linking Pronouns to Referents
    (Hedin Conderman, 2010). Some readers lose the
    connection between pronouns and the nouns that
    they refer to (known as referents)especially
    when reading challenging text. The student is
    encouraged to circle pronouns in the reading, to
    explicitly identify each pronouns referent, and
    (optionally) to write next to the pronoun the
    name of its referent. For example, the student
    may add the referent to a pronoun in this
    sentence from a biology text The Cambrian
    Period is the first geological age that has large
    numbers of multi-celled organisms associated with
    it Cambrian Period.

82
Reading Comprehension Fix-Up Skills A Toolkit
(Cont.)
  • Student Strategy Apply Vocabulary Fix-Up
    Skills for Unknown Words (Klingner Vaughn,
    1999). When confronting an unknown word in a
    reading selection, the student applies the
    following vocabulary fix-up skills
  • Read the sentence again.
  • Read the sentences before and after the problem
    sentence for clues to the words meaning.
  • See if there are prefixes or suffixes in the word
    that can give clues to meaning.
  • Break the word up by syllables and look for
    smaller words within.

83
Reading Comprehension Fix-Up Skills A Toolkit
(Cont.)
  • Student Strategy Reading Actively Through Text
    Annotation (Harris, 1990 Sarkisian et al.,
    2003). Students are likely to increase their
    retention of information when they interact
    actively with their reading by jotting comments
    in the margin of the text. Using photocopies, the
    student is taught to engage in an ongoing
    'conversation' with the writer by recording a
    running series of brief comments in the margins
    of the text. The student may write annotations to
    record opinions about points raised by the
    writer, questions triggered by the reading, or
    unknown vocabulary words.

84
Teacher as RTI First Responder Areas of
Inquiry
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