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An Outcomes-based Assessment Model for General Education

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Title: An Outcomes-based Assessment Model for General Education


1
An Outcomes-based Assessment Model for General
Education
  • Amy Driscoll
  • WASC EDUCATIONAL SEMINAR
  • February 1, 2008

2
Definitions
  • Assessment is the process of gathering
    information/data on student learning.
  • General education generally describes basic or
    foundational knowledge/skills and attitudes that
    all undergraduates are required to have for
    graduation.

3
PossibilitiesPurpose/Definition
  • The purpose of assessment is to improve
    learning (Angelo, 2000)
  • Assessment is a dynamic pedagogy that extends,
    expands, enhances, and strengthens learning
    (Driscoll, 2001)

4
Thinking about Assessment
  • Does assessment flow from the institutions
    mission and reflect the educational values?
  • Does assessment address questions that people
    really care about?
  • Does assessment help faculty fulfill their
    responsibilities to students, to the public?
  • Does assessment of general education describe
    students readiness for other curriculum?

5
Aligning Mission with Goals for General Education
  • Our central mission is to develop life-long
    learning skills, impart societys cultural
    heritage, and educate and prepare for both the
    professions and advanced study.
  • Goals life-long learning skills
  • cultural heritage

6
Aligning Institutional Values With Goals for
General Education
  • ESU has a commitment to academic and personal
    integrity.
  • GOALS Academic Integrity
  • Personal Integrity

7
Aligning Institutional Vision with Goals of
General Education
  • to enhance recognition of the value of higher
    education
  • to enhance the intellectual, social, cultural,
    and economic qualities of urban life
  • Goals Valuing Higher Education
  • Urban Citizenship

8
Assessment Protocols for Learning-centered
Assessment
OUTCOMES
GOAL
Evidence
Criteria
Standards a) Exemplary Achievement b)
Satisfactory Achievement c) Unsatisfactory
Achievement
9
Goals
  • Broad descriptions
  • Categories of learning outcomes
  • End toward which efforts are directed

10
Examples of Goals
  • Critical Thinking
  • Citizenship in a Democracy (Grad. School of
    Education)
  • Team work and Collaboration (School of Community
    Health
  • Ethics

11
Student Learning Outcomes
  • Refer to Results in Terms of Specific Student
    Learning, Development, and Performance (Braskamp
    and Braskamp, 1997)
  • Answer the Question What Do We Expect of Our
    Students? (CSU Report 1989)
  • Describe Actual Skills, Understandings,
    Behaviors, Attitudes, Values Expected of Students

12
Examples of Outcomes
  • Math Use arithmetical, algebraic, geometric and
    statistical methods to solve problems.
  • Ethics Identify and analyze real world ethical
    problems or dilemmas and identify those affected
    by the dilemma.
  • Culture and Equity Analyze and describe the
    concepts of power relations, equity, and social
    justice and find examples of each concept in the
    U.S. society and other societies.
  • Team work Listens to, acknowledges, and builds
    on the ideas of others.

13
Evidence
  • Student Work that Demonstrates Achievement of
    Outcomes (Assignments, Projects, Presentations,
    Papers, Responses to Questions, Etc.)
  • Designed for appropriate level of learning
    expectations (outcomes)
  • Opportunity for Different Ways of Demonstrating
    Learning

14
Examples of Evidence
  • Teamwork
  • Role play or case study
  • Project or problem solving assignment
  • Math
  • Mathematical and statistical projects and papers
  • Ethics
  • A written account
  • A multi-media presentation or display board
  • An audio tape

15
Criteria
  • Qualities Desired in Student Work (Evidence)
  • Represent Powerful Professional
  • Judgment of Faculty
  • Guide Student Learning Efforts
  • Promote Lifelong Learning
  • Support Faculty in Making Objective Evaluations

16
Examples of Criteria
  • Math
  • Accuracy
  • Complexity
  • Clarity and Coherence
  • Ethics
  • Complexity (broad, multifaceted, interconnected)
  • Conscious Awareness
  • Culture and Equity
  • Range of Cultures
  • Reflectivity and Integration
  • Teamwork
  • Respect
  • Flexibility

17
Standards
  • Describe Different Levels of Criteria
  • Describe Specific Indications of Criteria
  • Promote Understanding of Criteria
  • Support Faculty in Making Objective Evaluations

18
Examples of Standards
  • Math (Accuracy)
  • Satisfactory Contains few errors and those
    errors do not significantly
  • undermine the quality of the work.
  • Considers and uses data, models, tools or
    processes that
  • reasonably and effectively address issues or
    problems.
  • Unsatisfactory One or more errors that
    significantly undermine the quality
  • of the work.
  • Uses data, models, tools or processes in
    inappropriate or
  • ineffective ways.
  • Ethics (Complexity)
  • Standard for Excellent Consistently views
    sophisticated and significant dilemmas and
    issues with a broad focus and from multiple
    perspectives.
  • Standard for Satisfactory Usually views
    sophisticated and significant dilemmas and
    issues with a broad focus, but may sometimes use
    a more narrow focus and may use fewer
    perspectives.
  • Standard for Unsatisfactory Mainly views issues
    and dilemmas in simple terms and usually does so
    with a limited focus and minimal perspectives.

19
Assessment Protocols
OUTCOMES
GOAL
Evidence
Criteria
Standards a) Exemplary Achievement b)
Satisfactory Achievement c) Unsatisfactory
Achievement
20
Assessment Sample
  • Educational Goal
  • -Personal integrity
  • Outcomes
  • -Students articulate an individual code of
    ethics and apply it to personal decisions of
    integrity
  • -Student describe and assume personal
    responsibility in collaborative endeavors, and
    respect and support the responsibilities of
    others

21
Personal Integrity
  • Evidence
  • -Written code with discussion of two different
    life decisions based on the
    code
  • -Multimedia presentation
  • -Letter of application for professional position
  • -Dramatization of ethical issues
  • Criteria
  • -Reflection
  • -Multiple perspectives

22
Personal Integrity
  • Standards
  • -Excellence in Reflection Consistently raises
    questions, checks assumptions, connects with
    previous experiences, acknowledges biases and
    values and engages in self-assessment
  • -Excellence in Multiple Perspectives Examines
    thinking and experiences of others, considers
    those affected by decisions, and considers
    diverse courses of action

23
Assessing Student Learning Course, Program and
Institutional Levels
  1. Preparation Determine purpose(s) and definition
    of assessment Examine mission and values

7. Revise outcomes and criteria, Improve pedagogy
and curriculum for learner success
2. Design assessment Articulate goals, Develop
clear outcomes, evidence, criteria, and standards
6. Review and analyze student evidence
5. Collect evidence of student achievement
3. Alignment of curriculum and pedagogy with
learning outcomes
4. Make outcomes, evidence, criteria, and
standards public and visible (syllabi,
programs, brochures)
24
Step 3 Aligning Curriculum and Pedagogy with
Learning Outcomes
  • Outcomes and Criteria as Planning Focus
  • Faculty Alignment Grids
  • Learner Grids

25
Step 4 Making Learning Outcomes ---
  • Public and Visible
  • Relevant and Meaningful
  • Motivating and Supportive of Learning

26
Step 5 Collect Evidence of Student Achievement
  • Collect representative samples
  • (3 Exemplary, 3 Satisfactory, 3
  • Unsatisfactory)

27
Step 5 Review and Analyze Evidence
  • Read holistically to determine whether outcomes
    are achieved (reliability).
  • Several readings to identify examples of criteria
    (validity).
  • Final reading for insights about pedagogy, class
    structure and environment, and learning supports.

28
Step 6 Process Results Improving Learning
  • Documentation of student achievement of outcomes
  • Identification of curricular gaps/foci and
    pedagogical weaknesses/strengths
  • Clarification of outcomes, criteria standards
  • Redesign of evidence

29
Expanding Assessment of General Education
  • Graduate exit surveys
  • Alumnae surveys
  • Employer surveys

30
SUMMARY
  • Outcomes-based assessment for general
    education can provide a foundation for
    integrating institutional goals in the major
    programs of study. The assessment protocols
    provide a foundation for students to become
    successful learners. Faculty who collaborate to
    develop general education assessment protocols
    become more intentional with their teaching and
    learning plans.
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