Student%20Engagement:%20Motivating%20the%20Middle%20and%20High%20School%20Learner%20%20Jim%20Wright%20www.interventioncentral.org - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

Student%20Engagement:%20Motivating%20the%20Middle%20and%20High%20School%20Learner%20%20Jim%20Wright%20www.interventioncentral.org

Description:

Title: PowerPoint Presentation Author: Mimi Mark Created Date: 1/15/2006 6:20:54 PM Document presentation format: On-screen Show Other titles: Times New Roman Arial ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:472
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 94
Provided by: Mimi127
Learn more at: http://www.jimwrightonline.com
Category:

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: Student%20Engagement:%20Motivating%20the%20Middle%20and%20High%20School%20Learner%20%20Jim%20Wright%20www.interventioncentral.org


1
Student Engagement Motivating the Middle and
High School Learner Jim Wrightwww.interventionc
entral.org
2
Student Engagement Motivating the Secondary
Learner
3
Georgia Pyramid of Intervention
Source Georgia Dept of Education
http//www.doe.k12.ga.us/ Retrieved 13 July 2007
4
How can a school restructure to support RTI?
  • The school can organize its intervention efforts
    into 4 levels, or Tiers, that represent a
    continuum of increasing intensity of support.
    (Kovaleski, 2003 Vaughn, 2003). In Georgia, Tier
    1 is the lowest level of intervention, Tier 4 is
    the most intensive intervention level.

Standards-Based Classroom Learning All students
participate in general education learning that
includes implementation of the Georgia
Performance Standards through research-based
practices, use of flexible groups for
differentiation of instruction, frequent
progress-monitoring.
Tier 1
Needs Based Learning Targeted students
participate in learning that is in addition to
Tier 1 and different by including formalized
processes of intervention greater frequency of
progress-monitoring.
Tier 2
SST Driven Learning Targeted students
participate in learning that is in addition to
Tier I II and different by including
individualized assessments, interventions
tailored to individual needs, referral for
specially designed instruction if needed.
Tier 3
Specially Designed Learning Targeted students
participate in learning that includes specialized
programs, adapted content, methodology, or
instructional delivery Georgia Performance
standards access/extension.
Tier 4
5
Student Dropout The Problem of Disengagement
6
A Profile of the Difficult-to-Teach Student
  • Struggling learners may
  • Have significant deficits in basic academic
    skills
  • Lack higher-level problem-solving strategies and
    concepts
  • Present with issues of school motivation
  • Show social/emotional concerns that interfere
    with academics
  • Have difficulty with attendance
  • Lack the organizational skills and confidence to
    become self-managing learners

7
School Dropout as a Process, Not an Event
  • It is increasingly accepted that dropout is
    best conceptualized as a long-term process, not
    an instantaneous event however, most
    interventions are administered at a middle or
    high school level after problems are severe.

Source Jimerson, S. R., Reschly, A. L., Hess,
R. S. (2008). Best practices in developing
academic local norms. In A. Thomas J. Grimes
(Eds.), Best practices in school psychology V
(pp. 1085-1097). Bethesda, MD National
Association of School Psychologists. p.1090
8
Systems-Level Factors That Can Influence Failure
of Students to Graduate
  • many models of dropout prevention fail to
    recognize the role that school environmental
    factors play in school droput. For example, large
    school size is positively correlated with
    decreased attendance, lower grade point averages
    and standardized test scores, higher dropout
    rates, and higher crime than smaller schools
    serving similar children. School practices, such
    as tracking and grade retention, have a negative
    correlation with school completion rates
    independent of the students ability level. Other
    school-related factors such as high
    concentrations of low-achieving students and less
    qualified teachers are also associated with
    higher dropout rates.

Source Jimerson, S. R., Reschly, A. L., Hess,
R. S. (2008). Best practices in developing
academic local norms. In A. Thomas J. Grimes
(Eds.), Best practices in school psychology V
(pp. 1085-1097). Bethesda, MD National
Association of School Psychologists. p. 1089
9
Student Motivation The Need for Intervention
  • A common response to students who struggle in
    sixth grade is to wait and hope they grow out of
    it or adapt, to attribute early struggles to the
    natural commotion of early adolescence and to
    temporary difficulties in adapting to new
    organizational structures of schooling, more
    challenging curricula and assessment, and less
    personalized attention. Our evidence clearly
    indicates that, at least in high-poverty urban
    schools, sixth graders who are missing 20 or
    more of the days, exhibiting poor behavior, or
    failing math or English do not recover. On the
    contrary, they drop out. This says that early
    intervention is not only productive but
    absolutely essential.

Source Balfanz, R., Herzog, L., MacIver, D. J.
(2007). Preventing student disengagement and
keeping students on the graduation path in urban
middle grades schools Early identification and
effective interventions. Educational
Psychologist,42, 223235. .
10
Mining Archival Data What Are the Early Warning
Flags of Student Drop-Out?
  • A sample of 13,000 students in Philadelphia were
    tracked for 8 years. These early warning
    indicators were found to predict student drop-out
    in the sixth-grade year
  • Failure in English
  • Failure in math
  • Missing at least 20 of school days
  • Receiving an unsatisfactory behavior rating
    from at least one teacher

Source Balfanz, R., Herzog, L., MacIver, D. J.
(2007). Preventing student disengagement and
keeping students on the graduation path in urban
middle grades schools Early identification and
effective interventions. Educational
Psychologist,42, 223235. .
11
What is the Predictive Power of These Early
Warning Flags?
Number of Early Warning Flags in Student Record Probability That Student Would Graduate
None 56
1 36
2 21
3 13
4 7
Source Balfanz, R., Herzog, L., MacIver, D. J.
(2007). Preventing student disengagement and
keeping students on the graduation path in urban
middle grades schools Early identification and
effective interventions. Educational
Psychologist,42, 223235. .
12
Key Concepts in Student Behavior Management
13
Academic or Behavioral Targets Are Stated as
Replacement Behaviors
  • The implementation of successful interventions
    begins with accurate problem identification.
    Traditionally, the student problem was stated as
    a broad, general concern (e.g., impulsive,
    aggressive, reading below grade level) that a
    teacher identified. In a competency-based
    approach, however, the problem identification is
    stated in terms of the desired replacement
    behaviors that will increase the students
    probability of successful adaptation to the task
    demands of the academic setting. p. 178

Source Batsche, G. M., Castillo, J. M., Dixon,
D. N., Forde, S. (2008). Best practices in
problem analysis. In A. Thomas J. Grimes
(Eds.), Best practices in school psychology V
(pp. 177-193).
14
Factors Influencing the Decision to Classify as
BD (Gresham, 1992)
  • Four factors strongly influence the likelihood
    that a student will be classified as Behaviorally
    Disordered
  • Severity Frequency and intensity of the problem
    behavior(s).
  • Chronicity Length of time that the problem
    behavior(s) have been displayed.
  • Generalization Degree to which the student
    displays the problem behavior(s) across settings
    or situations.
  • Tolerance Degree to which the students problem
    behavior(s) are accepted in that students
    current social setting.

Source Gresham, F. M. (1992). Conceptualizing
behavior disorders in terms of resistance to
intervention. School Psychology Review, 20, 23-37.
15
Inference Moving Beyond the Margins of the
Known
  • An inference is a tentative conclusion without
    direct or conclusive support from available data.
    All hypotheses are, by definition, inferences. It
    is critical that problem analysts make
    distinctions between what is known and what is
    inferred or hypothesized.Low-level inferences
    should be exhausted prior to the use of
    high-level inferences. p. 161

Source Christ, T. (2008). Best practices in
problem analysis. In A. Thomas J. Grimes
(Eds.), Best practices in school psychology V
(pp. 159-176).
16
Examples of High vs. Low Inference Hypotheses
An 11th-grade student does poorly on tests and
quizzes in math. Homework is often incomplete.
He frequently shows up late for class and does
not readily participate in group discussions.
17
Big Ideas Be Proactive in Behavior Management
(Martens Meller, 1990)
  • Teachers who intervene before a student
    misbehaves or when the misbehavior has not yet
    escalated have a greater likelihood of keeping
    the student on task and engaged in learning.

ABC Timeline
A
Source Martens, B.K., Meller, P.J. (1990). The
application of behavioral principles to
educational settings. In T.B. Gutkin
C.R.Reynolds (Eds.), The handbook of school
psychology (2nd ed.) (pp. 612-634). New York
John Wiley Sons.
18
Proactive Intervention Focusing on Behavioral
Antecedents
  • An advantage of antecedent interventions is
    that they can enhance the instructional
    environment. Antecedent events associated with
    problem behavior are decreased or eliminated
    while those associated with desirable behavior
    are increased. Such carefully crafted
    environmental change can create classrooms where
    students want to be and are motivated to learn.
    Further, as we will advocate, this approach holds
    promise for improving student achievement and
    productivity, even in the absence of problem
    behavior. p. 66

Source Kern, L., Clemens, N. H. (2007).
Antecedent strategies to promote appropriate
classroom behavior. Psychology in the Schools,
44, 65-75.
19
Big Ideas Academic Delays Can Be a Potent Cause
of Behavior Problems (Witt, Daly, Noell, 2000)
  • Student academic problems cause many school
    behavior problems.
  • Whether a students problem is a behavior
    problem or an academic one, we recommend starting
    with a functional academic assessment, since
    often behavior problems occur when students
    cannot or will not do required academic work.

Source Witt, J. C., Daly, E. M., Noell, G.
(2000). Functional assessments A step-by-step
guide to solving academic and behavior problems.
Longmont, CO Sopris West, p. 13
20
Big Ideas Behavior is a Continuous Stream
(Schoenfeld Farmer, 1970)
  • Individuals are always performing SOME type of
    behavior watching the instructor, sleeping,
    talking to a neighbor, completing a worksheet
    (behavior stream).
  • When students are fully engaged in academic
    behaviors, they are less likely to get off-task
    and display problem behaviors.
  • Academic tasks that are clearly understood,
    elicit student interest, provide a high rate of
    student success, and include teacher
    encouragement and feedback are most likely to
    effectively capture the students behavior
    stream.

Source Schoenfeld, W. N., Farmer, J. (1970).
Reinforcement schedules and the behavior
stream. In W. N. Schoenfeld (Ed.), The theory
of reinforcement schedules (pp. 215245). New
York Appleton-Century-Crofts.
21
Defining Motivation
22
Definitions of Motivation
  • motivation refers to the initiation,
    direction, intensity and persistence of behavior.

Source Motivation. (2007). Wikipedia. Retrieved
March 13, 2007, from http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/
Motivation
Motivation is an internal state that activates,
guides and sustains behavior.
Source Educational psychology. (2007).
Wikipedia. Retrieved March 13, 2007, from
http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Educational_psycholog
yMotivation
Motivation is typically defined as the forces
that account for the arousal, selection,
direction, and continuation of behavior.
Source Excerpted from Chapter 11 of
Biehler/Snowman, PSYCHOLOGY APPLIED TO TEACHING,
8/e, Houghton Mifflin, 1997.
23
Motivation in Action Flow
24
Definition of the Flow State
  • Being completely involved in an activity for
    its own sake. The ego falls away. Time flies.
    Every action, movement, and thought follows
    inevitably from the previous one, like playing
    jazz. Your whole being is involved, and you're
    using your skills to the utmost.
  • --Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi

Source Geirland, J. (Septermber, 1996). Go with
the flow. Wired Magazine. Retrieved March 19,
2007, from http//www.wired.com/wired/archive/4.09
/czik_pr.html
25
Qualities of Activities that May Elicit a Flow
State
  • The activity is challenging and requires skill to
    complete
  • Goals are clear
  • Feedback is immediate
  • There is a merging of action and awareness.
    All the attention is concentrated on the
    relevant stimuli so that individuals are no
    longer aware of themselves as separate from the
    actions they are performing
  • The sense of times passing is altered Time may
    seem slowed or pass very quickly
  • Flow is not static. As one acquires mastery
    over an activity, he or she must move to more
    challenging experiences to continue to achieve
    flow

Source Csikszentmihalyi, M. (1990). Flow The
psychology of optimal experience. New York
Harper Row
26
Flow Channel
Challenges
Skills
Source Csikszentmihalyi, M. (1990). Flow The
psychology of optimal experience. New York
Harper Row
27
Motivation in the Classroom
28
Unmotivated Students What Works
Motivation can be thought of as having two
dimensions
  1. the students expectation of success on the task

Multiplied by
  1. the value that the student places on achieving
    success on that learning task
  • The relationship between the two factors is
    multiplicative. If EITHER of these factors (the
    students expectation of success on the task OR
    the students valuing of that success) is zero,
    then the motivation product will also be zero.

Source Sprick, R. S., Borgmeier, C., Nolet, V.
(2002). Prevention and management of behavior
problems in secondary schools. In M. A. Shinn, H.
M. Walker G. Stoner (Eds.), Interventions for
academic and behavior problems II Preventive and
remedial approaches (pp.373-401). Bethesda, MD
National Association of School Psychologists.
29
Our Working Definition of Academic Motivation
For This Workshop
  • The student puts reasonable effort into
    completing academic work in a timely manner.

30
Elbow Group Activity What Are Your Schools
Top Motivation Concerns?
  • In your group
  • Discuss specific concerns that your school or
    district has about student motivation.
  • Note any common themes of motivation concerns
    shared by your group and be prepared to share
    them.

31
Teachers Voice Behavior Management Strategies
32
Five Levers of Influence to Promote Student
Motivation
33
1. School Classroom Environment
The setting in which we work can encourage us to
give our best effort or discourage us from even
trying to perform.
34
We shape our buildings and afterwards our
buildings shape us. --Winston Churchill
35
School Classroom Environment Selected Ideas
  • Give Opportunities for Choice (Martens Kelly,
    1993 Powell Nelson, 1997). Allowing students
    to exercise some degree of choice in their
    instructional activities can boost attention span
    and increase academic engagement. Make a list of
    'choice' options that you are comfortable
    offering students during typical learning
    activities. During independent seatwork, for
    example, you might routinely let students choose
    where they sit, allow them to work alone or in
    small groups, or give them 2 or 3 different
    choices of assignment selected to be roughly
    equivalent in difficulty and learning objectives.

36
School Classroom Environment Selected Ideas
Use Preferential Seating (U.S. Department of
Education, 2004). Preferential seating simply
means that you seat the student in a location
where he or she is most likely to stay focused on
what you are teaching. Remember that all teachers
have an 'action zone', a part of the room where
they tend to focus most of their instruction
seat the student somewhere within that zone. The
ideal seating location for any particular student
will vary, depending on the unique qualities of
the target student and of your classroom.
Consider whether the student might be
self-conscious about sitting right next to the
teacher. Select a seat location that avoids other
distractionse.g., avoid seating the student by a
window or next to a talkative classmate.
37
2. Social Interactions
We define ourselves in relation to others by our
social relationships. These connections are a
central motivator for most people.
38
Improving Relationships With Students The
Two-By-Ten Intervention (Mendler, 2000)
Social Interactions Selected Ideas
  • Make a commitment to spend 2 minutes per day for
    10 consecutive days in building a relationship
    with the studentby talking about topics of
    interest to the student. Avoid discussing
    problems with the students behaviors or
    schoolwork during these times.

Source Mendler, A. N. (2000). Motivating
students who dont care. Bloomington, IN
National Educational Service.
39
Improving Relationships With Students The
Three-to-One Intervention (Sprick, Borgmeier,
Nolet, 2002)
Social Interactions Selected Ideas
  • Give positive attention or praise to problem
    students at least three times more frequently
    than you reprimand them. Give the student the
    attention or praise during moments when that
    student is acting appropriately. Keep track of
    how frequently you give positive attention and
    reprimands to the student.

Source Sprick, R. S., Borgmeier, C., Nolet, V.
(2002). Prevention and management of behavior
problems in secondary schools. In M. A. Shinn, H.
M. Walker G. Stoner (Eds.), Interventions for
academic and behavior problems II Preventive and
remedial approaches (pp.373-401). Bethesda, MD
National Association of School Psychologists.
40
Social Interactions Selected Ideas
Seat the Student Next to Distraction-Resistant
or Supportive Peers (DuPaul Stoner, 2002 Kerr
Nelson, 1998). One useful strategy for managing
low-level motor behaviors is to seat the student
next to peers who can generally ignore those
behaviors. Or handpick a classmate who has a
good relationship with the student but is not
easily drawn off-task and appoint that student as
a 'helper peer'. Tell the peer that whenever he
or she notices that the student's verbal or motor
behavior has risen to the level of distracting
others, the peer should give the student a brief,
quiet, non-judgmental signal (e.g., a light tap
on the shoulder) to control the behavior.
41
3. Instructional Activities
Motivated students are engaged in interesting
activities that guarantee a high success rate and
relate to real-world issues.
42
Instructional Activities Selected Ideas
Make the Activity Stimulating (U.S. Department
of Education, 2004). Students require less
conscious effort to remain on-task when they are
engaged in high-interest activities. Make
instruction more interesting by choosing a
specific lesson topic that you know will appeal
to students (e.g., sports, fashion). Or help
students to see a valuable 'real-word' pay-off
for learning the material being taught. Another
tactic is to make your method of instruction more
stimulating. Students who don't learn well in
traditional lecture format may show higher rates
of engagement when interacting with peers
(cooperative learning) or when allowed the
autonomy and self-pacing of computer-delivered
instruction.
43
Stimulate Writing Interest With an Autobiography
Assignment (Bos Vaughn, 2002)
Instructional Activities Selected Ideas
  • Assigning the class to write their own
    autobiographies can motivate hard-to-reach
    students who seem uninterested in most writing
    assignments. Have students read a series of
    autobiographies of people who interest them.
    Discuss these biographies with the class. Then
    assign students to write their own
    autobiographies. (With the class, create a short
    questionnaire that students can use to interview
    their parents and other family members to collect
    information about their past.) Allow students to
    read their autobiographies for the class.

44
Instructional Activities Selected Ideas
  • Instruct at a Brisk Pace (Carnine, 1976
    Gettinger Seibert, 2002). When students are
    appropriately matched to instruction, they are
    likely to show improved on-task behavior when
    they are taught at a brisk pace rather than a
    slow one. To achieve a brisk pace of instruction,
    make sure that you are fully prepared prior to
    the lesson and that you minimize the time spent
    on housekeeping items such as collecting homework
    or on transitions from one learning activity to
    another.

45
Instructional Activities Selected Ideas
Structure Instructional Activities to Allow
Interaction and Movement (DuPaul Stoner, 2002
Sprick, Borgmeier Nolet, 2002 U.S. Department
of Education, 2004). Students with high energy
levels may be more likely to engage in
distracting behavior when they are forced to sit
through long periods of lecture or independent
seatwork. Instead, offer students frequent
opportunities for more movement by designing
instruction to actively engage them as learners
(e.g., cooperative learning). An additional
advantage of less formal, more spontaneous
learning activities is that when the overactive
child does happen to display motor behaviors in
this relaxed setting, those behaviors are less
likely to distract peers.
46
Individual Learning Challenges Selected Ideas
  • Class Participation Keep Students Guessing
    (Heward, 1994). Students attend better during
    large-group presentations if they cannot predict
    when they will be required to actively
    participate. Randomly call on students,
    occasionally selecting the same student twice in
    a row or within a short time span. Or pose a
    question to the class, give students 'wait time'
    to formulate an answer, and then randomly call on
    a student.

47
4. Individual Learning Challenges
Motivated students are engaged in interesting
activities that guarantee a high success rate and
relate to real-world issues.
48
Individual Learning Challenges Selected Ideas
  • Have the Student Monitor Motor Behaviors and
    Call-Outs (DuPaul Stoner, 2002). Have the
    student monitor his or her motor behaviors or
    call-outs. First, choose a class period or part
    of the day when you want the student to monitor
    distracting behaviors. Next, meet privately with
    the student to discuss which of that student's
    behaviors are distracting. Then, together with
    the student, design a simple distractible
    behavior-rating form with no more than 3 items
    (For a student who calls out frequently, for
    example, a useful rating item might be "How well
    did I observe the rule today of raising my hand
    and being called on before giving an answer? Poor
    Fair Good".) Have the student rate his or her
    behaviors at the end of each class period.

49
Individual Learning Challenges Selected Ideas
  • Allow Discretionary Motor Breaks (U.S.
    Department of Education, 2004). When given brief
    'movement' breaks, highly active students often
    show improvements in their behaviors. Permit the
    student to leave his or her seat and quietly walk
    around the classroom whenever the student feels
    particularly fidgety. Or, if you judge that motor
    breaks within the classroom would be too
    distracting, consider giving the student a
    discretionary pass that allows him or her to
    leave the classroom briefly to get a drink of
    water or walk up and down the hall.

50
Individual Learning Challenges Selected Ideas
  • Adopt a 'Silent Signal' (U.S. Department of
    Education, 2004). You can redirect overactive
    students in a low-key manner by using a silent
    signal. Meet privately with the student and
    identify for the student those motor or verbal
    behaviors that appear to be most distracting.
    With the student's help, select a silent signal
    that you can use to alert the student that his or
    her behavior has crossed the threshold and now is
    distracting others. Role-play several scenarios
    with the student in which you use the silent
    signal and the student then controls the problem
    behavior.

51
Individual Learning Challenges Selected Ideas
Provide a Quiet Work Area (U.S. Department of
Education, 2004). Distractible students benefit
from a quiet place in the classroom where they
can go when they have more difficult assignments
to complete. A desk or study carrel in the corner
of the room can serve as an appropriate
workspace. When introducing these workspaces to
students, stress that the quiet locations are
intended to help students to concentrate. Never
use areas designated for quiet work as punitive
'time-out' spaces, as students will then tend to
avoid them.
52
Individual Learning Challenges Selected Ideas
Break Larger Assignments into Smaller Chunks
(Skinner, Pappas Davis, 2005). Students are
likely to show higher levels of motivation and
academic engagement when they are given a series
of shorter assignments in place on a single
longer assignment. Keep assignments short and
give students frequent performance feedback to
ensure their understanding of the content.
53
Individual Learning Challenges Selected Ideas
Schedule Challenging Tasks for Peak Attention
Times (Brock, 1998). Many students with limited
attention can focus better in the morning, when
they are fresh. Schedule those subjects or tasks
that the student finds most difficult early in
the day. Save easier subjects or tasks for later
in the day, when the student's attention may
start to wane.
54
5. Pay-Offs for Learning
Motivated students are engaged in interesting
activities that guarantee a high success rate and
relate to real-world issues.
55
Pay-Offs for Learning Selected Ideas
Pay Attention to the On-Task Student (DuPaul
Ervin, 1996 Martens Meller, 1990). Teachers
who selectively give students praise and
attention only when those students are on-task
are likely to find that these students show
improved attention in class as a result. When you
have a student who is often off-task, make an
effort to identify those infrequent times when
the student is appropriately focused on the
lesson and immediately give the student positive
attention. Examples of teacher attention that
students will probably find positive include
verbal praise and encouragement, approaching the
student to check on how he or she is doing on the
assignment, and friendly eye contact.
56
Five Levers of Influence to Promote Student
Motivation
57
THE SKEPTIC Why do I have to know about
quadratic equations or who wrote the U.S.
Constitution? When am I ever going to use any of
THAT stuff in my life?
  • Discuss motivating ideas for this student
  • School Classroom Environment
  • Social Interactions
  • Instructional Activities
  • Individual Learning Challenges
  • Pay-offs for Learning

58
(No Transcript)
59
BOREDOM Every day, we just do math work sheets
at our desks. The same problems over and over.
We dont get to talk to anybody. I am SOOO bored
in this class!
  • Discuss motivating ideas for this student
  • School Classroom Environment
  • Social Interactions
  • Instructional Activities
  • Individual Learning Challenges
  • Pay-offs for Learning

60
(No Transcript)
61
How Attributions About Learning Contribute to
Academic Outcomes
  • People regularly make attributions about
    events and situations in which they are involved
    that explain and make sense of those
    happenings.

62
How Attributions About Learning Contribute to
Academic Outcomes
63
How Attributions About Learning Contribute to
Academic Outcomes
Some people are born mathematicians. I was born
to watch TV.
This teacher always springs pop quizzes on
usand picks questions that are impossible to
study for!
So I did lousy on this one test. Thats OK. Next
time, I will study harder and my grades should
bounce back.
64
Engaging the Reluctant Teacher Seven Reasons Why
Middle High School Instructors May Be Reluctant
to Implement Classroom RTI Academic Interventions
Jim Wrightwww.interventioncentral.org
65
Teacher Tolerance as an Indicator of RTI
Intervention Capacity
  • I call the range of students whom teachers
    come to view as adequately responsive i.e.,
    teachable as the tolerance those who are
    perceived to be outside the tolerance are those
    for whom teachers seek additional resources. The
    term tolerance is used to indicate that
    teachers form a permissible boundary on their
    measurement (judgments) in the same sense as a
    confidence interval. In this case, the teacher
    actively measures the distribution of
    responsiveness in her class by processing
    information from a series of teaching trials and
    perceives some range of students as within the
    tolerance. (Gerber, 2002)

Source Gerber, M. M. (2003). Teachers are still
the test Limitations of response to instruction
strategies for identifying children with learning
disabilities. Paper presented at the National
Research Center on Learning Disabilities
Responsiveness-to-Intervention Symposium, Kansas
City, MO.
66
Teacher Tolerance as an Indicator of RTI
Intervention Capacity
  • I call the range of students whom teachers
    come to view as adequately responsive i.e.,
    teachable as the tolerance those who are
    perceived to be outside the tolerance are those
    for whom teachers seek additional resources. The
    term tolerance is used to indicate that
    teachers form a permissible boundary on their
    measurement (judgments) in the same sense as a
    confidence interval. In this case, the teacher
    actively measures the distribution of
    responsiveness in her class by processing
    information from a series of teaching trials and
    perceives some range of students as within the
    tolerance. (Gerber, 2002)

Source Gerber, M. M. (2003). Teachers are still
the test Limitations of response to instruction
strategies for identifying children with learning
disabilities. Paper presented at the National
Research Center on Learning Disabilities
Responsiveness-to-Intervention Symposium, Kansas
City, MO.
67
Engaging the Reluctant Teacher Seven Reasons Why
Instructors May Resist Implementing Classroom RTI
Literacy Interventions
  1. Teachers believe that their job is to provide
    content-area instruction, not to teach literacy
    or other academic fix-up strategies (Kamil et
    al., 2008).
  2. Teachers believe that they lack the skills to
    implement classroom academic interventions.
    (Fisher, 2007 Kamil et al., 2008).
  3. Teachers feel that they dont have adequate time
    to implement classroom academic interventions.
    (Kamil et al., 2008 Walker, 2004).

68
Engaging the Reluctant Teacher Seven Reasons Why
Instructors May Resist Implementing Classroom RTI
Literacy Interventions (Cont.)
  1. Teachers are not convinced that there will be an
    adequate instructional pay-off in their
    content-area if they implement classroom academic
    interventions. (Kamil et al., 2008).
  2. Teachers are reluctant to put extra effort into
    implementing interventions for students who
    appear unmotivated (Walker, 2004) when there are
    other, more deserving students who would
    benefit from teacher attention.
  3. Teachers are afraid that, if they use a range of
    classroom strategies to promote academic skills
    (e.g., extended discussion, etc.), they will have
    difficulty managing classroom behaviors (Kamil et
    al., 2008).

69
Engaging the Reluctant Teacher Seven Reasons Why
Instructors May Resist Implementing Classroom RTI
Literacy Interventions (Cont.)
  1. Teachers believe that special education is
    magic (Martens, 1993). This belief implies that
    general education interventions will be
    insufficient to meet the students needs and that
    the student will benefit only if he or she
    receives special education services.

70
Unmotivated Kids Pick Your Favorite Strategies
  • Increase 'Reinforcement' Quality of the Classroom
  • Offer frequent opportunities for choice
  • Select high-interest or functional learning
    activities
  • Incorporate cooperative-learning opportunities
    into instruction
  • Strategically schedule preferred student
    activities
  • Give students frequent feedback about their
    classroom performance
  • Make a personal connection to motivate difficult
    students
  • Reduce the 'effort' needed to complete an
    academic assignment
  • Create in-class incentives or pay-offs for
    learning
  • Encourage student input into classroom routines
    and learning activities

For the following scenario, pick your TOP THREE
ideas for managing this students behavior Ricky
sits quietly in your class but does not
participate much. He seems tuned out--but then
really comes alive when the bell rings and he can
go join his friends at lunch. You rarely get
homework from Ricky in fact, he is in danger of
failing the course because of incomplete
assignments. But Ricky is generally organized,
can be meticulous in his work when he chooses to,
and always brings all work materials to class.
When you look through Rickys cumulative folder,
you find numerous notations on past report cards
saying that he needs to apply himself and put
more effort into his work.
71
Extinguishing the Blaze Avoiding Power
Struggles and Helping Students to Keep Their
Cool (pp. 7-11)Jim Wrightwww.interventioncentr
al.org
72
Extinguishing the Blaze Teacher Tips
While you can never predict what behaviors your
students might bring into your classroom, you
will usually achieve the best outcomes by
remaining calm, following pre-planned
intervention strategies for misbehavior, and
acting with consistency and fairness when
intervening with or disciplining students.
73
Extinguishing the Blaze Selected Ideas
  • Allow the Student a 'Cool-Down' Break (Long,
    Morse, Newman, 1980). Select a corner of the
    room (or area outside the classroom with adult
    supervision) where the target student can take a
    brief 'respite break' whenever he or she feels
    angry or upset. Be sure to make cool-down breaks
    available to all students in the classroom, to
    avoid singling out only those children with
    anger-control issues. Whenever a student becomes
    upset and defiant, offer to talk the situation
    over with that student once he or she has calmed
    down and then direct the student to the cool-down
    corner. (E.g., "Thomas, I want to talk with you
    about what is upsetting you, but first you need
    to calm down. Take five minutes in the cool-down
    corner and then come over to my desk so we can
    talk.")

74
Extinguishing the Blaze Selected Ideas
  • Ask Open-Ended Questions (Lanceley, 2001). If a
    teacher who is faced with a confrontational
    student does not know what triggered that
    students defiant response, the instructor can
    ask neutral, open-ended questions to collect more
    information before responding. You can pose
    who, what, where, when, and how
    questions to more fully understand the problem
    situation and identify possible solutions. Some
    sample questions are "What do you think made you
    angry when you were talking with Billy?" and
    "Where were you when you realized that you had
    misplaced your science book?" One caution Avoid
    asking why"questions (e.g., "Why did you get
    into that fight with Jerry?") because they can
    imply that you are blaming the student.

75
Extinguishing the Blaze Selected Ideas
  • Emphasize the Positive in Teacher Requests
    (Braithwaite, 2001). When an instructor's request
    has a positive 'spin', that teacher is less
    likely to trigger a power struggle and more
    likely to gain student compliance. Whenever
    possible, avoid using negative phrasing (e.g.,
    "If you don't return to your seat, I cant help
    you with your assignment"). Instead, restate
    requests in positive terms (e.g., "I will be over
    to help you on the assignment just as soon as you
    return to your seat").

76
Extinguishing the Blaze Selected Ideas
  • Give Problem Students Frequent Positive
    Attention (Sprick, Borgmeier, Nolet, 2002).
    Teachers should make an effort to give positive
    attention or praise to problem students at least
    three times more frequently than they reprimand
    them. The teacher gives the student the attention
    or praise during moments when that student is
    acting appropriately--and keeps track of how
    frequently they give positive attention and
    reprimands to the student. This heavy dosing of
    positive attention and praise can greatly improve
    the teachers relationship with problem students.

77
Extinguishing the Blaze Selected Ideas
  • Have the Student Participate in Creating a
    Behavior Plan (Walker, Colvin, Ramsey, 1995).
    Students can feel a greater sense of ownership
    when they are invited to contribute to their
    behavior management plan. Students also tend to
    know better than anyone else what triggers will
    set off their problem behaviors and what
    strategies they find most effective in calming
    themselves and avoiding conflicts or other
    behavioral problems.

78
Extinguishing the Blaze Selected Ideas
Keep Responses Calm, Brief, and Businesslike
(Mayer, 2000 Sprick, Borgmeier, Nolet, 2002).
Because teacher sarcasm or lengthy negative
reprimands can trigger defiant student behavior,
instructors should respond to the student in a
'neutral', business-like, calm voice. Also, keep
responses brief when addressing the non-compliant
student. Short teacher responses give the defiant
student less control over the interaction and can
also prevent instructors from inadvertently
'rewarding' misbehaving students with lots of
negative adult attention.
79
Extinguishing the Blaze Selected Ideas
Listen Actively (Lanceley, 1999 Long, Morse,
Newman, 1980). The teacher demonstrates a sincere
desire to understand a students concerns when he
or she actively listens to and then summarizes
those concerns--that is, summing up the crucial
points of that concern (paraphrasing) in his or
her own words. Examples of paraphrase comments
include 'Let me be sure that I understand you
correctly', 'Are you telling me that?', 'It
sounds to me like these are your concerns' When
teachers engage in 'active listening' by using
paraphrasing, they demonstrate a respect for the
student's point of view and can also improve
their own understanding of the student's problem.
80
Extinguishing the Blaze Selected Ideas
Offer the Student a Face-Saving Out (Thompson
Jenkins, 1993). Try this face-saving
de-escalation tactic Ask the defiant student,
"Is there anything that we can work out together
so that you can stay in the classroom and be
successful?" Such a statement treats the student
with dignity, models negotiation as a positive
means for resolving conflict, and demonstrates
that the instructor wants to keep the student in
the classroom. NOTE Be prepared for the
possibility that the student will initially give
a sarcastic or unrealistic response (e.g., "Yeah,
you can leave me alone and stop trying to get me
to do classwork!"). Ignore such attempts to hook
you into a power struggle and simply repeat the
question.
81
Extinguishing the Blaze Selected Ideas
Proactively Interrupt the Students Anger Early
in the Escalation Cycle (Long, Morse, Newman,
1980 Walker, Colvin, Ramsey, 1995). The
teacher may be able to interrupt a students
escalating behaviors by redirecting that
student's attention or temporarily removing the
student from the setting. For low-level defiant
or non-compliant behaviors, you might try
engaging the student in a high-interest activity
such as playing play an educational computer game
or acting as a classroom helper. Or you may want
to briefly remove the student from the room
('antiseptic bounce') to calm the student. For
example, you might send the student to the main
office on an errand, with the expectation that-by
the time the child returns to the classroom-he or
she will have calmed down.
82
Extinguishing the Blaze Selected Ideas
Relax Before Responding (Braithwaite, 2001).
Educators can maintain self-control during a
tense classroom situation by using a brief,
simple stress-reduction technique before
responding to a students provocative remark or
behavior. When provoked, for example, take a
deeper-than-normal breath and release it slowly,
or mentally count to 10. As an added benefit,
this strategy of conscious relaxation allows the
educator an additional moment to think through an
appropriate response--rather than simply reacting
to the student's behavior.
83
Defining Student Problem Behaviors A Key to
Identifying Effective Interventions Jim
Wrightwww.interventioncentral.org
84
Defining Problem Student Behaviors
  • Define the problem behavior in clear, observable,
    measurable terms (Batsche et al., 2008 Upah,
    2008). Write a clear description of the problem
    behavior. Avoid vague problem identification
    statements such as The student is disruptive.
  • A well-written problem definition should include
    three parts
  • Conditions. The condition(s) under which the
    problem is likely to occur
  • Problem Description. A specific description of
    the problem behavior
  • Contextual information. Information about the
    frequency, intensity, duration, or other
    dimension(s) of the behavior that provide a
    context for estimating the degree to which the
    behavior presents a problem in the setting(s) in
    which it occurs.

85
(No Transcript)
86
Defining Problem Student Behaviors
  1. Develop examples and non-examples of the problem
    behavior (Upah, 2008). Writing both examples and
    non-examples of the problem behavior helps to
    resolve uncertainty about when the students
    conduct should be classified as a problem
    behavior. Examples should include the most
    frequent or typical instances of the student
    problem behavior. Non-examples should include any
    behaviors that are acceptable conduct but might
    possibly be confused with the problem behavior.

87
(No Transcript)
88
Defining Problem Student Behaviors
  1. Write a behavior hypothesis statement (Batsche et
    al., 2008 Upah, 2008). The next step in
    problem-solving is to develop a hypothesis about
    why the student is engaging in an undesirable
    behavior or not engaging in a desired behavior.
    Teachers can gain information to develop a
    hypothesis through direct observation, student
    interview, review of student work products, and
    other sources. The behavior hypothesis statement
    is important because (a) it can be tested, and
    (b) it provides guidance on the type(s) of
    interventions that might benefit the student.

89
(No Transcript)
90
Defining Problem Student Behaviors
  1. Select a replacement behavior (Batsche et al.,
    2008). Behavioral interventions should be focused
    on increasing student skills and capacities, not
    simply on suppressing problem behaviors. By
    selecting a positive behavioral goal that is an
    appropriate replacement for the students
    original problem behavior, the teacher reframes
    the student concern in a manner that allows for
    more effective intervention planning.

91
(No Transcript)
92
Defining Problem Student Behaviors
  1. Write a prediction statement (Batsche et al.,
    2008 Upah, 2008). The prediction statement
    proposes a strategy (intervention) that is
    predicted to improve the problem behavior. The
    importance of the prediction statement is that it
    spells out specifically the expected outcome if
    the strategy is successful. The formula for
    writing a prediction statement is to state that
    if the proposed strategy (Specific Action) is
    adopted, then the rate of problem behavior is
    expected to decrease or increase in the desired
    direction.

93
(No Transcript)
94
Defining Student Problem Behaviors Team Activity
  • As a team
  • Discuss the five steps described in this training
    for defining student problem behaviors.
  • What are ideas that your team has to promote
    teacher use of this 5-part problem-definition
    framework?
  • Five Steps in Understanding Addressing Problem
    Behaviors
  • Define the problem behavior in clear, observable,
    measurable terms.
  • Develop examples and non-examples of the problem
    behavior.
  • Write a behavior hypothesis statement.
  • Select a replacement behavior.
  • Write a prediction statement.
About PowerShow.com