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Title: Classroom Strategies for Helping the Struggling High School Student Jim Wright www.interventioncentral.org


1
Classroom Strategies for Helping theStruggling
High School StudentJim Wrightwww.interventionce
ntral.org
2
Workshop Goals
3
http//www.jimwrightonline.com/pittsford.php
4
Secondary Students Unique Challenges
  • Struggling learners in middle and high school
    may
  • Have significant deficits in basic academic
    skills
  • Lack higher-level problem-solving strategies and
    concepts
  • Present with issues of school motivation
  • Show social/emotional concerns that interfere
    with academics
  • Have difficulty with attendance
  • Are often in a process of disengaging from
    learning even as adults in school expect that
    those students will move toward being
    self-managing learners

5
Student Motivation A Systems-Level Problem
6
A journey of a thousand miles must begin with a
single step.Lao Tzu, Chinese Taoist (600 BC-531
BC)


7
Childhood and Beyond Longitudinal Project
  • 3 cohorts of children (about 250 children per
    cohort) were followed across elementary, middle
    and high school. (Children were recruited from 4
    middle-class school districts in the midwest.)
  • In the subject areas of math, language arts, and
    sports, students were asked each year to rate
    their competence in the subject and their valuing
    of it.

Source Jacobs, J. E., Lanza, S., Osgood, D. W.,
Eccles, J. S., Wigfield, A. (2002). Changes in
childrens self-competence and values Gender and
domain differences across grades one through
twelve. Child Development, 73, 509-527.
8
Childhood and Beyond Longitudinal Project Some
Findings
  • Ratings of both competence and value declined for
    all 3 subject areas (math, language arts, and
    sports) for boys and girls as they grew older.
  • Girls rated themselves lower in competence in
    math throughout schooluntil grade 12, when boys
    and girls converged in their ratings (because
    boys ratings declined faster than did girls
    ratings).
  • Across all grade levels, boys rated themselves
    significantly less competent than did girls in
    language arts.
  • Not surprisingly, boys and girls valuing
    (enjoyment, liking) of a subject area correlated
    with perceived ability. Generally, boys and girls
    who rated themselves as lowest in ability also
    rated their valuing of the subject area as
    lowest.

Source Jacobs, J. E., Lanza, S., Osgood, D. W.,
Eccles, J. S., Wigfield, A. (2002). Changes in
childrens self-competence and values Gender and
domain differences across grades one through
twelve. Child Development, 73, 509-527.
9
Five Strands of Mathematical Proficiency (NRC,
2002)
  • Understanding Comprehending mathematical
    concepts, operations, and relations--knowing what
    mathematical symbols, diagrams, and procedures
    mean.
  • Computing Carrying out mathematical procedures,
    such as adding, subtracting, multiplying, and
    dividing numbers flexibly, accurately,
    efficiently, and appropriately.
  • Applying Being able to formulate problems
    mathematically and to devise strategies for
    solving them using concepts and procedures
    appropriately.
  • Reasoning Using logic to explain and justify a
    solution to a problem or to extend from something
    known to something less known.
  • Engaging Seeing mathematics as sensible, useful,
    and doableif you work at itand being willing to
    do the work.

Source National Research Council. (2002).
Helping children learn mathematics. Mathematics
Learning Study Committee, J. Kilpatrick J.
Swafford, Editors, Center for Education, Division
of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education.
Washington, DC National Academy Press.
10
School Dropout as a Process, Not an Event
  • It is increasingly accepted that dropout is
    best conceptualized as a long-term process, not
    an instantaneous event however, most
    interventions are administered at a middle or
    high school level after problems are severe.

Source Jimerson, S., Reschly, A.L., Hess, R.
(2008). Best practices in increasing the
likelihood of school completion. In A. Thomas
J. Grimes (Eds). Best Practices in School
Psychology - 5th Ed (pp. 1085-1097). Bethesda,
MD National Association of School
Psychologists.. p.1090
11
Student Motivation The Need for Intervention
  • A common response to students who struggle in
    sixth grade is to wait and hope they grow out of
    it or adapt, to attribute early struggles to the
    natural commotion of early adolescence and to
    temporary difficulties in adapting to new
    organizational structures of schooling, more
    challenging curricula and assessment, and less
    personalized attention. Our evidence clearly
    indicates that, at least in high-poverty urban
    schools, sixth graders who are missing 20 or
    more of the days, exhibiting poor behavior, or
    failing math or English do not recover. On the
    contrary, they drop out. This says that early
    intervention is not only productive but
    absolutely essential.

Source Balfanz, R., Herzog, L., MacIver, D. J.
(2007). Preventing student disengagement and
keeping students on the graduation path in urban
middle grades schools Early identification and
effective interventions. Educational
Psychologist,42, 223235. .
12
What Are the Early Warning Flags of Student
Drop-Out?
  • A sample of 13,000 students in Philadelphia were
    tracked for 8 years. These early warning
    indicators were found to predict student drop-out
    in the sixth-grade year
  • Failure in English
  • Failure in math
  • Missing at least 20 of school days
  • Receiving an unsatisfactory behavior rating
    from at least one teacher

Source Balfanz, R., Herzog, L., MacIver, D. J.
(2007). Preventing student disengagement and
keeping students on the graduation path in urban
middle grades schools Early identification and
effective interventions. Educational
Psychologist,42, 223235. .
13
What is the Predictive Power of These Early
Warning Flags?
Number of Early Warning Flags in Student Record Probability That Student Would Graduate
None 56
1 36
2 21
3 13
4 7
Source Balfanz, R., Herzog, L., MacIver, D. J.
(2007). Preventing student disengagement and
keeping students on the graduation path in urban
middle grades schools Early identification and
effective interventions. Educational
Psychologist,42, 223235. .
14
Understanding and Analyzing Student Motivation
Problems Key Concepts
15
Big Ideas Similar Behaviors May Stem from Very
Different Root Causes (Kratochwill, Elliott,
Carrington Rotto, 1990)
  • Behavior is not random but follows purposeful
    patterns.Students who present with the same
    apparent surface behaviors may have very
    different drivers (underlying reasons) that
    explain why those behaviors occur.A students
    problem behaviors must be carefully identified
    and analyzed to determine the drivers that
    support them.

Source Kratochwill, T. R., Elliott, S. N.,
Carrington Rotto, P. (1990). Best practices in
behavioral consultation. In A. Thomas and J.
Grimes (Eds.). Best practices in school
psychology-II (pp. 147169). Silver Spring, MD
National Association of School Psychologists..
16
Inference Moving Beyond the Margins of the
Known
  • An inference is a tentative conclusion without
    direct or conclusive support from available data.
    All hypotheses are, by definition, inferences. It
    is critical that problem analysts make
    distinctions between what is known and what is
    inferred or hypothesized.Low-level inferences
    should be exhausted prior to the use of
    high-level inferences. p. 161

Source Christ, T. (2008). Best practices in
problem analysis. In A. Thomas J. Grimes
(Eds.), Best practices in school psychology V
(pp. 159-176).
17
Examples of High vs. Low Inference Hypotheses
An 11th-grade student does poorly on tests and
quizzes in math. Homework is often incomplete.
He frequently shows up late for class and does
not readily participate in group discussions.
18
Student Motivation Levels Are Strongly Influenced
by the Instructional Setting (Lentz Shapiro,
1986)
  • Students with learning or motivation problems do
    not exist in isolation. Rather, their
    instructional environment plays an enormously
    important role in these students degree of
    academic engagement.

Source Lentz, F. E. Shapiro, E. S. (1986).
Functional assessment of the academic
environment. School Psychology Review, 15, 346-57.
19
Big Ideas Academic Delays Can Be a Potent Cause
of Behavior Problems (Witt, Daly, Noell, 2000)
  • Student academic problems cause many school
    behavior problems.
  • Whether a students problem is a behavior
    problem or an academic one, we recommend starting
    with a functional academic assessment, since
    often behavior problems occur when students
    cannot or will not do required academic work.

Source Witt, J. C., Daly, E. M., Noell, G.
(2000). Functional assessments A step-by-step
guide to solving academic and behavior problems.
Longmont, CO Sopris West, p. 13
20
Motivation The Construct
21
Definitions of Motivation
  • motivation refers to the initiation,
    direction, intensity and persistence of behavior.

Source Motivation. (2007). Wikipedia. Retrieved
March 13, 2007, from http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/
Motivation
Motivation is typically defined as the forces
that account for the arousal, selection,
direction, and continuation of behavior.
Source Excerpted from Chapter 11 of
Biehler/Snowman, PSYCHOLOGY APPLIED TO TEACHING,
8/e, Houghton Mifflin, 1997.
22
Unmotivated Students What Works
Motivation can be thought of as having two
dimensions
  1. the students expectation of success on the task

Multiplied by
  1. the value that the student places on achieving
    success on that learning task
  • The relationship between the two factors is
    multiplicative. If EITHER of these factors (the
    students expectation of success on the task OR
    the students valuing of that success) is zero,
    then the motivation product will also be zero.

Source Sprick, R. S., Borgmeier, C., Nolet, V.
(2002). Prevention and management of behavior
problems in secondary schools. In M. A. Shinn, H.
M. Walker G. Stoner (Eds.), Interventions for
academic and behavior problems II Preventive and
remedial approaches (pp.373-401). Bethesda, MD
National Association of School Psychologists.
23
Big Ideas The Four Stages of Learning Can Be
Summed Up in the Instructional Hierarchy(Haring
et al., 1978)
  • Student learning can be thought of as a
    multi-stage process. The universal stages of
    learning include
  • Acquisition The student is just acquiring the
    skill.
  • Fluency The student can perform the skill but
    must make that skill automatic.
  • Generalization The student must perform the
    skill across situations or settings.
  • Adaptation The student confronts novel task
    demands that require that the student adapt a
    current skill to meet new requirements.

Source Haring, N.G., Lovitt, T.C., Eaton, M.D.,
Hansen, C.L. (1978). The fourth R Research in
the classroom. Columbus, OH Charles E. Merrill
Publishing Co.
24
Motivation in Action Flow
25
Definition of the Flow State
  • Being completely involved in an activity for
    its own sake. The ego falls away. Time flies.
    Every action, movement, and thought follows
    inevitably from the previous one, like playing
    jazz. Your whole being is involved, and you're
    using your skills to the utmost.
  • --Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi

Source Geirland, J. (Septermber, 1996). Go with
the flow. Wired Magazine. Retrieved March 19,
2007, from http//www.wired.com/wired/archive/4.09
/czik_pr.html
26
Qualities of Activities that May Elicit a Flow
State
  • The activity is challenging and requires skill to
    complete
  • Goals are clear
  • Feedback is immediate
  • There is a merging of action and awareness.
    All the attention is concentrated on the
    relevant stimuli so that individuals are no
    longer aware of themselves as separate from the
    actions they are performing
  • The sense of times passing is altered Time may
    seem slowed or pass very quickly
  • Flow is not static. As one acquires mastery
    over an activity, he or she must move to more
    challenging experiences to continue to achieve
    flow

Source Csikszentmihalyi, M. (1990). Flow The
psychology of optimal experience. New York
Harper Row
27
Flow Channel
Challenges
Skills
Source Csikszentmihalyi, M. (1990). Flow The
psychology of optimal experience. New York
Harper Row
28
Student Motivation Two Steps to Reframing the
Issue and Empowering Schools
  • Step 1 Redefine motivation as academic
    engagement e.g., The student chooses to engage
    in active accurate academic responding (Skinner,
    Pappas, Davis, 2005).
  • Step 2 Build staff support for this mission
    statement When a student appears unmotivated,
    it is the schools job to figure out why the
    student is unmotivated and to find a way to get
    that student motivated.

Source Skinner, C. H., Pappas, D. N., Davis,
K. A. (2005). Enhancing academic engagement
Providing opportunities for responding and
influencing students to choose to respond.
Psychology in the Schools, 42, 389-403.
29
The Unmotivated Student Possible Reasons
  • The student is unmotivated because he or she
    cannot do the assigned work.
  • The student is unmotivated because the response
    effort needed to complete the assigned work
    seems too great.
  • The student is unmotivated because classroom
    instruction does not engage.
  • The student is unmotivated because he or she
    fails to see an adequate pay-off to doing the
    assigned work.
  • The student is unmotivated because of low
    self-efficacylack of confidence that he or she
    can do the assigned work.
  • The student is unmotivated because he or she
    lacks a positive relationship with the teacher.

30
The student is unmotivated because he or she
cannot do the assigned work.
  • Recommended Response. The school should
  • Inventory the students academic skills
  • Provide support in core instruction to address
    the student deficits
  • Provide supplemental (intervention) instruction
    as needed to address the student deficits

31
Verifying Instructional Match
  • Be sure that assigned work is not too easy and
    not too difficult. It is surprising how often
    classroom behavior problems occur simply because
    students find the assigned work too difficult or
    too easy. As a significant mismatch between the
    assignment and the students abilities can
    trigger misbehavior, teachers should inventory
    each students academic skills and adjust
    assignments as needed to ensure that the student
    is appropriately challenged but not overwhelmed
    by the work.

Source Gettinger, M., Seibert, J.K. (2002).
Best practices in increasing academic learning
time. In A. Thomas (Ed.), Best practices in
school psychology IV Volume I (4th ed., pp.
773-787). Bethesda, MD National Association of
School Psychologists.
32
The student is unmotivated because the response
effort needed to complete the assigned work
seems too great.
  • Recommended Response.
  • The teacher can use strategies that reduce the
    apparent effort required of a task. However, the
    instructor should avoid using strategies that
    hold the student to a lower standard of academic
    performance than peers.

33
Chunking the Assignment
  • Break a larger assignment into smaller segments.
    If a single, larger assignment appears too
    overwhelming for the student, the instructor can
    break that assignment into smaller segments, or
    chunks. The student completes each segment,
    gets performance feedback on the work, and takes
    on the next segment.For example, a teacher can
    take a math computation worksheet of 20 problems
    and cut it into four strips of 5 problems each.
    The student completes each strip, gets
    performance feedback, and moves onto the next
    collection of problems until the entire
    assignment is done.

Source Skinner, C. H., Pappas, D. N., Davis,
K. A. (2005).Enhancing academic engagement
Providing opportunities for responding and
influencing students to choose to respond.
Psychology in the Schools, 42, 389-403.
34
The student is unmotivated because classroom
instruction does not engage.
  • Recommended Response. The teacher can
  • Reduce distractions that draw student attention
    away from instruction
  • Increase the engaging qualities of instruction

35
Providing Student Choice
  • Offer frequent opportunities for choice
    (empowerment). Teachers who allow students a
    degree of choice in structuring their learning
    activities typically have fewer behavior problems
    in their classrooms than teachers who do not. One
    efficient way to promote choice in the classroom
    is for the teacher to create a master menu of
    options that students can select from in various
    learning situations. For example, during
    independent assignment, students might be allowed
    to (1) choose from at least 2 assignment options,
    (2) sit where they want in the classroom, and (3)
    select a peer-buddy to check their work. Student
    choice then becomes integrated seamlessly into
    the classroom routine.

Source Skinner, C. H., Pappas, D. N., Davis,
K. A. (2005).Enhancing academic engagement
Providing opportunities for responding and
influencing students to choose to respond.
Psychology in the Schools, 42, 389-403.
36
The student is unmotivated because he or she
fails to see an adequate pay-off for doing the
assigned work.
  • Recommended Response. The teacher can
  • Use reinforcers/rewards as a temporary means to
    provide the student the incentive to put effort
    into academic workthen fade use of artificial
    reinforcers as other natural reinforcers (e.g.,
    teacher praise, improved grades, peer acceptance)
    take hold
  • Show the student how the skill(s) or content
    being taught can help the student to accomplish
    functional goals (e.g., improving writing
    skills as a means to land a preferred summer job)

37
The student is unmotivated because of low
self-efficacylack of confidence that he or she
can do the assigned work.
  • Recommended Response. The teacher can
  • Provide support and encouragement to reduce
    student anxiety and reluctance
  • Challenge examples of faulty attribution through
    disconfirming evidence

38
Challenging Faulty Student Attributions
  • Understand student self-talk (attributions) that
    give evidence of sense of self-efficacy. When
    students provide evidence of a low sense of
    self-efficacy in a subject area, activity, or
    academic task, the teacher can respond by
    questioning students to better understand what
    attributions they make that explain their
    academic difficulties.
  • Then the teacher can find appropriate ways to
    challenge any students faulty thinking, often
    through use of disconfirming evidenceand
    ultimately to have the student reframe their view
    of their abilities in more adaptive and positive
    ways.
  • A framework supplied by Linnenbrink and Pintrich
    (2002) is helpful. Attributions often explain
    events as falling into these categories
    unstable/stable, internal/external,
    uncontrollable/controllable.

Source Linnenbrink, E. A., Pintrich, P. R.
(2002). Motivation as an enabler for academic
success. School Psychology Review, 31, 313-327.
39
How Attributions About Learning Contribute to
Academic Outcomes
40
How Attributions About Learning Contribute to
Academic Outcomes
So I did lousy on this one test. Thats OK. Next
time, I will study harder and my grades should
bounce back.
Some people are born writers. I was born to
watch TV.
This teacher always springs pop quizzes on
usand picks questions that are impossible to
study for!
I cant get any studying done at home because my
brother listens to the radio all the time.
41
Challenging Faulty Student Attributions Example
  • A student says I am just not wired to be a
    writer (faulty attribution stable, internal,
    uncontrollable). The teacher shows the student
    evidence to disconfirm her attribution examples
    of the students own writing from a portfolio
    that are of high quality because the topic had
    interested the student.
  • The instructor demonstrates that when the
    student puts effort into her writing, the product
    is reliably and predictably improved--reframe
    unstable/changeable (quality of the writing
    product depends on student effort), internal (the
    student has the necessary skill set to produce
    good writing), controllable (student effort is
    the key factor in producing a quality writing
    product).

Source Linnenbrink, E. A., Pintrich, P. R.
(2002). Motivation as an enabler for academic
success. School Psychology Review, 31, 313-327.
42
The student is unmotivated because he or she
lacks a positive relationship with the teacher.
  • Recommended Response.
  • The teacher can recalibrate his or her
    interactions with students to ensure that the
    majority of those interactions are positive in
    emotional tone.
  • The teacher can single out students with whom he
    or she has a strained relationship and target
    them for non-contingent (positive) attention.

43
Teacher Requests Adopting a Positive Tone
  • Emphasize the positive in teacher requests.
    When an instructor's request has a positive
    'spin', that teacher is less likely to trigger a
    power struggle and more likely to gain student
    compliance. Whenever possible, avoid using
    negative phrasing (e.g., "If you don't return to
    your seat, I cant help you with your
    assignment"). Instead, restate requests in
    positive terms (e.g., "I will be over to help you
    on the assignment just as soon as you return to
    your seat").

Source Braithwaite, R. (2001). Managing
aggression. New York Routledge.
44
Skewing Teacher Interactions Toward the Positive
  • Maintain a high ratio of positive vs.
    disciplinary interactions. Teachers should make
    an effort to give positive attention or praise to
    problem students at least three times more
    frequently than they reprimand them. The teacher
    gives the student the attention or praise during
    moments when that student is acting
    appropriately--and keeps track of how frequently
    they give positive attention and reprimands to
    the student. This heavy dosing of positive
    attention and praise can greatly improve the
    teachers relationship with problem students.

Source Sprick, R. S., Borgmeier, C., Nolet, V.
(2002). Prevention and management of behavior
problems in secondary schools. In M. A. Shinn, H.
M. Walker G. Stoner (Eds.), Interventions for
academic and behavior problems II Preventive and
remedial approaches (pp.373-401). Bethesda, MD
National Association of School Psychologists.
45
Two by Ten Non-Contingent Teacher Attention
  • Use Two by Ten to jump-start a connection
    with the student. The teacher makes the
    commitment to set aside two minutes per day
    across ten consecutive school days. During that
    daily time, the teacher has a two-minute positive
    conversation with the student, which can focus on
    current events, a topic of high interest to the
    student (e.g., NASCAR, fashion), the weather, or
    other subjects. NOTE The conversation should not
    address the students problem behaviors, poor
    grades or other negative topics.
  • The teacher continues to have these 2-minute
    conversations for 10 school days in a row. At the
    end of the timespan, both teacher and student are
    likely to find it more rewarding to interact with
    one anotherand there is an increased probability
    that the student will comply more readily with
    teacher requests.

Source Mendler, A. N. (2000). Motivating
students who dont care. Bloomington, IN
National Educational Service.
46
The Unmotivated Student Possible Reasons
  • The student is unmotivated because he or she
    cannot do the assigned work.
  • The student is unmotivated because the response
    effort needed to complete the assigned work
    seems too great.
  • The student is unmotivated because classroom
    instruction does not engage.
  • The student is unmotivated because he or she
    fails to see an adequate pay-off to doing the
    assigned work.
  • The student is unmotivated because of low
    self-efficacylack of confidence that he or she
    can do the assigned work.
  • The student is unmotivated because he or she
    lacks a positive relationship with the teacher.

47
Maintaining Classroom Discipline (1947) Pt. 1 of
3 (412)
Source Internet Archive. Retrieved September 23,
2007, from http//www.archive.org/details/Maintain
1947
48
Team Activity Video
  • The student is unmotivated because he or she
    cannot do the assigned work.
  • The student is unmotivated because the response
    effort needed to complete the assigned work
    seems too great.
  • The student is unmotivated because classroom
    instruction does not engage.
  • The student is unmotivated because he or she
    fails to see an adequate pay-off to doing the
    assigned work.
  • The student is unmotivated because of low
    self-efficacylack of confidence that he or she
    can do the assigned work.
  • The student is unmotivated because he or she
    lacks a positive relationship with the teacher.
  • At your table
  • View the video of Mr. Grimes, math teacher, and
    his class.
  • Review the reasons that students may be
    unmotivated in the classroom.
  • What are ideas that you would recommend to this
    teacher to motivate his students?

49
RTI Intervention Key Concepts
50
Core Instruction, Interventions, Accommodations
Modifications Sorting Them Out
  • Core Instruction. Those instructional strategies
    that are used routinely with all students in a
    general-education setting are considered core
    instruction. High-quality instruction is
    essential and forms the foundation of RTI
    academic support. NOTE While it is important to
    verify that good core instructional practices are
    in place for a struggling student, those routine
    practices do not count as individual student
    interventions.

51
Core Instruction, Interventions, Accommodations
Modifications Sorting Them Out
  • Intervention. An academic intervention is a
    strategy used to teach a new skill, build fluency
    in a skill, or encourage a child to apply an
    existing skill to new situations or settings. An
    intervention can be thought of as a set of
    actions that, when taken, have demonstrated
    ability to change a fixed educational trajectory
    (Methe Riley-Tillman, 2008 p. 37).

52
Core Instruction, Interventions, Accommodations
Modifications Sorting Them Out
  • Accommodation. An accommodation is intended to
    help the student to fully access and participate
    in the general-education curriculum without
    changing the instructional content and without
    reducing the students rate of learning (Skinner,
    Pappas Davis, 2005). An accommodation is
    intended to remove barriers to learning while
    still expecting that students will master the
    same instructional content as their typical
    peers.
  • Accommodation example 1 Students are allowed to
    supplement silent reading of a novel by listening
    to the book on tape.
  • Accommodation example 2 For unmotivated
    students, the instructor breaks larger
    assignments into smaller chunks and providing
    students with performance feedback and praise for
    each completed chunk of assigned work (Skinner,
    Pappas Davis, 2005).

53
Teaching is giving it isnt taking away.
(Howell, Hosp Kurns, 2008 p. 356).


Source Howell, K. W., Hosp, J. L., Kurns, S.
(2008). Best practices in curriculum-based
evaluation. In A. Thomas J. Grimes (Eds.), Best
practices in school psychology V (pp.349-362).
Bethesda, MD National Association of School
Psychologists..
54
Core Instruction, Interventions, Accommodations
Modifications Sorting Them Out
  • Modification. A modification changes the
    expectations of what a student is expected to
    know or dotypically by lowering the academic
    standards against which the student is to be
    evaluated. Examples of modifications
  • Giving a student five math computation problems
    for practice instead of the 20 problems assigned
    to the rest of the class
  • Letting the student consult course notes during a
    test when peers are not permitted to do so

55
Team Activity Core Instruction, Intervention,
Accommodation, Modification
  • At your table
  • Discuss the definitions presented today on core
    instruction, intervention, accommodation, and
    modification.
  • In your classrooms, what are strategies that you
    use to accommodate learners without modifying
    core instruction?

56
Academic Enabler Observational Checklists
Measuring Students Ability to Manage Their Own
Learning
57
Academic Enabler Skills Why Are They
Important?
  • Student academic success requires more than
    content knowledge or mastery of a collection of
    cognitive strategies. Academic accomplishment
    depends also on a set of ancillary skills and
    attributes called academic enablers (DiPerna,
    2006). Examples of academic enablers include
  • Study skills
  • Homework completion
  • Cooperative learning skills
  • Organization
  • Independent seatwork

Source DiPerna, J. C. (2006). Academic enablers
and student achievement Implications for
assessment and intervention services in the
schools. Psychology in the Schools, 43, 7-17.
58
Academic Enabler Skills Why Are They
Important? (Cont.)
  • Because academic enablers are often described as
    broad skill sets, however, they can be
    challenging to define in clear, specific,
    measureable terms. A useful method for defining a
    global academic enabling skill is to break it
    down into a checklist of component sub-skills--a
    process known as discrete categorization
    (Kazdin, 1989). An observer can then use the
    checklist to note whether a student successfully
    displays each of the sub-skills.

Source Kazdin, A. E. (1989). Behavior
modification in applied settings (4th ed.).
Pacific Gove, CA Brooks/Cole.
59
Academic Enabler Skills Why Are They
Important? (Cont.)
  • Observational checklists that define academic
    enabling skills have several uses in Response to
    Intervention
  • Classroom teachers can use these skills
    checklists as convenient tools to assess whether
    a student possesses the minimum starter set of
    academic enabling skills needed for classroom
    success.
  • Teachers or tutors can share examples of
    academic-enabler skills checklists with students,
    training them in each of the sub-skills and
    encouraging them to use the checklists
    independently to take greater responsibility for
    their own learning.  
  • Teachers or other observers can use the academic
    enabler checklists periodically to monitor
    student progress during interventions--assessing
    formatively whether the student is using more of
    the sub-skills.

Source Kazdin, A. E. (1989). Behavior
modification in applied settings (4th ed.).
Pacific Gove, CA Brooks/Cole.
60
Academic Enabler Skills Sample Observational
Checklists
61
Academic Enabler Skills Sample Observational
Checklists
62
Academic Enabler Skills Sample Observational
Checklists
63
Academic Enabler Skills Sample Observational
Checklists
64
Academic Enabler Skills Sample Observational
Checklists
65
Academic Enabler Skills Sample Observational
Checklists
66
Academic Enabler Skills Sample Observational
Checklists
67
Interventions to Help Study Skills
68
Study Skills/Test Preparation Case Study
69
Managing Test Anxiety Ideas for Students
Intended Purpose
Students may become anxious in testing
situations because they have never learned
effective note-taking, study, and test-taking
skills. This package maps out a comprehensive
strategy for any student to follow when preparing
for an important examination.
70
Managing Test Anxiety Ideas for Students
  • Doing well on a test starts with careful
    preparation. Students should have the essential
    skills to
  • Study effectively.
  • Memorize instructional content.
  • Reduce test anxiety.
  • Adopt a smart approach to test-taking.

71
Student Tips Effective Study Habits
  • It is not enough just to schedule lots of study
    time. You also need to make sure that you use
    effective study techniques. Some smart study
    tips are to
  • Create a quiet, neat study area.
  • Study from good notes.
  • Use bits of unexpected free time to study.
  • Make a study schedule to avoid time-drains.
  • Take advantage of your peak energy levels.

72
Student Tips Effective Study Habits (Cont.)
  • Create a study group.
  • Teach content as a learning check.
  • Recite information aloud.
  • Pose difficult questions.
  • Dont forget to review previously learned
    material.
  • Avoid cram sessions.
  • Reward yourself.

73
Student Tips Tips to Memorize Content
  • The best way to remember information from your
    notes or reading is to set aside enough time to
    study it well. Some tips for memorizing
    information are to
  • Read and review using SQ3R (1) Survey the
    chapter, (2) Create Questions based on chapter
    headings(3) Read through the chapter (4) Recite
    the questions and answer aloud (5) Review your
    answers.
  • Make up flashcards.

74
Student Tips Tips to Memorize Content (Cont.)
  • Create acronyms or acrostics e.g.,Red-Orange-Yel
    low-Green-Blue-Indigo-Violet ROY G. BIV.
  • Use visualization tricks Chaining.
  • Use visualization tricks Familiar places.

75
Student Tips Reducing Test Anxiety
  • A little nervousness before a test can be
    goodbut when we become too anxious that anxiety
    can undermine our confidence and interfere with
    our ability to solve problems. Some tips to
    reduce test anxiety are to
  • Remember to take care of yourself first.
  • Take practice exams.
  • Come prepared.

76
Student Tips Reducing Test Anxiety (Cont.)
  • Make an effort to relax periodically during the
    test.
  • Take several deep breaths.
  • Tense your muscles, hold, relax.
  • Think of a peaceful, quiet setting (e.g., the
    beach).
  • Engage in positive self-talk.

77
Student Tips Test-Taking Strategies
  • Become familiar with the test that you are about
    to take and have a mental plan for how you will
    spend your time most productively during the
    examination. Here are some useful test-taking
    strategies
  • Listen carefully to directions.
  • Perform a brain dump.
  • Preview the test.
  • Multiple-choice Dont get sidetracked looking
    for patterns of answers.

78
Student Tips Test-Taking Strategies (Cont.)
  • Multiple-choice Dont rush.
  • Essay questions Underline key terms.
  • Essay questions Outline your answer before you
    write it.
  • When in doubtguess!
  • Skip difficult items until last.
  • Use leftover time to check answers.

79
Teacher Ideas for Introducing Managing Test
Anxiety Ideas for Students
  • Brainstorm with students their best ideas for (a)
    studying, (b) memorizing course content, (c)
    handling test anxiety, and (d) savvy test-taking.
    Write down these ideas.
  • Using class-generated ideas and test-tips
    handout, have students write up their own
    test-readiness plan.
  • When a test is coming up, remind the students to
    use their personal test-prep strategies. Debrief
    after the test about the effectiveness of various
    approaches.

80
Homework Contract
Intended Purpose
This homework contract intervention (adapted
from Miller Kelly, 1994) uses goal-setting, a
written contract, and rewards to boost student
completion (and accuracy) of homework. Students
also learn the valuable skills of breaking down
academic assignments into smaller, more
manageable subtasks and setting priorities for
work completion.
81
Homework Contract Form
82
Homework Contract
  • Parents are trained to be supportive homework
    coaches.
  • The parent creates a homework reward system for
    the child.
  • The parent negotiates the homework contract
    program with the child.
  • The parent and child fill out the Daily Homework
    Contract.
  • The parent checks the childs homework
    completion, delivers nightly weekly rewards.

83
Homework Contract Tips Troubleshooting
  • If the parent finds the Homework Contract program
    difficult to implement, have an afterschool
    program implement it.
  • The teacher may choose to monitor homework
    completion and send a note home to the parent,
    who provides the reward.

84
Defensive Behavior Management The Power of
Teacher Preparation Jim Wrightwww.interventionc
entral.org
85
ABC The Core of Behavior Management
  • ....at the core of behavioral interventions is
    the three-term contingency consisting of an
    antecedent, behavior, and consequence.

A
C
B
Source Kern, L., Choutka, C. M., Sokol, N. G.
(2002). Assessment-based antecedent interventions
used in natural settings to reduce challenging
behaviors An analysis of the literature.
Education Treatment of Children, 25, 113-130.
p. 113.
86
ABC Events as Antecedents
Discriminative Stimulus An antecedent can
become associated with certain desired outcomes
and thus trigger problem behaviors.
If the consequence associated with the behavior
is reinforcing for the student, then the
antecedent or trigger can serve to signal
(discriminate) that reinforcement is coming.
A
C
B
Source Kern, L., Choutka, C. M., Sokol, N. G.
(2002). Assessment-based antecedent interventions
used in natural settings to reduce challenging
behaviors An analysis of the literature.
Education Treatment of Children, 25, 113-130.
p. 113.
87
Advantages of Antecedent Strategies vs. Reactive
Approaches
  1. Can prevent behavior problems from occurring
  2. Are typically quick acting
  3. Can result in an instructional environment that
    better promotes student learning

Source Kern, L. Clemens, N. H. (2007).
Antecedent strategies to promote appropriate
classroom behavior. Psychology in the Schools,
44, 65-75.
88
Defensive Management A Method to Avoid Power
Struggles
  • Defensive management (Fields, 2004) is a
    teacher-friendly six-step approach to avert
    student-teacher power struggles that emphasizes
    providing proactive instructional support to the
    student, elimination of behavioral triggers in
    the classroom setting, relationship-building,
    strategic application of defusing techniques when
    needed, and use of a reconnection conference
    after behavioral incidents to promote student
    reflection and positive behavior change.

Source Fields, B. (2004). Breaking the cycle of
office referrals and suspensions Defensive
management. Educational Psychology in Practice,
20, 103-115.
89
Defensive Management Six Steps
  1. Understanding the Student Problem and Using
    Proactive Strategies to Prevent Triggers. The
    teacher collects information--through direct
    observation and perhaps other means--about
    specific instances of student problem behavior
    and the instructional components and other
    factors surrounding them. The teacher analyzes
    this information to discover specific trigger
    events that seem to set off the problem
    behavior(s) (e.g., lack of skills failure to
    understand directions).The instructor then
    adjusts instruction to provide appropriate
    student support (e.g., providing the student with
    additional instruction in a skill repeating
    directions and writing them on the board).

Source Fields, B. (2004). Breaking the cycle of
office referrals and suspensions Defensive
management. Educational Psychology in Practice,
20, 103-115.
90
Defensive Management Six Steps
  1. Promoting Positive Teacher-Student Interactions.
    Early in each class session, the teacher has at
    least one positive verbal interaction with the
    student. Throughout the class period, the teacher
    continues to interact in positive ways with the
    student (e.g., brief conversation, smile, thumbs
    up, praise comment after a student remark in
    large-group discussion, etc.). In each
    interaction, the teacher adopts a genuinely
    accepting, polite, respectful tone.

Source Fields, B. (2004). Breaking the cycle of
office referrals and suspensions Defensive
management. Educational Psychology in Practice,
20, 103-115.
91
Defensive Management Six Steps
  1. Scanning for Warning Indicators. During the class
    session, the teacher monitors the target
    students behavior for any behavioral indicators
    suggesting that the student is becoming
    frustrated or angry. Examples of behaviors that
    precede non-compliance or open defiance may
    include stopping work muttering or complaining
    becoming argumentative interrupting others
    leaving his or her seat throwing objects, etc.).

Source Fields, B. (2004). Breaking the cycle of
office referrals and suspensions Defensive
management. Educational Psychology in Practice,
20, 103-115.
92
Defensive Management Six Steps
  1. Exercising Emotional Restraint. Whenever the
    student begins to display problematic behaviors,
    the teacher makes an active effort to remain
    calm. To actively monitor his or her emotional
    state, the teacher tracks physiological cues such
    as increased muscle tension and heart rate, as
    well as fear, annoyance, anger, or other negative
    emotions. The teacher also adopts calming or
    relaxation strategies that work for him or her in
    the face of provocative student behavior, such as
    taking a deep breath or counting to 10 before
    responding.

Source Fields, B. (2004). Breaking the cycle of
office referrals and suspensions Defensive
management. Educational Psychology in Practice,
20, 103-115.
93
Defensive Management Six Steps
  1. Using Defusing Tactics. If the student begins to
    escalate to non-compliant, defiant, or
    confrontational behavior (e.g., arguing,
    threatening, other intentional verbal
    interruptions), the teacher draws from a range of
    possible descalating strategies to defuse the
    situation. Such strategies can include private
    conversation with the student while maintaining a
    calm voice, open-ended questions, paraphrasing
    the students concerns, acknowledging the
    students emotions, etc.

Source Fields, B. (2004). Breaking the cycle of
office referrals and suspensions Defensive
management. Educational Psychology in Practice,
20, 103-115.
94
Defensive Management Six Steps
  1. Conducting a Reconnection Conference. Soon
    after any in-class incident of student
    non-compliance, defiance, or confrontation, the
    teacher makes a point to meet with the student to
    discuss the behavioral incident, identify the
    triggers in the classroom environment that led to
    the problem, and brainstorm with the student to
    create a written plan to prevent the reoccurrence
    of such an incident. Throughout this conference,
    the teacher maintains a supportive, positive,
    polite, and respectful tone.

Source Fields, B. (2004). Breaking the cycle of
office referrals and suspensions Defensive
management. Educational Psychology in Practice,
20, 103-115.
95
Promoting Student Reading Comprehension Fix-Up
SkillsJim Wrightwww.interventioncentral.org
96
Reading Comprehension Fix-Up Skills A Toolkit
  • Good readers continuously monitor their
    understanding of informational text. When
    necessary, they also take steps to improve their
    understanding of text through use of reading
    comprehension fix-up skills.
  • Presented here are a series of fix-up skill
    strategies that can help struggling students to
    better understand difficult reading assignments

97
Reading Comprehension Fix-Up Skills A Toolkit
(Cont.)
  • Core Instruction Providing Main Idea Practice
    through Partner Retell (Carnine Carnine,
    2004). Students in a group or class are assigned
    a text selection to read silently. Students are
    then paired off, with one student assigned the
    role of reteller and the other appointed as
    listener. The reteller recounts the main idea
    to the listener, who can comment or ask
    questions. The teacher then states the main idea
    to the class. Next, the reteller locates two key
    details from the reading that support the main
    idea and shares these with the listener. At the
    end of the activity, the teacher does a spot
    check by randomly calling on one or more students
    in the listener role and asking them to recap
    what information was shared by the reteller.

98
Reading Comprehension Fix-Up Skills A Toolkit
(Cont.)
  • Accommodation Developing a Bank of Multiple
    Passages to Present Challenging Concepts (Hedin
    Conderman, 2010 Kamil et al., 2008 Texas
    Reading Initiative, 2002). The teacher notes
    which course concepts, cognitive strategies, or
    other information will likely present the
    greatest challenge to students. For these
    challenge topics, the teacher selects
    alternative readings that present the same
    general information and review the same key
    vocabulary as the course text but that are more
    accessible to struggling readers (e.g., with
    selections written at an easier reading level or
    that use graphics to visually illustrate
    concepts). These alternative selections are
    organized into a bank that students can access as
    a source of wide reading material.

99
Reading Comprehension Fix-Up Skills A Toolkit
(Cont.)
  • Student Strategy Promoting Understanding
    Building Endurance through Reading-Reflection
    Pauses (Hedin Conderman, 2010). The student
    decides on a reading interval (e.g., every four
    sentences every 3 minutes at the end of each
    paragraph). At the end of each interval, the
    student pauses briefly to recall the main points
    of the reading. If the student has questions or
    is uncertain about the content, the student
    rereads part or all of the section just read.
    This strategy is useful both for students who
    need to monitor their understanding as well as
    those who benefit from brief breaks when engaging
    in intensive reading as a means to build up
    endurance as attentive readers.

100
Reading Comprehension Fix-Up Skills A Toolkit
(Cont.)
  • Student Strategy Identifying or Constructing
    Main Idea Sentences (Davey McBride, 1986
    Rosenshine, Meister Chapman, 1996). For each
    paragraph in an assigned reading, the student
    either (a) highlights the main idea sentence or
    (b) highlights key details and uses them to write
    a gist sentence. The student then writes the
    main idea of that paragraph on an index card. On
    the other side of the card, the student writes a
    question whose answer is that paragraphs main
    idea sentence. This stack of main idea cards
    becomes a useful tool to review assigned
    readings.

101
Reading Comprehension Fix-Up Skills A Toolkit
(Cont.)
  • Student Strategy Restructuring Paragraphs with
    Main Idea First to Strengthen Rereads (Hedin
    Conderman, 2010). The student highlights or
    creates a main idea sentence for each paragraph
    in the assigned reading. When rereading each
    paragraph of the selection, the student (1) reads
    the main idea sentence or student-generated
    gist sentence first (irrespective of where that
    sentence actually falls in the paragraph) (2)
    reads the remainder of the paragraph, and (3)
    reflects on how the main idea relates to the
    paragraph content.

102
Reading Comprehension Fix-Up Skills A Toolkit
(Cont.)
  • Student Strategy Summarizing Readings (Boardman
    et al., 2008). The student is taught to summarize
    readings into main ideas and essential
    details--stripped of superfluous content. The act
    of summarizing longer readings can promote
    understanding and retention of content while the
    summarized text itself can be a useful study
    tool.

103
Reading Comprehension Fix-Up Skills A Toolkit
(Cont.)
  • Student Strategy Linking Pronouns to Referents
    (Hedin Conderman, 2010). Some readers lose the
    connection between pronouns and the nouns that
    they refer to (known as referents)especially
    when reading challenging text. The student is
    encouraged to circle pronouns in the reading, to
    explicitly identify each pronouns referent, and
    (optionally) to write next to the pronoun the
    name of its referent. For example, the student
    may add the referent to a pronoun in this
    sentence from a biology text The Cambrian
    Period is the first geological age that has large
    numbers of multi-celled organisms associated with
    it Cambrian Period.

104
Reading Comprehension Fix-Up Skills A Toolkit
(Cont.)
  • Student Strategy Apply Vocabulary Fix-Up
    Skills for Unknown Words (Klingner Vaughn,
    1999). When confronting an unknown word in a
    reading selection, the student applies the
    following vocabulary fix-up skills
  • Read the sentence again.
  • Read the sentences before and after the problem
    sentence for clues to the words meaning.
  • See if there are prefixes or suffixes in the word
    that can give clues to meaning.
  • Break the word up by syllables and look for
    smaller words within.

105
Reading Comprehension Fix-Up Skills A Toolkit
(Cont.)
  • Student Strategy Compiling a Vocabulary Journal
    from Course Readings (Hedin Conderman, 2010).
    The student highlights new or unfamiliar
    vocabulary from course readings. The student
    writes each term into a vocabulary journal, using
    a standard sentence-stem format e.g., Mitosis
    means or A chloroplast is. If the student is
    unable to generate a definition for a vocabulary
    term based on the course reading, he or she
    writes the term into the vocabulary journal
    without definition and then applies other
    strategies to define the term e.g., look up the
    term in a dictionary use Google to locate two
    examples of the term being used correctly in
    context ask the instructor, etc.).

106
Reading Comprehension Fix-Up Skills A Toolkit
(Cont.)
  • Student Strategy Encouraging Student Use of
    Text Enhancements (Hedin Conderman, 2010). Text
    enhancements can be used to tag important
    vocabulary terms, key ideas, or other reading
    content. If working with photocopied material,
    the student can use a highlighter to note key
    ideas or vocabulary. Another enhancement strategy
    is the lasso and rope techniqueusing a pen or
    pencil to circle a vocabulary term and then
    drawing a line that connects that term to its
    underlined definition. If working from a
    textbook, the student can cut sticky notes into
    strips. These strips can be inserted in the book
    as pointers to text of interest. They can also be
    used as temporary labelse.g., for writing a
    vocabulary term and its definition.

107
Reading Comprehension Fix-Up Skills A Toolkit
(Cont.)
  • Student Strategy Reading Actively Through Text
    Annotation (Harris, 1990 Sarkisian et al.,
    2003). Students are likely to increase their
    retention of information when they interact
    actively with their reading by jotting comments
    in the margin of the text. Using photocopies, the
    student is taught to engage in an ongoing
    'conversation' with the writer by recording a
    running series of brief comments in the margins
    of the text. The student may write annotations to
    record opinions about points raised by the
    writer, questions triggered by the reading, or
    unknown vocabulary words.

108
Managing Difficult Student Behaviors The
Defensive Management ApproachJim
Wrightwww.interventioncentral.org
109
Big Ideas in Student Behavior Management
110
Big Ideas Similar Behaviors May Stem from Very
Different Root Causes (Kratochwill, Elliott,
Carrington Rotto, 1990)
  • Behavior is not random but follows purposeful
    patterns.Students who present with the same
    apparent surface behaviors may have very
    different drivers (underlying reasons) that
    explain why those behaviors occur.A students
    problem behaviors must be carefully identified
    and analyzed to determine the drivers that
    support them.

Source Kratochwill, T. R., Elliott, S. N.,
Carrington Rotto, P. (1990). Best practices in
behavioral consultation. In A. Thomas and J.
Grimes (Eds.). Best practices in school
psychology-II (pp. 147169). Silver Spring, MD
National Association of School Psychologists..
111
Common Root Causes or Drivers for Behaviors
Include
  • Power/Control
  • Protection/Escape/Avoidance
  • Attention
  • Acceptance/Affiliation
  • Expression of Self
  • Gratification
  • Justice/Revenge

Source Witt, J. C., Daly, E. M., Noell, G.
(2000). Functional assessments A step-by-step
guide to solving academic and behavior problems.
Longmont, CO Sopris West..pp. 3-4.
112
From the TrenchesOffice Disciplinary Referral

Disrespect toward teachers. Yelled at me while I
was helping him with his assignment. Told him to
cool down and sit in the center and he started up
again. Finally, I asked him to leave. Have
called home twice and spoke to grandmother about
tardiness, attendance, and behavior.

113
From the TrenchesOffice Disciplinary Referral

L. was sleeping in class. I told him twice to
wake up and read along with class. He did so,
albeit reluctantly. The third time he fell
asleep I buzzed the office to tell them he was
coming down, with a referral to follow. He
cursed and threw his book in the book box.

114
From the TrenchesOffice Disciplinary Referral

For some reason, R. wants to keep challenging me.
Today he was being persistent that he wanted to
sit on a table not in his chair. This was after
I asked him to stop talking 4-5 times, thats
all. I sent him to the office again, second time.

115
Inference Moving Beyond the Margins of the
Known
  • An inference is a tentative conclusion without
    direct or conclusive support from available data.
    All hypotheses are, by definition, inferences. It
    is critical that problem analysts make
    distinctions between what is known and what is
    inferred or hypothesized.Low-level inferences
    should be exhausted prior to the use of
    high-level inferences. p. 161

Source Christ, T. (2008). Best practices in
problem analysis. In A. Thomas J. Grimes
(Eds.), Best practices in school psychology V
(pp. 159-176).
116
Examples of High vs. Low Inference Hypotheses
An 11th-grade student does poorly on tests and
quizzes in math. Homework is often incomplete.
He frequently shows up late for class and does
not readily participate in group discussions.
117
Big Ideas Behavior is a Continuous Stream
(Schoenfeld Farmer, 1970)
  • Individuals are always performing SOME type of
    behavior watching the instructor, sleeping,
    talking to a neighbor, completing a worksheet
    (behavior stream).
  • When students are fully engaged in academic
    behaviors, they are less likely to get off-task
    and display problem behaviors.
  • Academic tasks that are clearly understood,
    elicit student interest, provide a high rate of
    student success, and include teacher
    encouragement and feedback are most likely to
    effectively capture the students behavior
    stream.

Source Schoenfeld, W. N., Farmer, J. (1970).
Reinforcement schedules and the behavior
stream. In W. N. Schoenfeld (Ed.), The theory
of reinforcement schedules (pp. 215245). New
York Appleton-Century-Crofts.
118
Big Ideas Academic Delays Can Be a Potent Cause
of Behavior Problems (Witt, Daly, Noell, 2000)
  • Student academic problems cause many school
    behavior problems.
  • Whether a students problem is a behavior
    problem or an academic one, we recommend starting
    with a functional academic assessment, since
    often behavior problems occur when students
    cannot or will not do required academic work.

Source Witt, J. C., Daly, E. M., Noell, G.
(2000). Functional assessments A step-by-step
guide to solving academic and behavior problems.
Longmont, CO Sopris West, p. 13
119
ABC The Core of Behavior Management
  • ....at the core of behavioral interventions is
    the three-term contingency consisting of an
    antecedent, behavior, and co
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