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Title: RTI:%20An%20Introduction%20for%20Middle%20


1
RTI An Introduction for Middle High School
Educators Jim Wright www.interventioncentral.org
2
Workshop Goals
3
http//www.jimwrightonline.com/millbrook.php
4
Secondary Students Unique Challenges
  • Struggling learners in middle and high school
    may
  • Have significant deficits in basic academic
    skills
  • Lack higher-level problem-solving strategies and
    concepts
  • Present with issues of school motivation
  • Show social/emotional concerns that interfere
    with academics
  • Have difficulty with attendance
  • Are often in a process of disengaging from
    learning even as adults in school expect that
    those students will move toward being
    self-managing learners

5
School Dropout as a Process, Not an Event
  • It is increasingly accepted that dropout is
    best conceptualized as a long-term process, not
    an instantaneous event however, most
    interventions are administered at a middle or
    high school level after problems are severe.

Source Jimerson, S., Reschly, A.L., Hess, R.
(2008). Best practices in increasing the
likelihood of school completion. In A. Thomas
J. Grimes (Eds). Best Practices in School
Psychology - 5th Ed (pp. 1085-1097). Bethesda,
MD National Association of School
Psychologists.. p.1090
6
Student Motivation The Need for Intervention
  • A common response to students who struggle in
    sixth grade is to wait and hope they grow out of
    it or adapt, to attribute early struggles to the
    natural commotion of early adolescence and to
    temporary difficulties in adapting to new
    organizational structures of schooling, more
    challenging curricula and assessment, and less
    personalized attention. Our evidence clearly
    indicates that, at least in high-poverty urban
    schools, sixth graders who are missing 20 or
    more of the days, exhibiting poor behavior, or
    failing math or English do not recover. On the
    contrary, they drop out. This says that early
    intervention is not only productive but
    absolutely essential.

Source Balfanz, R., Herzog, L., MacIver, D. J.
(2007). Preventing student disengagement and
keeping students on the graduation path in urban
middle grades schools Early identification and
effective interventions. Educational
Psychologist,42, 223235. .
7
What Are the Early Warning Flags of Student
Drop-Out?
  • A sample of 13,000 students in Philadelphia were
    tracked for 8 years. These early warning
    indicators were found to predict student drop-out
    in the sixth-grade year
  • Failure in English
  • Failure in math
  • Missing at least 20 of school days
  • Receiving an unsatisfactory behavior rating
    from at least one teacher

Source Balfanz, R., Herzog, L., MacIver, D. J.
(2007). Preventing student disengagement and
keeping students on the graduation path in urban
middle grades schools Early identification and
effective interventions. Educational
Psychologist,42, 223235. .
8
What is the Predictive Power of These Early
Warning Flags?
Number of Early Warning Flags in Student Record Probability That Student Would Graduate
None 56
1 36
2 21
3 13
4 7
Source Balfanz, R., Herzog, L., MacIver, D. J.
(2007). Preventing student disengagement and
keeping students on the graduation path in urban
middle grades schools Early identification and
effective interventions. Educational
Psychologist,42, 223235. .
9
RTI Assumption Struggling Students Are Typical
Until Proven Otherwise
  • RTI logic assumes that
  • A student who begins to struggle in general
    education is typical, and that
  • It is general educations responsibility to find
    the instructional strategies that will unlock the
    students learning potential
  • Only when the student shows through
    well-documented interventions that he or she has
    failed to respond to intervention does RTI
    begin to investigate the possibility that the
    student may have a learning disability or other
    special education condition.

10
Essential Elements of RTI (Fairbanks, Sugai,
Guardino, Lathrop, 2007)
  1. A continuum of evidence-based services available
    to all students" that range from universal to
    highly individualized intensive
  2. Decision points to determine if students are
    performing significantly below the level of their
    peers in academic and social behavior domains"
  3. Ongoing monitoring of student progress"
  4. Employment of more intensive or different
    interventions when students do not improve in
    response" to lesser interventions
  5. Evaluation for special education services if
    students do not respond to intervention
    instruction"

Source Fairbanks, S., Sugai, G., Guardino, S.,
Lathrop, M. (2007). Response to intervention
Examining classroom behavior support in second
grade. Exceptional Children, 73, p. 289.
11
RTI Pyramid of Interventions
12
NYSED RTI Guidance Document October 2010
13
Source New York State Education Department.
(October 2010). Response to Intervention
Guidance for New York State School Districts.
Retrieved November 10, 2010, from
http//www.p12.nysed.gov/specialed/RTI/guidance-oc
t10.pdf p. 12
14
Tier 1 Core Instruction
  • Tier I core instruction
  • Is universalavailable to all students.
  • Can be delivered within classrooms or throughout
    the school.
  • Is an ongoing process of developing strong
    classroom instructional practices to reach the
    largest number of struggling learners.
  • All children have access to Tier 1
    instruction/interventions. Teachers have the
    capability to use those strategies without
    requiring outside assistance.
  • Tier 1 instruction encompasses
  • The schools core curriculum.
  • All published or teacher-made materials used to
    deliver that curriculum.
  • Teacher use of whole-group teaching
    management strategies.
  • Tier I instruction addresses this question Are
    strong classroom instructional strategies
    sufficient to help the student to achieve
    academic success?

15
Tier I (Classroom) Intervention
  • Tier 1 intervention
  • Targets red flag students who are not
    successful with core instruction alone.
  • Uses evidence-based strategies to address
    student academic or behavioral concerns.
  • Must be feasible to implement given the resources
    available in the classroom.
  • Tier I intervention addresses the question Does
    the student make adequate progress when the
    instructor uses specific academic or behavioral
    strategies matched to the presenting concern?

16
The Key Role of Classroom Teachers in RTI 6 Steps
  1. The teacher defines the student academic or
    behavioral problem clearly.
  2. The teacher decides on the best explanation for
    why the problem is occurring.
  3. The teacher selects evidence-based
    interventions.
  4. The teacher documents the students Tier 1
    intervention plan.
  5. The teacher monitors the students response
    (progress) to the intervention plan.
  6. The teacher knows what the next steps are when a
    student fails to make adequate progress with Tier
    1 interventions alone.

17
Source New York State Education Department.
(October 2010). Response to Intervention
Guidance for New York State School Districts.
Retrieved November 10, 2010, from
http//www.p12.nysed.gov/specialed/RTI/guidance-oc
t10.pdf p. 13
18
Source New York State Education Department.
(October 2010). Response to Intervention
Guidance for New York State School Districts.
Retrieved November 10, 2010, from
http//www.p12.nysed.gov/specialed/RTI/guidance-oc
t10.pdf p. 14
19
Team Activity What Are Your RTI Questions?
  • At your table
  • Discuss the content covered so far in todays RTI
    presentation.
  • What RTI questions does your group still have?

20
RTI Intervention Key Concepts
21
Core Instruction, Interventions, Accommodations
Modifications Sorting Them Out
  • Core Instruction. Those instructional strategies
    that are used routinely with all students in a
    general-education setting are considered core
    instruction. High-quality instruction is
    essential and forms the foundation of RTI
    academic support. NOTE While it is important to
    verify that good core instructional practices are
    in place for a struggling student, those routine
    practices do not count as individual student
    interventions.

22
Core Instruction, Interventions, Accommodations
Modifications Sorting Them Out
  • Intervention. An academic intervention is a
    strategy used to teach a new skill, build fluency
    in a skill, or encourage a child to apply an
    existing skill to new situations or settings. An
    intervention can be thought of as a set of
    actions that, when taken, have demonstrated
    ability to change a fixed educational trajectory
    (Methe Riley-Tillman, 2008 p. 37).

23
Core Instruction, Interventions, Accommodations
Modifications Sorting Them Out
  • Accommodation. An accommodation is intended to
    help the student to fully access and participate
    in the general-education curriculum without
    changing the instructional content and without
    reducing the students rate of learning (Skinner,
    Pappas Davis, 2005). An accommodation is
    intended to remove barriers to learning while
    still expecting that students will master the
    same instructional content as their typical
    peers.
  • Accommodation example 1 Students are allowed to
    supplement silent reading of a novel by listening
    to the book on tape.
  • Accommodation example 2 For unmotivated
    students, the instructor breaks larger
    assignments into smaller chunks and providing
    students with performance feedback and praise for
    each completed chunk of assigned work (Skinner,
    Pappas Davis, 2005).

24
Teaching is giving it isnt taking away.
(Howell, Hosp Kurns, 2008 p. 356).


Source Howell, K. W., Hosp, J. L., Kurns, S.
(2008). Best practices in curriculum-based
evaluation. In A. Thomas J. Grimes (Eds.), Best
practices in school psychology V (pp.349-362).
Bethesda, MD National Association of School
Psychologists..
25
Core Instruction, Interventions, Accommodations
Modifications Sorting Them Out
  • Modification. A modification changes the
    expectations of what a student is expected to
    know or dotypically by lowering the academic
    standards against which the student is to be
    evaluated. Examples of modifications
  • Giving a student five math computation problems
    for practice instead of the 20 problems assigned
    to the rest of the class
  • Letting the student consult course notes during a
    test when peers are not permitted to do so

26
Promoting Student Reading Comprehension Fix-Up
Skills Jim Wright www.interventioncentral.org
27
Reading Comprehension Fix-Up Skills A Toolkit
  • Good readers continuously monitor their
    understanding of informational text. When
    necessary, they also take steps to improve their
    understanding of text through use of reading
    comprehension fix-up skills.
  • Presented here are a series of fix-up skill
    strategies that can help struggling students to
    better understand difficult reading assignments

28
Reading Comprehension Fix-Up Skills A Toolkit
(Cont.)
  • Core Instruction Providing Main Idea Practice
    through Partner Retell (Carnine Carnine,
    2004). Students in a group or class are assigned
    a text selection to read silently. Students are
    then paired off, with one student assigned the
    role of reteller and the other appointed as
    listener. The reteller recounts the main idea
    to the listener, who can comment or ask
    questions. The teacher then states the main idea
    to the class. Next, the reteller locates two key
    details from the reading that support the main
    idea and shares these with the listener. At the
    end of the activity, the teacher does a spot
    check by randomly calling on one or more students
    in the listener role and asking them to recap
    what information was shared by the reteller.

29
Reading Comprehension Fix-Up Skills A Toolkit
(Cont.)
  • Accommodation Developing a Bank of Multiple
    Passages to Present Challenging Concepts (Hedin
    Conderman, 2010 Kamil et al., 2008 Texas
    Reading Initiative, 2002). The teacher notes
    which course concepts, cognitive strategies, or
    other information will likely present the
    greatest challenge to students. For these
    challenge topics, the teacher selects
    alternative readings that present the same
    general information and review the same key
    vocabulary as the course text but that are more
    accessible to struggling readers (e.g., with
    selections written at an easier reading level or
    that use graphics to visually illustrate
    concepts). These alternative selections are
    organized into a bank that students can access as
    a source of wide reading material.

30
Reading Comprehension Fix-Up Skills A Toolkit
(Cont.)
  • Student Strategy Promoting Understanding
    Building Endurance through Reading-Reflection
    Pauses (Hedin Conderman, 2010). The student
    decides on a reading interval (e.g., every four
    sentences every 3 minutes at the end of each
    paragraph). At the end of each interval, the
    student pauses briefly to recall the main points
    of the reading. If the student has questions or
    is uncertain about the content, the student
    rereads part or all of the section just read.
    This strategy is useful both for students who
    need to monitor their understanding as well as
    those who benefit from brief breaks when engaging
    in intensive reading as a means to build up
    endurance as attentive readers.

31
Reading Comprehension Fix-Up Skills A Toolkit
(Cont.)
  • Student Strategy Identifying or Constructing
    Main Idea Sentences (Davey McBride, 1986
    Rosenshine, Meister Chapman, 1996). For each
    paragraph in an assigned reading, the student
    either (a) highlights the main idea sentence or
    (b) highlights key details and uses them to write
    a gist sentence. The student then writes the
    main idea of that paragraph on an index card. On
    the other side of the card, the student writes a
    question whose answer is that paragraphs main
    idea sentence. This stack of main idea cards
    becomes a useful tool to review assigned
    readings.

32
Reading Comprehension Fix-Up Skills A Toolkit
(Cont.)
  • Student Strategy Restructuring Paragraphs with
    Main Idea First to Strengthen Rereads (Hedin
    Conderman, 2010). The student highlights or
    creates a main idea sentence for each paragraph
    in the assigned reading. When rereading each
    paragraph of the selection, the student (1) reads
    the main idea sentence or student-generated
    gist sentence first (irrespective of where that
    sentence actually falls in the paragraph) (2)
    reads the remainder of the paragraph, and (3)
    reflects on how the main idea relates to the
    paragraph content.

33
Reading Comprehension Fix-Up Skills A Toolkit
(Cont.)
  • Student Strategy Summarizing Readings (Boardman
    et al., 2008). The student is taught to summarize
    readings into main ideas and essential
    details--stripped of superfluous content. The act
    of summarizing longer readings can promote
    understanding and retention of content while the
    summarized text itself can be a useful study
    tool.

34
Reading Comprehension Fix-Up Skills A Toolkit
(Cont.)
  • Student Strategy Linking Pronouns to Referents
    (Hedin Conderman, 2010). Some readers lose the
    connection between pronouns and the nouns that
    they refer to (known as referents)especially
    when reading challenging text. The student is
    encouraged to circle pronouns in the reading, to
    explicitly identify each pronouns referent, and
    (optionally) to write next to the pronoun the
    name of its referent. For example, the student
    may add the referent to a pronoun in this
    sentence from a biology text The Cambrian
    Period is the first geological age that has large
    numbers of multi-celled organisms associated with
    it Cambrian Period.

35
Reading Comprehension Fix-Up Skills A Toolkit
(Cont.)
  • Student Strategy Apply Vocabulary Fix-Up
    Skills for Unknown Words (Klingner Vaughn,
    1999). When confronting an unknown word in a
    reading selection, the student applies the
    following vocabulary fix-up skills
  • Read the sentence again.
  • Read the sentences before and after the problem
    sentence for clues to the words meaning.
  • See if there are prefixes or suffixes in the word
    that can give clues to meaning.
  • Break the word up by syllables and look for
    smaller words within.

36
Reading Comprehension Fix-Up Skills A Toolkit
(Cont.)
  • Student Strategy Compiling a Vocabulary Journal
    from Course Readings (Hedin Conderman, 2010).
    The student highlights new or unfamiliar
    vocabulary from course readings. The student
    writes each term into a vocabulary journal, using
    a standard sentence-stem format e.g., Mitosis
    means or A chloroplast is. If the student is
    unable to generate a definition for a vocabulary
    term based on the course reading, he or she
    writes the term into the vocabulary journal
    without definition and then applies other
    strategies to define the term e.g., look up the
    term in a dictionary use Google to locate two
    examples of the term being used correctly in
    context ask the instructor, etc.).

37
Reading Comprehension Fix-Up Skills A Toolkit
(Cont.)
  • Student Strategy Encouraging Student Use of
    Text Enhancements (Hedin Conderman, 2010). Text
    enhancements can be used to tag important
    vocabulary terms, key ideas, or other reading
    content. If working with photocopied material,
    the student can use a highlighter to note key
    ideas or vocabulary. Another enhancement strategy
    is the lasso and rope techniqueusing a pen or
    pencil to circle a vocabulary term and then
    drawing a line that connects that term to its
    underlined definition. If working from a
    textbook, the student can cut sticky notes into
    strips. These strips can be inserted in the book
    as pointers to text of interest. They can also be
    used as temporary labelse.g., for writing a
    vocabulary term and its definition.

38
Reading Comprehension Fix-Up Skills A Toolkit
(Cont.)
  • Student Strategy Reading Actively Through Text
    Annotation (Harris, 1990 Sarkisian et al.,
    2003). Students are likely to increase their
    retention of information when they interact
    actively with their reading by jotting comments
    in the margin of the text. Using photocopies, the
    student is taught to engage in an ongoing
    'conversation' with the writer by recording a
    running series of brief comments in the margins
    of the text. The student may write annotations to
    record opinions about points raised by the
    writer, questions triggered by the reading, or
    unknown vocabulary words.

39
RTI Writing Interventions Jim
Wright www.interventioncentral.org
40
  • "If all the grammarians in the world were placed
    end to end, it would be a good thing."
  • Oscar Wilde

41
Graham, S., Perin, D. (2007). Writing next
Effective strategies to improve writing of
adolescents in middle and high schools A report
to Carnegie Corporation of New York. Washington,
DC Alliance for Excellent Education. Retrieved
from http//www.all4ed.org/files/ WritingNext.pdf
42
The Effect of Grammar Instruction as an
Independent Activity
  • Grammar instruction in the studies reviewed
    for the Writing Next report involved the
    explicit and systematic teaching of the parts of
    speech and structure of sentences. The
    meta-analysis found an effect for this type of
    instruction for students across the full range of
    ability, but surprisingly, this effect was
    negativeSuch findings raise serious questions
    about some educators enthusiasm for traditional
    grammar instruction as a focus of writing
    instruction for adolescents.Overall, the
    findings on grammar instruction suggest that,
    although teaching grammar is important,
    alternative procedures, such as sentence
    combining, are more effective than traditional
    approaches for improving the quality of students
    writing. p. 21

Source Graham, S., Perin, D. (2007). Writing
next Effective strategies to improve writing of
adolescents in middle and high schools A report
to Carnegie Corporation of New York. Washington,
DC Alliance for Excellent Education.
43
  • Sentence Combining An Effective Writing
    Intervention for Adolescents
  • Sentence Combining (Effect Size 0.50)
    Students take part in instructional activities
    that require the combination or embedding of
    simpler sentences (e.g., Noun-Verb-Object) to
    generate more advanced, complex sentences.

Source Graham, S., Perin, D. (2007). Writing
next Effective strategies to improve writing of
adolescents in middle and high schools A report
to Carnegie Corporation of New York. Washington,
DC Alliance for Excellent Education. Retrieved
from http//www.all4ed.org/files/WritingNext.pdf
44
Sentence Combining
  • Students with poor writing skills often write
    sentences that lack syntactic maturity. Their
    sentences often follow a simple, stereotyped
    format. A promising approach to teach students
    use of diverse sentence structures is through
    sentence combining. In sentence combining,
    students are presented with kernel sentences and
    given explicit instruction in how to weld these
    kernel sentences into more diverse sentence types
    either
  • by using connecting words to combine multiple
    sentences into one or
  • by isolating key information from an otherwise
    superfluous sentence and embedding that important
    information into the base sentence.

Sources Saddler, B. (2005). Sentence combining
A sentence-level writing intervention. The
Reading Teacher, 58, 468-471. Strong, W. (1986).
Creative approaches to sentence combining.
Urbana, OL ERIC Clearinghouse on Reading and
Communication Skill National Council of
Teachers of English.
45
Formatting Sentence Combining Examples
46
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47
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48
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49
Interpreting Math Graphics A Reading
Comprehension Intervention
50
Housing Bubble Graphic New York Times 23
September 2007
51
Classroom Challenges in Interpreting Math Graphics
  • When encountering math graphics, students may
  • expect the answer to be easily accessible when in
    fact the graphic may expect the reader to
    interpret and draw conclusions
  • be inattentive to details of the graphic
  • treat irrelevant data as relevant
  • not pay close attention to questions before
    turning to graphics to find the answer
  • fail to use their prior knowledge both to extend
    the information on the graphic and to act as a
    possible check on the information that it
    presents.

Source Mesmer, H.A.E., Hutchins, E.J. (2002).
Using QARs with charts and graphs. The Reading
Teacher, 56, 2127.
52
Using Question-Answer Relationships (QARs) to
Interpret Information from Math Graphics
  • Students can be more savvy interpreters of
    graphics in applied math problems by applying the
    Question-Answer Relationship (QAR) strategy. Four
    Kinds of QAR Questions
  • RIGHT THERE questions are fact-based and can be
    found in a single sentence, often accompanied by
    'clue' words that also appear in the question.
  • THINK AND SEARCH questions can be answered by
    information in the text but require the scanning
    of text and making connections between different
    pieces of factual information.
  • AUTHOR AND YOU questions require that students
    take information or opinions that appear in the
    text and combine them with the reader's own
    experiences or opinions to formulate an answer.
  • ON MY OWN questions are based on the students'
    own experiences and do not require knowledge of
    the text to answer.

Source Mesmer, H.A.E., Hutchins, E.J. (2002).
Using QARs with charts and graphs. The Reading
Teacher, 56, 2127.
53
Using Question-Answer Relationships (QARs) to
Interpret Information from Math Graphics 4-Step
Teaching Sequence
  1. DISTINGUISHING DIFFERENT KINDS OF GRAPHICS.
    Students are taught to differentiate between
    common types of graphics e.g., table (grid with
    information contained in cells), chart (boxes
    with possible connecting lines or arrows),
    picture (figure with labels), line graph, bar
    graph. Students note significant differences
    between the various graphics, while the teacher
    records those observations on a wall chart. Next
    students are given examples of graphics and asked
    to identify which general kind of graphic each
    is. Finally, students are assigned to go on a
    graphics hunt, locating graphics in magazines
    and newspapers, labeling them, and bringing to
    class to review.

Source Mesmer, H.A.E., Hutchins, E.J. (2002).
Using QARs with charts and graphs. The Reading
Teacher, 56, 2127.
54
Using Question-Answer Relationships (QARs) to
Interpret Information from Math Graphics 4-Step
Teaching Sequence
  1. INTERPRETING INFORMATION IN GRAPHICS. Students
    are paired off, with stronger students matched
    with less strong ones. The teacher spends at
    least one session presenting students with
    examples from each of the graphics categories.
    The presentation sequence is ordered so that
    students begin with examples of the most concrete
    graphics and move toward the more abstract
    Pictures gt tables gt bar graphs gt charts gt line
    graphs. At each session, student pairs examine
    graphics and discuss questions such as What
    information does this graphic present? What are
    strengths of this graphic for presenting data?
    What are possible weaknesses?

Source Mesmer, H.A.E., Hutchins, E.J. (2002).
Using QARs with charts and graphs. The Reading
Teacher, 56, 2127.
55
Using Question-Answer Relationships (QARs) to
Interpret Information from Math Graphics 4-Step
Teaching Sequence
  1. LINKING THE USE OF QARS TO GRAPHICS. Students are
    given a series of data questions and correct
    answers, with each question accompanied by a
    graphic that contains information needed to
    formulate the answer. Students are also each
    given index cards with titles and descriptions of
    each of the 4 QAR questions RIGHT THERE, THINK
    AND SEARCH, AUTHOR AND YOU, ON MY OWN. Working
    in small groups and then individually, students
    read the questions, study the matching graphics,
    and verify the answers as correct. They then
    identify the type question being asked using
    their QAR index cards.

Source Mesmer, H.A.E., Hutchins, E.J. (2002).
Using QARs with charts and graphs. The Reading
Teacher, 56, 2127.
56
Using Question-Answer Relationships (QARs) to
Interpret Information from Math Graphics 4-Step
Teaching Sequence
  • USING QARS WITH GRAPHICS INDEPENDENTLY. When
    students are ready to use the QAR strategy
    independently to read graphics, they are given a
    laminated card as a reference with 6 steps to
    follow
  • Read the question,
  • Review the graphic,
  • Reread the question,
  • Choose a QAR,
  • Answer the question, and
  • Locate the answer derived from the graphic in the
    answer choices offered.
  • Students are strongly encouraged NOT to read the
    answer choices offered until they have first
    derived their own answer, so that those choices
    dont short-circuit their inquiry.

Source Mesmer, H.A.E., Hutchins, E.J. (2002).
Using QARs with charts and graphs. The Reading
Teacher, 56, 2127.
57
Developing Student Metacognitive Abilities
58
Importance of Metacognitive Strategy Use
  • Metacognitive processes focus on self-awareness
    of cognitive knowledge that is presumed to be
    necessary for effective problem solving, and they
    direct and regulate cognitive processes and
    strategies during problem solvingThat is,
    successful problem solvers, consciously or
    unconsciously (depending on task demands), use
    self-instruction, self-questioning, and
    self-monitoring to gain access to strategic
    knowledge, guide execution of strategies, and
    regulate use of strategies and problem-solving
    performance. p. 231

Source Montague, M. (1992). The effects of
cognitive and metacognitive strategy instruction
on the mathematical problem solving of middle
school students with learning disabilities.
Journal of Learning Disabilities, 25, 230-248.
59
Elements of Metacognitive Processes
  • Self-instruction helps students to identify and
    direct the problem-solving strategies prior to
    execution. Self-questioning promotes internal
    dialogue for systematically analyzing problem
    information and regulating execution of cognitive
    strategies. Self-monitoring promotes appropriate
    use of specific strategies and encourages
    students to monitor general performance.
    Emphasis added. p. 231

Source Montague, M. (1992). The effects of
cognitive and metacognitive strategy instruction
on the mathematical problem solving of middle
school students with learning disabilities.
Journal of Learning Disabilities, 25, 230-248.
60
Combining Cognitive Metacognitive Strategies to
Assist Students With Mathematical Problem Solving
  • Solving an advanced math problem independently
    requires the coordination of a number of complex
    skills. The following strategies combine both
    cognitive and metacognitive elements (Montague,
    1992 Montague Dietz, 2009). First, the student
    is taught a 7-step process for attacking a math
    word problem (cognitive strategy). Second, the
    instructor trains the student to use a three-part
    self-coaching routine for each of the seven
    problem-solving steps (metacognitive strategy).

61
Cognitive Portion of Combined Problem Solving
Approach
  • In the cognitive part of this multi-strategy
    intervention, the student learns an explicit
    series of steps to analyze and solve a math
    problem. Those steps include
  • Reading the problem. The student reads the
    problem carefully, noting and attempting to clear
    up any areas of uncertainly or confusion (e.g.,
    unknown vocabulary terms).
  • Paraphrasing the problem. The student restates
    the problem in his or her own words.
  • Drawing the problem. The student creates a
    drawing of the problem, creating a visual
    representation of the word problem.
  • Creating a plan to solve the problem. The student
    decides on the best way to solve the problem and
    develops a plan to do so.
  • Predicting/Estimating the answer. The student
    estimates or predicts what the answer to the
    problem will be. The student may compute a quick
    approximation of the answer, using rounding or
    other shortcuts.
  • Computing the answer. The student follows the
    plan developed earlier to compute the answer to
    the problem.
  • Checking the answer. The student methodically
    checks the calculations for each step of the
    problem. The student also compares the actual
    answer to the estimated answer calculated in a
    previous step to ensure that there is general
    agreement between the two values.

62
Metacognitive Portion of Combined Problem Solving
Approach
  • The metacognitive component of the intervention
    is a three-part routine that follows a sequence
    of Say, Ask, Check. For each of the 7
    problem-solving steps reviewed above
  • The student first self-instructs by stating, or
    saying, the purpose of the step (Say).
  • The student next self-questions by asking what
    he or she intends to do to complete the step
    (Ask).
  • The student concludes the step by
    self-monitoring, or checking, the successful
    completion of the step (Check).

63
Combined Cognitive Metacognitive Elements of
Strategy
64
Combined Cognitive Metacognitive Elements of
Strategy
65
Combined Cognitive Metacognitive Elements of
Strategy
66
Combined Cognitive Metacognitive Elements of
Strategy
67
Combined Cognitive Metacognitive Elements of
Strategy
68
Combined Cognitive Metacognitive Elements of
Strategy
69
Combined Cognitive Metacognitive Elements of
Strategy
70
Monitoring Student Academic or General
Behaviors Daily Behavior Report Cards
71
Daily Behavior Report Cards (DBRCs) Are
  • brief forms containing student behavior-rating
    items. The teacher typically rates the student
    daily (or even more frequently) on the DBRC. The
    results can be graphed to document student
    response to an intervention.

72
Daily Behavior Report Cards Can Monitor
  • Hyperactivity
  • On-Task Behavior (Attention)
  • Work Completion
  • Organization Skills
  • Compliance With Adult Requests
  • Ability to Interact Appropriately With Peers

73
Jim Blalock
May 5
Mrs. Williams
Rm 108
Daily Behavior Report Card Daily Version
74
Jim Blalock
Mrs. Williams
Rm 108
Daily Behavior Report Card Weekly Version
05 05 07
05 06 07
05 07 07
05 08 07
05 09 07
40
0
60
60
50
75
Daily Behavior Report Card Chart
76
Rating Scales Example
  • Example All of the teachers on a 7th-grade
    instructional team decided to use a Daily
    Behavior Report to monitor classroom
    interventions for Brian, a student who presented
    challenges of inattention, incomplete work, and
    occasional non-compliance. They created a DBR
    with the following items
  • Brian focused his attention on teacher
    instructions, classroom lessons and assigned
    work.
  • Brian completed and turned in his assigned class
    work on time.
  • Brian spoke respectfully and complied with adult
    requests without argument or complaint.
  • Each rating items was rated using a 1-9 scale
  • On average, Brian scored no higher than 3
    (Never/Seldom range) on all rating items in all
    classrooms (baseline). The team set as an
    intervention goal that, by the end of a 6-week
    intervention to be used in all classrooms, Brian
    would be rated in the 7-9 range (Most/All of the
    Time) in all classrooms.

77
Academic Enabler Observational Checklists
Measuring Students Ability to Manage Their Own
Learning
78
Academic Enabler Skills Why Are They
Important?
  • Student academic success requires more than
    content knowledge or mastery of a collection of
    cognitive strategies. Academic accomplishment
    depends also on a set of ancillary skills and
    attributes called academic enablers (DiPerna,
    2006). Examples of academic enablers include
  • Study skills
  • Homework completion
  • Cooperative learning skills
  • Organization
  • Independent seatwork

Source DiPerna, J. C. (2006). Academic enablers
and student achievement Implications for
assessment and intervention services in the
schools. Psychology in the Schools, 43, 7-17.
79
Academic Enabler Skills Why Are They
Important? (Cont.)
  • Because academic enablers are often described as
    broad skill sets, however, they can be
    challenging to define in clear, specific,
    measureable terms. A useful method for defining a
    global academic enabling skill is to break it
    down into a checklist of component sub-skills--a
    process known as discrete categorization
    (Kazdin, 1989). An observer can then use the
    checklist to note whether a student successfully
    displays each of the sub-skills.

Source Kazdin, A. E. (1989). Behavior
modification in applied settings (4th ed.).
Pacific Gove, CA Brooks/Cole.
80
Academic Enabler Skills Why Are They
Important? (Cont.)
  • Observational checklists that define academic
    enabling skills have several uses in Response to
    Intervention
  • Classroom teachers can use these skills
    checklists as convenient tools to assess whether
    a student possesses the minimum starter set of
    academic enabling skills needed for classroom
    success.
  • Teachers or tutors can share examples of
    academic-enabler skills checklists with students,
    training them in each of the sub-skills and
    encouraging them to use the checklists
    independently to take greater responsibility for
    their own learning.  
  • Teachers or other observers can use the academic
    enabler checklists periodically to monitor
    student progress during interventions--assessing
    formatively whether the student is using more of
    the sub-skills.

Source Kazdin, A. E. (1989). Behavior
modification in applied settings (4th ed.).
Pacific Gove, CA Brooks/Cole.
81
Academic Enabler Skills Sample Observational
Checklists
82
Academic Enabler Skills Sample Observational
Checklists
83
Academic Enabler Skills Sample Observational
Checklists
84
Academic Enabler Skills Sample Observational
Checklists
85
Academic Enabler Skills Sample Observational
Checklists
86
Academic Enabler Skills Sample Observational
Checklists
87
Academic Enabler Skills Sample Observational
Checklists
88
Academic Enabler Skills Checklist Example
  • Example A middle school math instructor, Mr.
    Haverneck, was concerned that a student, Rodney,
    appears to have poor organization skills. Mr.
    Haverneck created a checklist of observable
    subskills that, in his opinion, were part of the
    global term organization skills
  • arriving to class on time
  • bringing work materials to class
  • following teacher directions in a timely manner
  • knowing how to request teacher assistance when
    needed
  • having an uncluttered desk with only essential
    work materials.
  • Mr. Havernick monitored the students compliance
    with elements of this organization -skills
    checklist across three days of math class. On
    average, Rodney successfully carried out only 2
    of the 5 possible subskills (baseline). Mr.
    Havernick set the goal that by the last week of a
    5-week intervention, the student would be found
    to use all five of the subskills on at least 4
    out of 5 days.

89
Activity Academic Enablers Observational
Checklist
  • At your tables
  • Review the Academic Enablers Observational
    Checklists.
  • Discuss how your school might use the existing
    examples or use the general format to create
    your own observational checklists.

90
Managing Difficult Student Behaviors The
Defensive Management Approach Jim
Wright www.interventioncentral.org
91
Big Ideas in Student Behavior Management
92
Big Ideas Similar Behaviors May Stem from Very
Different Root Causes (Kratochwill, Elliott,
Carrington Rotto, 1990)
  • Behavior is not random but follows purposeful
    patterns. Students who present with the same
    apparent surface behaviors may have very
    different drivers (underlying reasons) that
    explain why those behaviors occur. A students
    problem behaviors must be carefully identified
    and analyzed to determine the drivers that
    support them.

Source Kratochwill, T. R., Elliott, S. N.,
Carrington Rotto, P. (1990). Best practices in
behavioral consultation. In A. Thomas and J.
Grimes (Eds.). Best practices in school
psychology-II (pp. 147169). Silver Spring, MD
National Association of School Psychologists..
93
Common Root Causes or Drivers for Behaviors
Include
  • Power/Control
  • Protection/Escape/Avoidance
  • Attention
  • Acceptance/Affiliation
  • Expression of Self
  • Gratification
  • Justice/Revenge

Source Witt, J. C., Daly, E. M., Noell, G.
(2000). Functional assessments A step-by-step
guide to solving academic and behavior problems.
Longmont, CO Sopris West..pp. 3-4.
94
From the Trenches Office Disciplinary Referral

Disrespect toward teachers. Yelled at me while I
was helping him with his assignment. Told him to
cool down and sit in the center and he started up
again. Finally, I asked him to leave. Have
called home twice and spoke to grandmother about
tardiness, attendance, and behavior.

95
From the Trenches Office Disciplinary Referral

L. was sleeping in class. I told him twice to
wake up and read along with class. He did so,
albeit reluctantly. The third time he fell
asleep I buzzed the office to tell them he was
coming down, with a referral to follow. He
cursed and threw his book in the book box.

96
From the Trenches Office Disciplinary Referral

For some reason, R. wants to keep challenging me.
Today he was being persistent that he wanted to
sit on a table not in his chair. This was after
I asked him to stop talking 4-5 times, thats
all. I sent him to the office again, second time.

97
Inference Moving Beyond the Margins of the
Known
  • An inference is a tentative conclusion without
    direct or conclusive support from available data.
    All hypotheses are, by definition, inferences. It
    is critical that problem analysts make
    distinctions between what is known and what is
    inferred or hypothesized.Low-level inferences
    should be exhausted prior to the use of
    high-level inferences. p. 161

Source Christ, T. (2008). Best practices in
problem analysis. In A. Thomas J. Grimes
(Eds.), Best practices in school psychology V
(pp. 159-176).
98
Examples of High vs. Low Inference Hypotheses
An 11th-grade student does poorly on tests and
quizzes in math. Homework is often incomplete.
He frequently shows up late for class and does
not readily participate in group discussions.
99
Big Ideas Behavior is a Continuous Stream
(Schoenfeld Farmer, 1970)
  • Individuals are always performing SOME type of
    behavior watching the instructor, sleeping,
    talking to a neighbor, completing a worksheet
    (behavior stream).
  • When students are fully engaged in academic
    behaviors, they are less likely to get off-task
    and display problem behaviors.
  • Academic tasks that are clearly understood,
    elicit student interest, provide a high rate of
    student success, and include teacher
    encouragement and feedback are most likely to
    effectively capture the students behavior
    stream.

Source Schoenfeld, W. N., Farmer, J. (1970).
Reinforcement schedules and the behavior
stream. In W. N. Schoenfeld (Ed.), The theory
of reinforcement schedules (pp. 215245). New
York Appleton-Century-Crofts.
100
Big Ideas Academic Delays Can Be a Potent Cause
of Behavior Problems (Witt, Daly, Noell, 2000)
  • Student academic problems cause many school
    behavior problems.
  • Whether a students problem is a behavior
    problem or an academic one, we recommend starting
    with a functional academic assessment, since
    often behavior problems occur when students
    cannot or will not do required academic work.

Source Witt, J. C., Daly, E. M., Noell, G.
(2000). Functional assessments A step-by-step
guide to solving academic and behavior problems.
Longmont, CO Sopris West, p. 13
101
ABC The Core of Behavior Management
  • ....at the core of behavioral interventions is
    the three-term contingency consisting of an
    antecedent, behavior, and consequence.

A
C
B
Source Kern, L., Choutka, C. M., Sokol, N. G.
(2002). Assessment-based antecedent interventions
used in natural settings to reduce challenging
behaviors An analysis of the literature.
Education Treatment of Children, 25, 113-130.
p. 113.
102
ABC Events as Antecedents
Discriminative Stimulus An antecedent can
become associated with certain desired outcomes
and thus trigger problem behaviors.
If the consequence associated with the behavior
is reinforcing for the student, then the
antecedent or trigger can serve to signal
(discriminate) that reinforcement is coming.
A
C
B
Source Kern, L., Choutka, C. M., Sokol, N. G.
(2002). Assessment-based antecedent interventions
used in natural settings to reduce challenging
behaviors An analysis of the literature.
Education Treatment of Children, 25, 113-130.
p. 113.
103
Antecedent Strategies to Manage Behavior
Proactive Changes to the Environment
  • Antecedent interventions typically involve some
    type of environmental rearrangement.

Source Kern, L., Choutka, C. M., Sokol, N. G.
(2002). Assessment-based antecedent interventions
used in natural settings to reduce challenging
behaviors An analysis of the literature.
Education Treatment of Children, 25, 113-130.
p. 113.
104
Advantages of Antecedent Strategies vs. Reactive
Approaches
  1. Can prevent behavior problems from occurring
  2. Are typically quick acting
  3. Can result in an instructional environment that
    better promotes student learning

Source Kern, L. Clemens, N. H. (2007).
Antecedent strategies to promote appropriate
classroom behavior. Psychology in the Schools,
44, 65-75.
105
Defensive Behavior Management The Power of
Teacher Preparation Jim Wright www.interventionc
entral.org
106
Defensive Management A Method to Avoid Power
Struggles
  • Defensive management (Fields, 2004) is a
    teacher-friendly six-step approach to avert
    student-teacher power struggles that emphasizes
    providing proactive instructional support to the
    student, elimination of behavioral triggers in
    the classroom setting, relationship-building,
    strategic application of defusing techniques when
    needed, and use of a reconnection conference
    after behavioral incidents to promote student
    reflection and positive behavior change.

Source Fields, B. (2004). Breaking the cycle of
office referrals and suspensions Defensive
management. Educational Psychology in Practice,
20, 103-115.
107
Defensive Management Six Steps
  1. Understanding the Student Problem and Using
    Proactive Strategies to Prevent Triggers. The
    teacher collects information--through direct
    observation and perhaps other means--about
    specific instances of student problem behavior
    and the instructional components and other
    factors surrounding them. The teacher analyzes
    this information to discover specific trigger
    events that seem to set off the problem
    behavior(s) (e.g., lack of skills failure to
    understand directions). The instructor then
    adjusts instruction to provide appropriate
    student support (e.g., providing the student with
    additional instruction in a skill repeating
    directions and writing them on the board).

Source Fields, B. (2004). Breaking the cycle of
office referrals and suspensions Defensive
management. Educational Psychology in Practice,
20, 103-115.
108
Defensive Management Six Steps
  1. Promoting Positive Teacher-Student Interactions.
    Early in each class session, the teacher has at
    least one positive verbal interaction with the
    student. Throughout the class period, the teacher
    continues to interact in positive ways with the
    student (e.g., brief conversation, smile, thumbs
    up, praise comment after a student remark in
    large-group discussion, etc.). In each
    interaction, the teacher adopts a genuinely
    accepting, polite, respectful tone.

Source Fields, B. (2004). Breaking the cycle of
office referrals and suspensions Defensive
management. Educational Psychology in Practice,
20, 103-115.
109
Defensive Management Six Steps
  1. Scanning for Warning Indicators. During the class
    session, the teacher monitors the target
    students behavior for any behavioral indicators
    suggesting that the student is becoming
    frustrated or angry. Examples of behaviors that
    precede non-compliance or open defiance may
    include stopping work muttering or complaining
    becoming argumentative interrupting others
    leaving his or her seat throwing objects, etc.).

Source Fields, B. (2004). Breaking the cycle of
office referrals and suspensions Defensive
management. Educational Psychology in Practice,
20, 103-115.
110
Defensive Management Six Steps
  1. Exercising Emotional Restraint. Whenever the
    student begins to display problematic behaviors,
    the teacher makes an active effort to remain
    calm. To actively monitor his or her emotional
    state, the teacher tracks physiological cues such
    as increased muscle tension and heart rate, as
    well as fear, annoyance, anger, or other negative
    emotions. The teacher also adopts calming or
    relaxation strategies that work for him or her in
    the face of provocative student behavior, such as
    taking a deep breath or counting to 10 before
    responding.

Source Fields, B. (2004). Breaking the cycle of
office referrals and suspensions Defensive
management. Educational Psychology in Practice,
20, 103-115.
111
Defensive Management Six Steps
  1. Using Defusing Tactics. If the student begins to
    escalate to non-compliant, defiant, or
    confrontational behavior (e.g., arguing,
    threatening, other intentional verbal
    interruptions), the teacher draws from a range of
    possible descalating strategies to defuse the
    situation. Such strategies can include private
    conversation with the student while maintaining a
    calm voice, open-ended questions, paraphrasing
    the students concerns, acknowledging the
    students emotions, etc.

Source Fields, B. (2004). Breaking the cycle of
office referrals and suspensions Defensive
management. Educational Psychology in Practice,
20, 103-115.
112
Defensive Management Six Steps
  1. Conducting a Reconnection Conference. Soon
    after any in-class incident of student
    non-compliance, defiance, or confrontation, the
    teacher makes a point to meet with the student to
    discuss the behavioral incident, identify the
    triggers in the classroom environment that led to
    the problem, and brainstorm with the student to
    create a written plan to prevent the reoccurrence
    of such an incident. Throughout this conference,
    the teacher maintains a supportive, positive,
    polite, and respectful tone.

Source Fields, B. (2004). Breaking the cycle of
office referrals and suspensions Defensive
management. Educational Psychology in Practice,
20, 103-115.
113
Group Activity Offer Advice to a Troubled
Classroom
  • At your tables
  • View the video clip of the teachers interaction
    with Ryan in the middle school classroom
  • Use the six-step defensive behavior management
    framework to come up with ideas to recommend to
    this teacher to help her to manage Ryans
    behavior more effectively.
  • Defensive Behavior Management 6 Steps
  • Understanding the Student Problem and Using
    Proactive Strategies to Prevent Triggers.
  • Promoting Positive Teacher-Student Interactions.
  • Scanning for Warning Indicators.
  • Exercising Emotional Restraint.
  • Using Defusing Tactics.
  • Conducting a Student Reconnection Conference.

114
(No Transcript)
115
Activity Defensive Behavior Management
  • In your teams
  • Discuss the Defensive Behavior Management
    framework.
  • How can you use a framework like this as a tool
    to help general-education teachers to better
    manage student behaviors?
  • Defensive Behavior Management 6 Steps
  • Understanding the Student Problem and Using
    Proactive Strategies to Prevent Triggers.
  • Promoting Positive Teacher-Student Interactions.
  • Scanning for Warning Indicators.
  • Exercising Emotional Restraint.
  • Using Defusing Tactics.
  • Conducting a Student Reconnection Conference.

116
Extinguishing the Blaze Avoiding Power
Struggles and Helping Students to Keep Their
Cool Jim Wright www.interventioncentral.org
117
Extinguishing the Blaze Teacher Tips
While you can never predict what behaviors your
students might bring into your classroom, you
will usually achieve the best outcomes by
remaining calm, following pre-planned
intervention strategies for misbehavior, and
acting with consistency and fairness when
intervening with or disciplining students.
118
Extinguishing the Blaze Selected Ideas
  • Allow the Student a 'Cool-Down' Break (Long,
    Morse, Newman, 1980). Select a corner of the
    room (or area outside the classroom with adult
    supervision) where the target student can take a
    brief 'respite break' whenever he or she feels
    angry or upset. Be sure to make cool-down breaks
    available to all students in the classroom, to
    avoid singling out only those children with
    anger-control issues. Whenever a student becomes
    upset and defiant, offer to talk the situation
    over with that student once he or she has calmed
    down and then direct the student to the cool-down
    corner. (E.g., "Thomas, I want to talk with you
    about what is upsetting you, but first you need
    to calm down. Take five minutes in the cool-down
    corner and then come over to my desk so we can
    talk.")

119
Extinguishing the Blaze Selected Ideas
  • Ask Open-Ended Questions (Lanceley, 2001). If a
    teacher who is faced with a confrontational
    student does not know what triggered that
    students defiant response, the instructor can
    ask neutral, open-ended questions to collect more
    information before responding. You can pose
    who, what, where, when, and how
    questions to more fully understand the problem
    situation and identify possible solutions. Some
    sample questions are "What do you think made you
    angry when you were talking with Billy?" and
    "Where were you when you realized that you had
    misplaced your science book?" One caution Avoid
    asking why"questions (e.g., "Why did you get
    into that fight with Jerry?") because they can
    imply that you are blaming the student.

120
Extinguishing the Blaze Selected Ideas
  • Emphasize the Positive in Teacher Requests
    (Braithwaite, 2001). When an instructor's request
    has a positive 'spin', that teacher is less
    likely to trigger a power struggle and more
    likely to gain student compliance. Whenever
    possible, avoid using negative phrasing (e.g.,
    "If you don't return to your seat, I cant help
    you with your assignment"). Instead, restate
    requests in positive terms (e.g., "I will be over
    to help you on the assignment just as soon as you
    return to your seat").

121
Extinguishing the Blaze Selected Ideas
  • Give Problem Students Frequent Positive
    Attention (Sprick, Borgmeier, Nolet, 2002).
    Teachers should make an effort to give positive
    attention or praise to problem students at least
    three times more frequently than they reprimand
    them. The teacher gives the student the attention
    or praise during moments when that student is
    acting appropriately--and keeps track of how
    frequently they give positive attention and
    reprimands to the student. This heavy dosing of
    positive attention and praise can greatly improve
    the teachers relationship with problem students.

122
Extinguishing the Blaze Selected Ideas
  • Have the Student Participate in Creating a
    Behavior Plan (Walker, Colvin, Ramsey, 1995).
    Students can feel a greater sense of ownership
    when they are invited to contribute to their
    behavior management plan. Students also tend to
    know better than anyone else what triggers will
    set off their problem behaviors and what
    strategies they find most effective in calming
    themselves and avoiding conflicts or other
    behavioral problems.

123
Extinguishing the Blaze Selected Ideas
Keep Responses Calm, Brief, and Businesslike
(Mayer, 2000 Sprick, Borgmeier, Nolet, 2002).
Because teacher sarcasm or lengthy negative
reprimands can trigger defiant student behavior,
instructors should respond to the student in a
'neutral', business-like, calm voice. Also, keep
responses brief when addressing the non-compliant
student. Short teacher responses give the defiant
student less control over the interaction and can
also prevent instructors from inadvertently
'rewarding' misbehaving students with lots of
negative adult attention.
124
Extinguishing the Blaze Selected Ideas
Listen Actively (Lanceley, 1999 Long, Morse,
Newman, 1980). The teacher demonstrates a sincere
desire to understand a students concerns when he
or she actively listens to and then summarizes
those concerns--that is, summing up the crucial
points of that concern (paraphrasing) in his or
her own words. Examples of paraphrase comments
include 'Let me be sure that I understand you
correctly', 'Are you telling me that?', 'It
sounds to me like these are your concerns' When
teachers engage in 'active listening' by using
paraphrasing, they demonstrate a respect for the
student's point of view and can also improve
their own understanding of the student's problem.
125
Extinguishing the Blaze Selected Ideas
Offer the Student a Face-Saving Out (Thompson
Jenkins, 1993). Try this face-saving
de-escalation tactic Ask the defiant student,
"Is there anything that we can work out together
so that you can stay in the classroom and be
successful?" Such a statement treats the student
with dignity, models negotiation as a positive
means for resolving conflict, and demonstrates
that
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