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Title: Making RTI Work at the Middle and High School Levels Jim Wright www.interventioncentral.org


1
Making RTI Work at the Middle and High School
LevelsJim Wrightwww.interventioncentral.org
2
Download PowerPoints and Handouts from this
workshop athttp//www.interventioncentral.org/
NASP_Atlantic_City_2008.php
3
Workshop Agenda
4
The quality of a school as a learning community
can be measured by how effectively it addresses
the needs of struggling students.--Wright
(2005)
Discussion Read the quote below
Do you agree or disagree with this statement?
Why?
Source Wright, J. (2005, Summer). Five
interventions that work. NAESP Leadership
Compass, 2(4) pp.1,6.
5
Secondary Students Unique Challenges
  • Struggling learners in middle and high school
    may
  • Have significant deficits in basic academic
    skills
  • Lack higher-level problem-solving strategies and
    concepts
  • Present with issues of school motivation
  • Show social/emotional concerns that interfere
    with academics
  • Have difficulty with attendance
  • Are often in a process of disengaging from
    learning even as adults in school expect that
    those students will move toward being
    self-managing learners

6
Why Do Students Drop Out of School? Student
Survey
  • Classes were not perceived as interesting (47
    percent)
  • Not motivated by teachers to work hard (69
    percent)
  • Failing in school was a major factor in dropping
    out (35 percent)
  • Had to get a job (32 percent)
  • Became a parent (26 percent)
  • Needed to care for a family member (22 percent)

Source Bridgeland, J. M., DiIulio, J. J.,
Morison, K. B. (2006). The silent epidemic
Perspectives of high school dropouts. Seattle,
WA Gates Foundation. Retrieved on May 4, 2008,
from http//www.gatesfoundation.org/nr/downloads/e
d/TheSilentEpidemic3-06FINAL.pdf
7
What Are Some Attributes of High Schools That
Address the Needs of Struggling Learners?
  • Small schools (i.e., 400 students or fewer)
  • Well-articulated school mission that guides
    development of a coherent curriculum unified
    approach to effective instruction across
    classrooms and cohesive school culture
  • Strong relationships between staff and students
  • Close monitoring of student performance required
    for graduation and college eligibility
  • Challenging and coherent instruction High
    school standards, curricula, and textbooks are
    amile wide and an inch deep.
  • Relevant, functional real-world application of
    instructional content and learning activities

Source Gates Foundation (n.d.). High schools for
the new millenium Imagine the possibilities.
Retrieved on July 2, 2008, from
http//www.gatesfoundation.org/nr/downloads/ed/edw
hitepaper.pdf
8
Overlap Between Policy Pathways RTI Goals
Recommendations for Schools to Reduce Dropout
Rates
  • A range of high school learning options matched
    to the needs of individual learners different
    schools for different students
  • Strategies to engage parents
  • Individualized graduation plans
  • Early warning systems to identify students at
    risk of school failure
  • A range of supplemental services/intensive
    assistance strategies for struggling students
  • Adult advocates to work individually with at-risk
    students to overcome obstacles to school
    completion

Source Bridgeland, J. M., DiIulio, J. J.,
Morison, K. B. (2006). The silent epidemic
Perspectives of high school dropouts. Seattle,
WA Gates Foundation. Retrieved on May 4, 2008,
from http//www.gatesfoundation.org/nr/downloads/e
d/TheSilentEpidemic3-06FINAL.pdf
9
Five Core Components of RTI Service Delivery
  1. Student services are arranged in a multi-tier
    model
  2. Data are collected to assess student baseline
    levels and to make decisions about student
    progress
  3. Interventions are evidence-based
  4. The procedural integrity of interventions is
    measured
  5. RTI is implemented and developed at the school-
    and district-level to be scalable and sustainable
    over time

Source Glover, T. A., DiPerna, J. C. (2007).
Service delivery for response to intervention
Core components and directions for future
research. School Psychology Review, 36, 526-540.
10
RTI Pyramid of Interventions
11
Tier I Interventions
Tier I interventions are universalavailable to
all students. Teachers often deliver these
interventions in the classroom (e.g., providing
additional drill and practice in reading fluency
for students with limited decoding skills).
Tier I interventions are those strategies that
instructors are likely to put into place at the
first sign that a student is struggling. Tier I
interventions attempt to answer the question Are
routine classroom strategies for instructional
delivery and classroom management sufficient to
help the student to achieve academic success?
12
Tier II Interventions
Tier II interventions are individualized,
tailored to the unique needs of struggling
learners. They are reserved for students with
significant skill gaps who have failed to respond
successfully to Tier I strategies. Tier II
interventions attempt to answer the question Can
an individualized intervention plan carried out
in a general-education setting bring the student
up to the academic level of his or her peers?
13
Tier II Interventions
There are two different vehicles that schools can
use to deliver Tier II interventions Standard-Pro
tocol (Standalone Intervention). Group
intervention programs based on scientifically
valid instructional practices (standard
protocol) are created to address frequent
student referral concerns. These services are
provided outside of the classroom. A middle
school, for example, may set up a structured
math-tutoring program staffed by adult volunteer
tutors to provide assistance to students with
limited math skills. Students referred for a Tier
II math intervention would be placed in this
tutoring program. An advantage of the
standard-protocol approach is that it is
efficient and consistent large numbers of
students can be put into these group
interventions to receive a highly standardized
intervention. However, standard group
intervention protocols often cannot be
individualized easily to accommodate a specific
students unique needs. Problem-solving
(Classroom-Based Intervention). Individualized
research-based interventions match the profile of
a particular students strengths and limitations.
The classroom teacher often has a large role in
carrying out these interventions. A plus of the
problem-solving approach is that the intervention
can be customized to the students needs.
However, developing intervention plans for
individual students can be time-consuming.
14
Tier III Interventions
Tier III interventions are the most intensive
academic supports available in a school and are
generally reserved for students with chronic and
severe academic delays or behavioral problems.
In many schools, Tier III interventions are
available only through special education. Tier
III supports try to answer the question, What
ongoing supports does this student require and in
what settings to achieve the greatest success
possible?
15
Levels of Intervention Tier I, II, III
Tier I Universal100
Tier II Individualized10-20
Tier III Intensive5-10
16
RTI Secondary Schools A Walk on the Wild Side
17
RTI at the Secondary Level In a Perfect World
18
RTI is a Model in Development
  • Several proposals for operationalizing response
    to intervention have been madeThe field can
    expect more efforts like these and, for a time at
    least, different models to be testedTherefore,
    it is premature to advocate any single model.
    (Barnett, Daly, Jones, Lentz, 2004 )

Source Barnett, D. W., Daly, E. J., Jones, K.
M., Lentz, F.E. (2004). Response to
intervention Empirically based special service
decisions from single-case designs of increasing
and decreasing intensity. Journal of Special
Education, 38, 66-79.
19
Two Ways to Solve Problems Algorithm vs.
Heuristic
  • Algorithm. An explicit step-by-step procedure for
    producing a solution to a given problem. Example
    Multiplying 6 x 2
  • Heuristic. A rule of thumb or approach which may
    help in solving a problem, but is not guaranteed
    to find a solution. Heuristics are exploratory in
    nature. Example Using a map to find an
    appropriate route to a location.

20
As Knowledge Base Grows, Heuristic Approaches
(Exploratory, Open-Ended Guidelines to Solving a
Problem) Can Sometimes Turn into Algorithms
(Fixed Rules for Solving a Problem )Example
Recipes Through History
MODERN DARYOLS RECIPE (ALGORITHM)INGREDIENTS 2
(9 inch) unbaked pie crusts 1/2 cup blanched
almonds 1 1/4 cups cold water 1
cup half-and-half cream 1 pinch saffron powder
1 teaspoon ground cinnamon 5 eggs
3/4 cup white
sugar 1 teaspoon rose water DIRECTIONS Preheat
the oven to 350 degrees F (175 degrees C). Press
pie crusts into the bottom and up the sides of
two 9 inch pie pans. Prick with a fork all over
to keep them from bubbling up. Bake pie crusts
for about 10 minutes in the preheated oven, until
set but not browned. Set aside to cool. Make an
almond milk by placing almonds in the container
of a food processor. Process until finely ground,
then add water, and pulse just to blend. Let the
mixture sit for 10 minutes, then strain through a
cheesecloth. Measure out 1 cup of the almond
milk, and mix with half and half. Stir in the
saffron and cinnamon, and set aside. Place the
eggs and sugar in a saucepan, and mix until well
blended. Place the pan over low heat, and
gradually stir in the almond milk mixture and
cinnamon. Cook over low heat, stirring constantly
until the mixture begins to thicken. When the
mixture is thick enough to evenly coat the back
of a metal spoon, stir in rose water and remove
from heat. Pour into the cooled pie shells. Bake
for 40 minutes in the preheated oven, or until
the center is set, but the top is not browned.
Cool to room temperature, then refrigerate until
serving.
DARYOLS ORIGINAL14th CENTURY ENGLISH RECIPE
(HEURISTIC)Take cream of cow milk, or of
almonds do there-to eggs with sugar, saffron and
salt. Mix it fair. Do it in a pie shell of 2 inch
deep bake it well and serve it forth.
21
RTI is a Work in Progress Some Areas Can Be
Managed Like an Algorithm While Others Require a
Heuristic Approch
  • Reading Fluency. Can be approached as a fixed
    algorithm.
  • DIBELS allows universal screening and
    progress-monitoring
  • DIBELS benchmarks give indication of student risk
    status
  • Classroom-friendly research-based fluency
    building interventions have been validated
  • Study Skills. A complex set of skills whose
    problem-solving approach resembles a heuristic.
  • Students basic set of study skills must be
    analyzed
  • The intervention selected will be highly
    dependent on the hypothesized reason(s) for the
    students study difficulties
  • The quality of the research on study-skills
    interventions varies and is still in development

22
RTI implementation has clearly focused on
elementary grades, with few attempting it on the
secondary levelHowever, school districts will
need to decide when and howrather than ifRTI
will begin in their middle schools and high
schools. We suggest focusing on elementary
schools in the initial phase of implementation,
but eventually including secondary schools in
practice and throughout the planning process.--
Burns Gibbons (2008) p. 10
Source Burns, M. K., Gibbons, K. A. (2008).
Implementing response-to-intervention in
elementary and secondary schools Procedures to
assure scientific-based practices. New York
Routledge.
23
RTI Research Questions
  • Q How Relevant is RTI to Secondary Schools?
  • The purposes of RTI have been widely defined as
  • Early intervention in general education
  • Special education disability determination
  • How relevant is RTI at the middle or high school
    level?

Source Fuchs, D., Deshler, D. D. (2007). What
we need to know about responsiveness to
intervention (and shouldnt be afraid to ask)..
Learning Disabilities Research Practice,
22(2),129136.
24
The Purpose of RTI in Secondary Schools What
Students Does It Serve?
  • While the dual use of the RTI model (1) for
    early identification/remediation of at-risk
    students and (2) for the classification of
    children needing special education is adequate
    for the elementary level, in middle and high
    school there are also significant numbers of
    students who have a long history of poor school
    performance yet will probably not quality for
    special education services.
  • In secondary schools, RTI must expand its
    mission to help chronically struggling,
    unmotivated students in a systematic way. In
    particular, how does RTI manage the needs of the
    chronically underachieving secondary student who
    does not (and likely will not) qualify for
    special education but requires ongoing academic
    support?

25
The Purpose of RTI in Secondary Schools What
Students Should It Serve?
26
Measuring the Intervention Footprint Issues of
Planning, Documentation, Follow-ThroughJim
Wrightwww.interventioncentral.org
27
Elements of an Effective Intervention Plan
(Grimes Kurns, 2003)
  • Intervention design and implementation.
    Interventions are designed based on a thorough
    analysis, the defined problem, parent input, and
    professional judgments about the potential
    effectiveness of interventions. The interventions
    are described in an intervention plan that
    includes goals and strategies a progress
    monitoring plan a decision-making plan for
    summarizing and analyzing progress monitoring
    data and responsible parties. Interventions are
    implemented as developed and modified on the
    basis of objective data and with the agreement of
    the responsible parties.

Source Grimes, J. Kurns, S. (2003). An
intervention-based system for addressing NCLB and
IDEA expectations A multiple tiered model to
ensure every child learns. Retrieved on September
23, 2007, from http//www.nrcld.org/symposium2003/
grimes/grimes2.html
28
Essential Elements of Any Academic or Behavioral
Intervention (Treatment) Strategy
  • Method of delivery (Who or what delivers the
    treatment?)Examples include teachers,
    paraprofessionals, parents, volunteers,
    computers.
  • Treatment component (What makes the intervention
    effective?)Examples include activation of prior
    knowledge to help the student to make meaningful
    connections between known and new material
    guide practice (e.g., Paired Reading) to increase
    reading fluency periodic review of material to
    aid student retention. As an example of a
    research-based commercial program, Read Naturally
    combines teacher modeling, repeated reading and
    progress monitoring to remediate fluency
    problems.

Source Yeaton, W. H. Sechrest, L. (1981).
Critical dimensions in the choice and maintenance
of successful treatments Strength, integrity,
and effectiveness. Journal of Consulting and
Clinical Psychology, 49, 156-167.
29
Interventions, Accommodations Modifications
Sorting Them Out
  • Interventions. An academic intervention is a
    strategy used to teach a new skill, build fluency
    in a skill, or encourage a child to apply an
    existing skill to new situations or settings.
    An intervention is said to be research-based
    when it has been demonstrated to be effective in
    one or more articles published in peerreviewed
    scientific journals. Interventions might be based
    on commercial programs such as Read Naturally.
    The school may also develop and implement an
    intervention that is based on guidelines provided
    in research articlessuch as Paired Reading
    (Topping, 1987).

30
Interventions, Accommodations Modifications
Sorting Them Out
  • Accommodations. An accommodation is intended to
    help the student to fully access the
    general-education curriculum without changing the
    instructional content. An accommodation for
    students who are slow readers, for example, may
    include having them supplement their silent
    reading of a novel by listening to the book on
    tape. An accommodation is intended to remove
    barriers to learning while still expecting that
    students will master the same instructional
    content as their typical peers. Informal
    accommodations may be used at the classroom level
    or be incorporated into a more intensive,
    individualized intervention plan.

31
Interventions, Accommodations Modifications
Sorting Them Out
  • Modifications. A modification changes the
    expectations of what a student is expected to
    know or dotypically by lowering the academic
    expectations against which the student is to be
    evaluated. Examples of modifications are
    reducing the number of multiple-choice items in a
    test from five to four or shortening a spelling
    list. Under RTI, modifications are generally not
    included in a students intervention plan,
    because the working assumption is that the
    student can be successful in the curriculum with
    appropriate interventions and accommodations
    alone.

32
Evaluating the Quality of Intervention Research
The Research Continuum
33
Intervention Research Continuum
  • Evidence-Based Practices
  • Includes practices for which original data have
    been collected to determine the effectiveness of
    the practice for students with disabilities. The
    research utilizes scientifically based rigorous
    research designs (i.e., randomized controlled
    trials, regression discontinuity designs,
    quasi-experiments, single subject, and
    qualitative research).

Source The Access Center Research Continuum
(n.d.). Retrieved on June 1, 2008 from
http//www.k8accesscenter.org/training_resources/d
ocuments/ACResearchApproachFormatted.pdf
34
Intervention Research Continuum
  • Promising Practices
  • Includes practices that were developed based on
    theory or research, but for which an insufficient
    amount of original data have been collected to
    determine the effectiveness of the practices.
    Practices in this category may have been studied,
    but not using the most rigorous study designs.

Source The Access Center Research Continuum
(n.d.). Retrieved on June 1, 2008 from
http//www.k8accesscenter.org/training_resources/d
ocuments/ACResearchApproachFormatted.pdf
35
Intervention Research Continuum
  • Emerging Practices
  • Includes practices that are not based on
    research or theory and on which original data
    have not been collected, but for which anecdotal
    evidence and professional wisdom exists. These
    include practices that practitioners have tried
    and feel are effective and new practices or
    programs that have not yet been researched.

Source The Access Center Research Continuum
(n.d.). Retrieved on June 1, 2008 from
http//www.k8accesscenter.org/training_resources/d
ocuments/ACResearchApproachFormatted.pdf
36
Writing Quality Problem Identification
Statements
37
Writing Quality Problem Identification
Statements
  • A frequent problem at RTI Team meetings is that
    teacher referral concerns are written in vague
    terms. If the referral concern is not written in
    explicit, observable, measurable terms, it will
    be very difficult to write clear goals for
    improvement or select appropriate interventions.
  • Use this test for evaluating the quality of a
    problem-identification (teacher-concern)
    statement Can a third party enter a classroom
    with the problem definition in hand and know when
    they see the behavior and when they dont?

38
Writing Quality Problem-Identification
Statements Template
39
Writing Quality Teacher Referral Concern
Statements Examples
  • Needs Work The student is disruptive.
  • Better During independent seatwork , the student
    is out of her seat frequently and talking with
    other students.
  • Needs Work The student doesnt do his math.
  • Better When math homework is assigned, the
    student turns in math homework only about 20
    percent of the time. Assignments turned in are
    often not fully completed.

40
Evaluating Intervention Follow-Through
(Treatment Integrity)
41
Why Monitor Intervention Follow-Through?
  • If the RTI Team does not monitor the quality of
    the intervention follow-through, it will not know
    how to explain a students failure to respond to
    intervention.
  • Do qualities within the student explain the lack
    of academic or behavioral progress?
  • Did problems with implementing the intervention
    prevent the student from making progress?

42
What Are Potential Barriers to Assessing
Intervention Follow-Through?
  • Direct observation of interventions is the gold
    standard for evaluating the quality of their
    implementation. However
  • Teachers being observed may feel that they are
    being evaluated for global job performance
  • Non-administrative staff may be uncomfortable
    observing a fellow educator to evaluate
    intervention follow-through
  • It can be difficult for staff to find time to
    observe and evaluate interventions as they are
    being carried out

43
Supplemental Ideas to Collect Information About
Classroom Implementation of Interventions
  • Assign a case manager from the RTI Intervention
    Team to check in with the teacher within a week
    of the initial meeting to see how the
    intervention is going.
  • Have the teacher use a data tool to collect
    information about the students response to
    intervention (e.g., Daily Behavior Report Card)
    or about the implementation of the intervention
    itself (e.g. Teacher Intervention Evaluation Log)
  • Include a scripted question at the RTI
    Intervention Team Follow-Up Meeting that
    explicitly asks the referring teacher or
    instructional team to provide details about the
    implementation of the intervention.
  • Leave a notebook in the classroom for the teacher
    to jot down any questions or concerns about the
    intervention. Assign an RTI Team member to stop
    by the classroom periodically to check the
    notebook and respond to any concerns noted.

44
Tier II Standard Protocol Interventions in the
Middle or High School
45
RTI Pyramid of Interventions
46
Tier II Interventions
Tier II interventions are individualized,
tailored to the unique needs of struggling
learners. They are reserved for students with
significant skill gaps who have failed to respond
successfully to Tier I strategies. Tier II
interventions attempt to answer the question Can
an individualized intervention plan carried out
in a general-education setting bring the student
up to the academic level of his or her peers?
47
Tier II Interventions
There are two different vehicles that schools can
use to deliver Tier II interventions Standard-Pro
tocol (Standalone Intervention). Group
intervention programs based on scientifically
valid instructional practices (standard
protocol) are created to address frequent
student referral concerns. These services are
provided outside of the classroom. A middle
school, for example, may set up a structured
math-tutoring program staffed by adult volunteer
tutors to provide assistance to students with
limited math skills. Students referred for a Tier
II math intervention would be placed in this
tutoring program. An advantage of the
standard-protocol approach is that it is
efficient and consistent large numbers of
students can be put into these group
interventions to receive a highly standardized
intervention. However, standard group
intervention protocols often cannot be
individualized easily to accommodate a specific
students unique needs. Problem-solving
(Classroom-Based Intervention). Individualized
research-based interventions match the profile of
a particular students strengths and limitations.
The classroom teacher often has a large role in
carrying out these interventions. A plus of the
problem-solving approach is that the intervention
can be customized to the students needs.
However, developing intervention plans for
individual students can be time-consuming.
48
Tier II Individual Student Intervention Plans Can
Have Several Components
  • Pull-Out Student receives the intervention in
    a separate group or during a class period.
  • Classroom Content-area teachers implement
    classroom-appropriate interventions.
  • Push-In An adult (e.g., helping teacher,
    paraprofessional) pushes into the classroom
    setting to provide intervention support.
  • Student-Directed The student is responsible for
    accessing elements of the intervention plan such
    as seeking extra teacher help during drop-in
    periods.

49
7-Step Lifecycle of a Tier II Intervention Plan
  1. Information about the students academic or
    behavioral concerns is collected.
  2. The intervention plan is developed to match
    student presenting concerns.
  3. Preparations are made to implement the plan.
  4. The plan begins.
  5. The integrity of the plans implementation is
    measured.
  6. Formative data is collected to evaluate the
    plans effectiveness.
  7. The plan is discontinued, modified, or replaced.

50
Caution About Secondary Tier II Standard-Protocol
Interventions Avoid the Homework Help Trap
  • Tier II group-based or standard-protocol
    interventions are an efficient method to deliver
    targeted academic support to students (Burns
    Gibbons, 2008).
  • However, students should be matched to specific
    research-based interventions that address their
    specific needs.
  • RTI intervention support in secondary schools
    should not take the form of unfocused homework
    help.

51
Traditional Schedule Tier II Intervention
Delivery for Standard Protocol Interventions
  • Class length of 50-60 minutes
  • 6-8 classes per day
  • Typical solution Students are scheduled for a
    remedial course. Drawbacks to this solution are
    that students may not receive targeted
    instruction, the teacher has large numbers of
    students, and students cannot exit the course
    before the end of the school year.
  • Tier II Recommendation (Burns Gibbon, 2008)
    Pair a reading interventionist with the
    content-area teacher. The reading teacher can
    provide remedial instruction to rotating small
    groups (e.g, 7-8 students) for 30 minute periods
    while the content-area teacher provides
    whole-group instruction to the rest of the class.

Source Burns, M. K., Gibbons, K. A. (2008).
Implementing response-to-intervention in
elementary and secondary schools Procedures to
assure scientific-based practices. New York
Routledge.
52
Block Schedule Tier II Intervention Delivery for
Standard Protocol Interventions
  • Class length of 1.5 to 2 hours
  • Four classes per day
  • Alternating schedule to accommodate full roster
    of classes in a year (either alternating days
    AB or alternating semesters4 X 4)
  • Tier II Recommendation (Burns Gibbon, 2008)
    Pair a reading interventionist with the
    content-area teacher. The reading teacher can
    provide remedial instruction to rotating small
    groups (e.g, 7-8 students) for 30 minute periods
    while the content-area teacher provides
    whole-group instruction to the rest of the class.

Source Burns, M. K., Gibbons, K. A. (2008).
Implementing response-to-intervention in
elementary and secondary schools Procedures to
assure scientific-based practices. New York
Routledge.
53
How Do We Define a Tier I (Classroom-Based)
Intervention?Jim Wrightwww.interventioncentral
.org
54
RTI Research Questions
  • Q What is the nature of Tier I Instruction?
  • There is a lack of agreement about what we mean
    by scientifically validated classroom (Tier I)
    interventions. Districts should establish a
    vetting processcriteria for judging whether a
    particular instructional or intervention approach
    should be considered empirically based.

Source Fuchs, D., Deshler, D. D. (2007). What
we need to know about responsiveness to
intervention (and shouldnt be afraid to ask)..
Learning Disabilities Research Practice,
22(2),129136.
55
Tier I Interventions
Tier I interventions are universalavailable to
all students. Teachers often deliver these
interventions in the classroom.Tier I
interventions are those strategies that
instructors are likely to put into place at the
first sign that a student is struggling. These
interventions can consist of -Effective
whole-group teaching management
strategies -Modest individualized strategies that
the teacher uses with specific students. Tier I
interventions attempt to answer the question Are
routine classroom instructional strategies
sufficient to help the student to achieve
academic success?
56
Examples of Evidence-Based Tier I Management
Strategies (Fairbanks, Sugai, Guardino,
Lathrop, 2007)
  • Consistently acknowledging appropriate behavior
    in class
  • Providing students with frequent and varied
    opportunities to respond during instructional
    activities
  • Reducing transition time between instructional
    activities to a minimum
  • Giving students immediate and direct corrective
    feedback when they commit an academic error or
    engage in inappropriate behavior

Source Fairbanks, S., Sugai, G., Guardino, S.,
Lathrop, M. (2007). Response to intervention
Examining classroom behavior support in second
grade. Exceptional Children, 73, p. 290.
57
Tier I Ideas to Help Students to Complete
Independent Seatwork
58
Independent Seatwork A Source of Misbehavior
  • When poorly achieving students must work
    independently, they can run into difficulties
    with the potential to spiral into misbehaviors.
    These difficulties can include
  • Being unable to do the assigned work without help
  • Not understanding the directions for the
    assignment
  • Getting stuck during the assignment and not
    knowing how to resolve the problem
  • Being reluctant to ask for help in a public
    manner
  • Lacking motivation to work independently on the
    assignment

59
Elements to Support Independent Seatwork
60
Building Positive Relationships With
StudentsJim Wrightwww.interventioncentral.org
61
Avoiding the Reprimand Trap
  • When working with students who display
    challenging behaviors, instructors can easily
    fall into the reprimand trap. In this
    sequence
  • The student misbehaves.
  • The teacher approaches the student to reprimand
    and redirect. (But the teacher tends not to give
    the student attention for positive behaviors,
    such as paying attention and doing school work.)
  • As the misbehave-reprimand pattern becomes
    ingrained, both student and teacher experience a
    strained relationship and negative feelings.

62
Sample Ideas to Improve Relationships With
Students The Two-By-Ten Intervention (Mendler,
2000)
  • Make a commitment to spend 2 minutes per day for
    10 consecutive days in building a relationship
    with the studentby talking about topics of
    interest to the student. Avoid discussing
    problems with the students behaviors or
    schoolwork during these times.

Source Mendler, A. N. (2000). Motivating
students who dont care. Bloomington, IN
National Educational Service.
63
Sample Ideas to Improve Relationships With
Students The Three-to-One Intervention (Sprick,
Borgmeier, Nolet, 2002)
  • Give positive attention or praise to problem
    students at least three times more frequently
    than you reprimand them. Give the student the
    attention or praise during moments when that
    student is acting appropriately. Keep track of
    how frequently you give positive attention and
    reprimands to the student.

Source Sprick, R. S., Borgmeier, C., Nolet, V.
(2002). Prevention and management of behavior
problems in secondary schools. In M. A. Shinn, H.
M. Walker G. Stoner (Eds.), Interventions for
academic and behavior problems II Preventive and
remedial approaches (pp.373-401). Bethesda, MD
National Association of School Psychologists.
64
Discussion Question
Why would a teacher at your school be very happy
to see an RTI model adopted? What is in it for
him or her?
65
How Do Schools Standardize Expectations for
Tier I Interventions? A Four-Step Solution
  1. Develop a list of your schools top five
    academic and behavioral referral concerns (e.g.,
    low reading fluency, inattention).
  2. Create a survey for teachers, asking them to jot
    down the good teaching ideas that they use
    independently when they encounter students who
    struggle in these problem areas.
  3. Collect the best of these ideas into a menu. Add
    additional research-based ideas if available.
  4. Require that teachers implement a certain number
    of these strategies before referring to your RTI
    Intervention Team. Consider ways that teachers
    can document these Tier I interventions as well.

66
RTI Intervention Teams in Middle High Schools
Challenges and OpportunitiesJim
Wrightwww.interventioncentral.org
67
Tier II Interventions
There are two different vehicles that schools can
use to deliver Tier II interventions Standard-Pro
tocol (Standalone Intervention). Group
intervention programs based on scientifically
valid instructional practices (standard
protocol) are created to address frequent
student referral concerns. These services are
provided outside of the classroom. A middle
school, for example, may set up a structured
math-tutoring program staffed by adult volunteer
tutors to provide assistance to students with
limited math skills. Students referred for a Tier
II math intervention would be placed in this
tutoring program. An advantage of the
standard-protocol approach is that it is
efficient and consistent large numbers of
students can be put into these group
interventions to receive a highly standardized
intervention. However, standard group
intervention protocols often cannot be
individualized easily to accommodate a specific
students unique needs. Problem-solving
(Classroom-Based Intervention). Individualized
research-based interventions match the profile of
a particular students strengths and limitations.
The classroom teacher often has a large role in
carrying out these interventions. A plus of the
problem-solving approach is that the intervention
can be customized to the students needs.
However, developing intervention plans for
individual students can be time-consuming.
68
The RTI Team Definition
  • Teams of educators at a school are trained to
    work together as effective problem-solvers.
  • RTI Teams are made up of volunteers drawn from
    general- and special-education teachers and
    support staff.
  • These teams use a structured meeting process to
    identify the underlying reasons that a student
    might be experiencing academic or behavioral
    difficulties
  • The team helps the referring teacher to put
    together practical, classroom-friendly
    interventions to address those student problems.

69
The Problem-Solving Model Multi-Disciplinary
Teams
  • A school consultative process (the
    problem-solving model) with roots in applied
    behavior analysis was developed (Bergan, 1995)
    that includes 4 steps
  • Problem Identification
  • Problem Analysis
  • Plan Implementation
  • Problem Evaluation
  • Originally designed for individual consultation
    with teachers, the problem-solving model was
    later adapted in various forms to
    multi-disciplinary team settings.

Source Bergan, J. R. (1995). Evolution of a
problem-solving model of consultation. Journal of
Educational and Psychological Consultation, 6(2),
111-123.
70
RTI Research Questions
  • Q Does a Problem-Solving Multi-Disciplinary
    Team Process Help Children With Severe Learning
    Problems?
  • The team-based problem-solving process (e.g.,
    Bergan, 1995) that is widely used to create
    individualized intervention plans for students
    has been studied primarily for motivation and
    conduct issues. There is limited research on
    whether the problem-solving process is effective
    in addressing more significant learning issues.

Source Bergan, J. R. (1995). Evolution of a
problem-solving model of consultation. Journal of
Educational and Psychological Consultation, 6(2),
111-123. Fuchs, D., Deshler, D. D. (2007).
What we need to know about responsiveness to
intervention (and shouldnt be afraid to ask)..
Learning Disabilities Research Practice,
22(2),129136.
71
RTI Problem-Solving Teams at the Secondary Level
The Necessary Art of Satisficing
  • The word satisfice was coined by Herbert Simon
    as a portmanteau of "satisfy" and "suffice".
    Simon pointed out that human beings lack the
    cognitive resources to maximize we usually do
    not know the relevant probabilities of outcomes,
    we can rarely evaluate all outcomes with
    sufficient precision, and our memories are weak
    and unreliable. A more realistic approach to
    rationality takes into account these limitations
    This is called bounded rationality.
    (Satisficing, 2008)

Source Satisficing (2008). Wikipedia. Retrieved
on July 2, 2008, from http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki
/Satisficing
72
How Is a Secondary RTI Team Like a MASH Unit?
  • The RTI Team must deal with complex situations
    with limited resources and tight timelines, often
    being forced to select from among numerous
    intervention targets (e.g., attendance,
    motivation, basic skill deficits, higher-level
    deficits in cognitive strategies) when working
    with struggling students.
  • The problem-solving approach is flexible,
    allowing the RTI Team quickly to sift through a
    complex student case to identify and address the
    most important blockers to academic success.
  • Timelines for success are often short-term (e.g.,
    to get the student to pass a course or a state
    test), measured in weeks or months.

73
Teachers may be reluctant to refer students to
the RTI Team because they
  • believe referring to the RTI Team is a sign of
    failure
  • do not think that your team has any ideas that
    they havent already tried
  • believe that an RTI Team referral will mean a lot
    more work for them (vs. referring directly to
    Special Education)
  • dont want to waste time on kids with poor
    motivation or behavior problems when more
    deserving learners go unnoticed and unrewarded
  • dont want to put effort into learning a new
    initiative that may just fade away in a couple of
    years

74
Teachers may be motivated to refer students to
the RTI Team because they
  • can engage in collegial conversations about
    better ways to help struggling learners
  • learn instructional and behavior-management
    strategies that they can use with similar
    students in the future
  • increase their teaching time
  • are able to access more intervention resources
    and supports in the building than if they work
    alone
  • feel less isolated when dealing with challenging
    kids
  • have help in documenting their intervention
    efforts

75
Team Roles (pp. 23-24)
  • Coordinator
  • Facilitator
  • Recorder
  • Time Keeper
  • Case Manager

76
RTI Team Consultative Process (pp. 9-13)
  • Step 1 Assess Teacher Concerns 5 Mins
  • Step 2 Inventory Student Strengths/Talents 5
    Mins
  • Step 3 Review Background/Baseline Data 5 Mins
  • Step 4 Select Target Teacher Concerns 5-10 Mins
  • Step 5 Set Academic and/or Behavioral Outcome
    Goals and Methods for Progress-Monitoring 5 Mins
  • Step 6 Design an Intervention Plan 15-20 Mins
  • Step 7 Plan How to Share Meeting Information
    with the Students Parent(s) 5 Mins
  • Step 8 Review Intervention Monitoring Plans 5
    Mins

77
Small-Group Activity Complete the RTI Team
Effectiveness Self-Rating Scale
  • As a group, use the RTI Team Self-Rating Scale to
    evaluate your current teams level of
    functioning.
  • Appoint a spokesperson to share your findings
    with the large group.

78
Monitoring Student Progress at the Secondary
LevelJim Wrightwww.interventioncentral.org
79
Everybody is entitled to their own opinion but
theyre not entitled to their own facts. The data
is the data. Dr. Maria Spiropulu, Physicist New
York Times, 30 September 2003 (D. Overbye) Other
dimensions? Shes in pursuit. F1, F4
80
Few agree on an appropriate curriculum for
secondary students thus it is difficult to
determine in what areas student academic
progress should be measured.-- Espin Tindal
(1998)
Source Espin, C. A., Tindal, G. (1998).
Curriculum-based measurement for secondary
students. In M. R. Shinn (Ed.) Advanced
applications of curriculum-based measurement. New
York Guilford Press.
81
RTI Research Questions
  • Q What RTI Identification Method Will Best
    Determine What Students Are Responders or
    Non-Responders to Intervention?
  • There are several methods in the research
    literature to determine non-responders to
    intervention (e.g., dual discrepancy, slope
    discrepancy). What is the best method to
    reliably differentiate students who do or do not
    respond to RTI interventions?

Source Fuchs, D., Deshler, D. D. (2007). What
we need to know about responsiveness to
intervention (and shouldnt be afraid to ask)..
Learning Disabilities Research Practice,
22(2),129136.
82
Secondary Students Should Interventions Be
Off-Level or Focus on Grade-Level Academics?
  • There is a lack of consensus about how to
    address the academic needs of students with
    deficits in basic skills in secondary grades
    (Espin Tindal, 1998).
  • Should the student be placed in remedial
    instruction at a point of instructional match
    to address those basic-skill deficits?
    (Instruction adjusted down to the student)
  • Or is time better spent providing the student
    with compensatory strategies to learn grade-level
    content and work around those basic-skill
    deficits? (Student is brought up to current
    instruction)

Source Espin, C. A., Tindal, G. (1998).
Curriculum-based measurement for secondary
students. In M. R. Shinn (Ed.) Advanced
applications of curriculum-based measurement. New
York Guilford Press.
83
Remediating Academic Deficits The Widening
Curriculum Gap
Subject-Area Rdng Comprehension
Rdng-Basic Comprehension
Rdng Fluency
84
Measuring General vs. Specific Academic Outcomes
  • General Outcome Measures Track the students
    increasing proficiency on general curriculum
    goals such as reading fluency. An example is
    CBM-Oral Reading Fluency (Hintz et al., 2006).
  • Specific Sub-Skill Mastery Measures Track
    short-term student academic progress with clear
    criteria for mastery. An example is CBA-Math
    Computation Fluency (Burns Gibbons, 2008).

Sources Burns, M. K., Gibbons, K. A. (2008).
Implementing response-to-intervention in
elementary and secondary schools Procedures to
assure scientific-based practices. New York
Routledge. Hintz, J. M., Christ, T. J., Methe,
S. A. (2006). Curriculum-based assessment.
Psychology in the Schools, 43, 45-56.
85
Making Use of Existing (Extant) Data
86
Extant (Existing) Data (Chafouleas et al., 2007)
  • Definition Information that is collected by
    schools as a matter of course.
  • Extant data comes in two forms
  • Performance summaries (e.g., class grades,
    teacher summary comments on report cards, state
    test scores).
  • Student work products (e.g., research papers,
    math homework, PowerPoint presentation).

Source Chafouleas, S., Riley-Tillman, T.C.,
Sugai, G. (2007). School-based behavioral
assessment Informing intervention and
instruction. New York Guilford Press.
87
Summative data is static information that
provides a fixed snapshot of the students
academic performance or behaviors at a particular
point in time. School records are one source of
data that is often summative in naturefrequently
referred to as archival data. Attendance data and
office disciplinary referrals are two examples of
archival records, data that is routinely
collected on all students. In contrast to
archival data, background information is
collected specifically on the target student.
Examples of background information are teacher
interviews and student interest surveys, each of
which can shed light on a students academic or
behavioral strengths and weaknesses. Like
archival data, background information is usually
summative, providing a measurement of the student
at a single point in time.
88
Formative assessment measures are those that can
be administered or collected frequentlyfor
example, on a weekly or even daily basis. These
measures provide a flow of regularly updated
information (progress monitoring) about the
students progress in the identified area(s) of
academic or behavioral concern. Formative data
provide a moving picture of the student the
data unfold through time to tell the story of
that students response to various classroom
instructional and behavior management strategies.
Examples of measures that provide formative
data are Curriculum-Based Measurement probes in
oral reading fluency and Daily Behavior Report
Cards.
89
Advantages of Using Extant Data (Chafouleas et
al., 2007)
  • Information is already existing and easy to
    access.
  • Students are less likely to show reactive
    effects when data is collected, as the
    information collected is part of the normal
    routine of schools.
  • Extant data is relevant to school data
    consumers (such as classroom teachers,
    administrators, and members of problem-solving
    teams).

Source Chafouleas, S., Riley-Tillman, T.C.,
Sugai, G. (2007). School-based behavioral
assessment Informing intervention and
instruction. New York Guilford Press.
90
Drawbacks of Using Extant Data (Chafouleas et
al., 2007)
  • Time is required to collate and summarize the
    data (e.g., summarizing a weeks worth of
    disciplinary office referrals).
  • The data may be limited and not reveal the full
    dimension of the students presenting problem(s).
  • There is no guarantee that school staff are
    consistent and accurate in how they collect the
    data (e.g., grading policies can vary across
    classrooms instructors may have differing
    expectations regarding what types of assignments
    are given a formal grade standards may fluctuate
    across teachers for filling out disciplinary
    referrals).
  • Little research has been done on the
    psychometric adequacy of extant data sources.

Source Chafouleas, S., Riley-Tillman, T.C.,
Sugai, G. (2007). School-based behavioral
assessment Informing intervention and
instruction. New York Guilford Press.
91
Elbow Group Activity What Data Should Be
Collected for RTI Team Meetings?
What are the essential sources of archival
data that you would like collected and brought to
every RTI Problem-Solving Team meeting?
92
Grades as a Classroom-Based Pulse Measure of
Academic Performance
93
Grades Other Teacher Performance Summary Data
(Chafouleas et al., 2007)
  • Teacher test and quiz grades can be useful as a
    supplemental method for monitoring the impact of
    student behavioral interventions.
  • Other data about student academic performance
    (e.g., homework completion, homework grades,
    etc.) can also be tracked and graphed to judge
    intervention effectiveness.

Source Chafouleas, S., Riley-Tillman, T.C.,
Sugai, G. (2007). School-based behavioral
assessment Informing intervention and
instruction. New York Guilford Press.
94
Marc Ripley
(From Chafouleas et al., 2007)
Source Chafouleas, S., Riley-Tillman, T.C.,
Sugai, G. (2007). School-based behavioral
assessment Informing intervention and
instruction. New York Guilford Press.
95
Assessing Basic Academic Skills Curriculum-Based
Measurement
96
Assessing Basic Academic Skills Curriculum-Based
Measurement
  • Reading These 3 measures all proved adequate
    predictors of student performance on reading
    content tasks
  • Reading aloud (Oral Reading Fluency) Passages
    from content-area tests 1 minute.
  • Maze task (every 7th item replaced with multiple
    choice/answer plus 2 distracters) Passages from
    content-area texts 2 minutes.
  • Vocabulary matching 10 vocabulary items and 12
    definitions (including 2 distracters) 10
    minutes.

Source Espin, C. A., Tindal, G. (1998).
Curriculum-based measurement for secondary
students. In M. R. Shinn (Ed.) Advanced
applications of curriculum-based measurement. New
York Guilford Press.
97
Assessing Basic Academic Skills Curriculum-Based
Measurement
  • Mathematics Single-skill basic
    arithmetic combinations an adequate measure of
    performance for low-achieving middle school
    students.
  • Websites to create CBM math computation probes

Source Espin, C. A., Tindal, G. (1998).
Curriculum-based measurement for secondary
students. In M. R. Shinn (Ed.) Advanced
applications of curriculum-based measurement. New
York Guilford Press.
98
Assessing Basic Academic Skills Curriculum-Based
Measurement
  • Writing CBM/ Word Sequence is a valid
    indicator of general writing proficiency. It
    evaluates units of writing and their relation to
    one another. Successive pairs of writing units
    make up each word sequence. The mechanics and
    conventions of each word sequence must be correct
    for the student to receive credit for that
    sequence. CBM/ Word Sequence is the most
    comprehensive CBM writing measure.

Source Espin, C. A., Tindal, G. (1998).
Curriculum-based measurement for secondary
students. In M. R. Shinn (Ed.) Advanced
applications of curriculum-based measurement. New
York Guilford Press.
99
A Note About Monitoring Behaviors Through
Academic Measures
  • Academic measures (e.g., grades, CBM data) can be
    useful as part of the progress-monitoring
    portfolio of data collected on a student
    because
  • Students with problem behaviors often struggle
    academically, so tracking academics as a target
    is justified in its own right.
  • Improved academic performance generally
    correlates with reduced behavioral problems.
  • Individualized interventions for misbehaving
    students frequently contain academic components
    (as the behavior problems can emerge in response
    to chronic academic deficits). Academic
    progress-monitoring data helps the school to
    track the effectiveness of the academic
    interventions.

100
Breaking Down Complex Academic Goals into Simpler
Sub-Tasks Discrete Categorization
101
Identifying and Measuring Complex Academic
Problems at the Middle and High School Level
  • Students at the secondary level can present with
    a range of concerns that interfere with academic
    success.
  • One frequent challenge for these students is the
    need to reduce complex global academic goals into
    discrete sub-skills that can be individually
    measured and tracked over time.

102
Discrete Categorization A Strategy for Assessing
Complex, Multi-Step Student Academic Tasks
  • Definition of Discrete Categorization Listing
    a number of behaviors and checking off whether
    they were performed. (Kazdin, 1989, p. 59).
  • Approach allows educators to define a larger
    behavioral goal for a student and to break that
    goal down into sub-tasks. (Each sub-task should
    be defined in such a way that it can be scored as
    successfully accomplished or not
    accomplished.)
  • The constituent behaviors that make up the larger
    behavioral goal need not be directly related to
    each other. For example, completed homework may
    include as sub-tasks wrote down homework
    assignment correctly and created a work plan
    before starting homework

Source Kazdin, A. E. (1989). Behavior
modification in applied settings (4th ed.).
Pacific Gove, CA Brooks/Cole..
103
Discrete Categorization Example Math Study Skills
  • General Academic Goal Improve Tinas Math Study
    Skills
  • The student Tina
  • Approached the teacher at the end of class for a
    copy of class note.
  • Checked her daily math notes for completeness
    against a set of teacher notes in 5th period
    study hall.
  • Reviewed her math notes in 5th period study hall.
  • Started her math homework in 5th period study
    hall.
  • Used a highlighter and margin notes to mark
    questions or areas of confusion in her notes or
    on the daily assignment.
  • Entered into her homework log the amount of
    time spent that evening doing homework and noted
    any questions or areas of confusion.
  • Stopped by the math teachers classroom during
    help periods (T Th only) to ask highlighted
    questions (or to verify that Tina understood that
    weeks instructional content) and to review the
    homework log.

104
Discrete Categorization Example Math Study Skills
  • Academic Goal Improve Tinas Math Study Skills
  • General measures of the success of this
    intervention include (1) rate of homework
    completion and (2) quiz test grades.
  • To measure treatment fidelity (Tinas
    follow-through with sub-tasks of the checklist),
    the following strategies are used
  • Approached the teacher for copy of class notes.
    Teacher observation.
  • Checked her daily math notes for completeness
    reviewed math notes, started math homework in 5th
    period study hall. Student work products random
    spot check by study hall supervisor.
  • Used a highlighter and margin notes to mark
    questions or areas of confusion in her notes or
    on the daily assignment. Review of notes by
    teacher during T/Th drop-in period.
  • Entered into her homework log the amount of
    time spent that evening doing homework and noted
    any questions or areas of confusion. Log reviewed
    by teacher during T/Th drop-in period.
  • Stopped by the math teachers classroom during
    help periods (T Th only) to ask highlighted
    questions (or to verify that Tina understood that
    weeks instructional content). Teacher
    observation student sign-in.

105
Motivation Assessment in Advanced Subject Areas
Activity Brief behavior analysis of motivation
(e.g., Schoolwork Motivation Assessment) is most
effective for basic skill areas. In your elbow
groups Discuss ways that RTI Teams could
collect information about whether motivation is
an academic blocker on more advanced academic
tasks (e.g., writing a term paper) or subject
areas (e.g., trigonometry).
106
RTI Teams Recommendations for Data Collection
107
RTI Teams Recommendations for Data Collection
  • Collect a standard set of background information
    on each student referred to the RTI Team. RTI
    Teams should develop a standard package of
    background (archival) information to be collected
    prior to the initial problem-solving meeting. For
    each referred student, a Team might elect to
    gather attendance data, office disciplinary
    referrals for the current year, and the most
    recent state assessment results.

108
RTI Teams Recommendations for Data Collection
  • For each area of concern, select at least two
    progress-monitoring measures. RTI Teams can
    place greater confidence in their
    progress-monitoring data when they select at
    least two measures to track any area of student
    concern (Gresham, 1983)-ideally from at least two
    different sources (e.g., Campbell Fiske, 1959).
    With a minimum of two methods in place to
    monitor a student concern, each measure serves as
    a check on the other. If the results are in
    agreement, the Team has greater assurance that it
    can trust the data. If the measures do not agree
    with one another, however, the Team can
    investigate further to determine the reason(s)
    for the apparent discrepancy.

109
RTI Teams Recommendations for Data Collection
  • Monitor student progress frequently.
    Progress-monitoring data should reveal in
    weeks--not months--whether an intervention is
    working because no teacher wants to waste time
    implementing an intervention that is not
    successful. When progress monitoring is done
    frequently (e.g., weekly), the data can be
    charted to reveal more quickly whether the
    students current intervention plan is effective.
    Curriculum-based measurement, Daily Behavior
    Report Cards, and classroom observations of
    student behavior are several assessment methods
    that can be carried out frequently.

110
Ideas to Empower Students to Take a Role in Their
Own Intervention PlansJim Wrightwww.intervention
central.org
111
Intervention Responsibilities Examples at
Teacher, School-Wide, and Student Levels
Teacher
Student
School-Wide
  • Lab services (math, reading, etc.)
  • Remedial course
  • Homework club
  • Providing additional instruction to students
    during selected free periods
  • Take agenda to teacher to be reviewed and signed
  • Self-monitor and chart their organizational
    skills (e.g., bringing work materials to class)
  • Seeking help from teachers during free periods
  • Signed agenda
  • Attention prompts
  • Peer-Guided Pause

112
Unmotivated Students What Works
Motivation can be thought of as having two
dimensions
  1. the students expectation of success on the task

Multiplied by
  1. the value that the student places on achieving
    succes
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