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Title: Human Development


1
Human Development
  • AP Psychology

2
Chapter Objectives
  • AP students in psychology should be able to do
    the following
  • Discuss the interaction of nature and nurture
    (including cultural variations) in
  • the determination of behavior.
  • Explain the process of conception and
    gestation, including factors that influence
    successful fetal development (e.g., nutrition,
    illness, substance abuse).
  • Discuss maturation of motor skills.
  • Describe the influence of temperament and other
    social factors on attachment
  • and appropriate socialization.
  • Explain the maturation of cognitive abilities
    (e.g., Piagets stages, information
  • processing).
  • Compare and contrast models of moral
    development (e.g., Kohlberg, Gilligan).
  • Discuss maturational challenges in adolescence,
    including related family
  • conflicts.
  • Characterize the development of decisions
    related to intimacy as people mature.
  • Predict the physical and cognitive changes that
    emerge as people age, including steps that can be
    taken to maximize function.
  • Describe how sex and gender influence
    socialization and other aspects of
  • development.
  • Identify key contributors in developmental
    psychology (e.g., Mary Ainsworth,
  • Albert Bandura, Diana Baumrind, Erik Erikson,
    Sigmund Freud, Carol Gilligan,
  • Harry Harlow, Lawrence Kohlberg, Konrad Lorenz,
    Jean Piaget, Lev Vygotsky).

3
What Are We Doing Today?
  • By the end of this lesson I will be able to
  • 1. Discuss the interaction of nature and nurture
    (including cultural variations) in the
    determination of behavior.

4
Introduction Developmental Psychology
  • Developmental Psychology the study of physical,
    intellectual, social, and moral changes across
    the life span from conception ? death.

5
Developmental Theories
  • 1. Nature versus Nurture
  • How much is human development influenced by our
    heredity (nature) and how much by our experience
    (nurture)?
  • 2. Continuity versus Discontinuity (Stages)
  • Is development gradual and continuous or does it
    proceed through a sequence of separate stages?
  • 3. Stability versus Change
  • Do our early personality traits persist through
    life, or do we become different persons as we
    age?

6
Nature vs. Nurture refresher
  • Nature heredity
  • Nurture experiences
  • Some argue that we are pre-wired
  • Some argue that life experiences and parenting
    determine what were like.
  • How do we decide?

7
What we know about Nature vs. Nurture
  • What we do know Maturation we all go through
    orderly changes in behavior, thought, or physical
    growth, regardless of experience.
  • How do we study this issue identical twins

8
Continuity vs. (Discontinuity) Stages
  • Change Happens.
  • Is developmental change gradual or continuous?
  • Or does it proceed through a sequence of separate
    stages.
  • Do people go through stages at different times?
    What if they miss a stage?

9
Cont.
  • Behaviorists often focus on quantitative changes
    (ht. and wt.)
  • Other theorists focus on qualitative changes
    (stages) Piaget, Kohlberg, etc.
  • The resolution of conflicts is key everyone
    passes in the same order but at different times
    in life.

10
Stability versus Change
  • How much do we change?
  • For many years psychologists believed that once a
    persons personality forms, it hardens like clay.
  • They are now doing longitudinal studies to see
    how much the past influences a persons future.

11
Stability versus Change Cont.
  • Are the effects of early experiences enduring or
    temporary? (abuse, starvation, isolation, etc.)
  • Will the cranky infant grow up to be the
    irritable adult?
  • Do we grow into older versions of our early
    selves, or do we become new persons?
  • Social attitudes are more likely to change than
    temperament.

12
Lesson Two Objectives
  • By the end of this lesson, I will be able to
  • 1. Describe several perspectives that aim to show
    the origin of gender roles.
  • 2. Identify several key terms that relate to
    gender roles.

13
To get us started.
  • Gender roles play a big part in our lives
  • Gender male or female
  • Gender Role Stereotypes what is socially
    acceptable for boys and girls (colors, hobbies,
    etc.)
  • Gender identity our personal sense of being
    male or female.
  • Androgyny recognizing desirable masculine and
    feminine characteristics in the same individual.

14
The Five Perspectives on Gender Roles
  • Biological
  • Evolutionary
  • Psychoanalytic
  • Behavioral
  • Cognitive

15
The Biological Perspective
  • Cites hormonal differences as the reason why men
    may be more aggressive, muscular, and bigger in
    size.
  • Therefore, men take on hardier roles in life.

16
The Evolutionary Perspective
  • This perspective purports that males are more
    likely than females to be risk takers, show
    dominance, and achieve alpha status.
  • Our behavioral tendencies prepare us to survive
    and ultimately, reproduce.

17
The Psychoanalytic Perspective
  • Freud proposed that young girls learn to act
    feminine from their mothers and young boys learn
    to act masculine from their fathers.
  • He also argued that children will identify better
    with their same sex parent, increasing the
    strength of his theory.

18
The Behavioral Perspective
  • Social learning theory children respond to
    rewards and punishments for their behavior.
  • They observe, and imitate socially desirable
    traits in others.
  • This helps them to acquire their gender identity.

19
The Cognitive Perspective
  • Children have a social filter that allows them
    to sort out what is appropriate for their gender
    and what isnt (gender schema). Sandra Bem
  • This theory uses the behavioral perspective as a
    stepping stone to explain the theory.

20
Lesson Three Objectives
  • By the end of this lesson, I will be able to
  • 1. Define the top four most widely used methods
    of studying development.
  • 2. Identify when each method would be applicable
    for research.

21
How do Developmental Psychologists gather data?
  • Developmental psychologists used naturalistic
    observations, experiments, correlational studies,
    and case studies to asses change over time.
  • They use four basic research designs
  • 1. Longitudinal studies
  • 2. Cross-sectional studies
  • 3. Cohort-sequential studies
  • 4. Retrospective studies

22
Longitudinal Studies
  • Longitudinal study follows the same group of
    people over a period of time (months to years)
  • They evaluate changes in the individual(s)
  • These studies can be quite costly, take a long
    time to produce results, and can lose
    participants over time.

23
Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Cross Sectional break up age groups and give
    the same test to each group (15, 25, 35, 45, 55,
    etc.)
  • These studies are cheap, quick, and easy
  • Cohort those within the same age group

24
Cohort-Sequential Studies
  • Cohort-sequential cross sectioned groups are
    assessed at least two times over a span of months
    or years.
  • Results from one cohort are compared with others
    at the same age range.
  • This method of study can help to eliminate the.
  • Cohort effect. - Differences in the experiences
    of each age group as a result of growing up in
    different historical times.

25
Retrospective Studies
  • Retrospective Studies case studies that
    investigate development in one person at a time.
  • It is typical to use older adults for this
    method.
  • Questions are asked about the past and any
    changes that have occurred during the subjects
    lifespan.

26
Lesson Four Objectives
  • By the end of this lesson, I will be able to
  • 1. Describe the process of physical development
    in humans
  • 2. Identify several of the social issues that
    affect pregnancy.

27
Physical Development
  • Physical development focuses on two things
  • 1. Maturation like a bulldozer
  • 2. Critical Periods

28
Prenatal Development
  • Prenatal Development Begins with fertilization
    and ends with birth
  • Zygote 46 chromosomes that divide again and
    again until it turns into a embryo. (between the
    3-8th week)
  • While in embryonic stage, organs, placenta, and
    umbilical cord develop.

29
A critical period refers to
  1. Newborn development
  2. The initial 2 minutes after a childs birth
  3. The preoperational stage
  4. A restricted time for learning

30
Getting Bigger!!
  • Once the 8th week hits, the embryo becomes a
    fetus.
  • Organs systems begin to interact, bone replaces
    cartilage, sex organs become defined.
  • Head eyes, limbs, and cartilage skeleton will
    develop.

31
Newborn Behavior
  • Neonates newborn babies
  • Most newborn prefer being with mom odors,
    touch, voice, etc.
  • The sense of hearing is dominant for the first
    few months of life (they can see however)
  • Sight becomes the primary sense at about 6 months
  • They get used to repeated stimulation -
    Habituation
  • Reflexes
  • 1. Babinski
  • 2. Grasping
  • 3. Moro/Startle/Heisman
  • 4. Rooting

32
Birth Defects
  • Can be from a malfunctioning gene or
    environmental stimulus
  • Chemicals or viruses can cause birth defects
  • Teratogens Chemicals (alcohol, drugs, tobacco,
    mercury) or viruses that can cause birth defects.

33
Critical Periods
  • First 3 months Eyes, arms, ears, legs, heart
  • First and 2nd months Reproductive system
  • All three Nervous system and brain

34
Which one of the following is not considered a
dangerous teratogen?
  1. Tobacco
  2. Alcohol
  3. Heroin
  4. Mercury
  5. These all are dangerous teratogens

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20
21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30
35
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS)
  • Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Occurs in babies whose
    mothers drink alcohol during the early months of
    pregnancy.
  • Leading cause of MR in USA
  • Low intelligence / mental retardation
  • Small head, flat face, misshapen eyes

36
Other Teratogens
  • Cigarettes Miscarriage, low birth weight
  • Heroin and Cocaine Baby goes through withdrawal
    symptoms
  • Prescription drugs Various birth defects

37
Lesson Five Objectives
  • By the end of this lesson, I will be able to
  • 1. Describe the changes that occur during
    adolescence.
  • 2. Discuss the changes that occur as we age.
  • 3. Identify the various stages of dealing with
    death.

38
Introduction
  • Children grow up fast!
  • Many brain cells and neural networks are created
    within the first few months of life.
  • Walking, talking, and learning all happen at a
    rapid pace

39
Adolescence
  • Puberty sexual maturation
  • During adolescence, both primary and secondary
    sex characteristics develop.
  • Primary sex characteristics Reproductive organs
    grow and become useable
  • Secondary sex characteristics Body hair, chest
    development, deepening of voice, menstrual cycle
    (menarche)
  • Females develop faster than boys

40
Getting Older
  • Bad news physical output, vision, hearing all
    decrease
  • Good news We can slow down and even reverse
    aging by
  • 1. Maintaining a good diet
  • 2. Staying physically and mentally active

41
Other Aging Terms / Concepts
  • Midlife crisis some see this as a last chance
    to achieve their goals.
  • better to live one day as a lion, than an
    eternity as a sheep.
  • Death and Dying Kubler-Ross developed stages
    of grief/coping
  • 1. Denial
  • 2. Anger
  • 3. Bargaining
  • 4. Depression
  • 5. Acceptance

42
Lesson Six Objectives
  • By the end of this lesson, I will be able to
  • 1. Define each of Erik Eriksons stages of
    development.
  • 2. Describe how each of these stages applies to
    our lives.

43
Who is Erik Erikson?
  • Erikson was a developmental psychologist that
    created a series of stages he proposed we all go
    through.
  • He suggested that healthy success in each stage
    would lead to a happy life.
  • He hinted at the fact that struggle in any of
    these stages can lead to maladaptive behavior
    that can last a lifetime, therefore affecting
    your overall personality.

44
Psychosocial Stages of Personality Development
  • Crisis must adaptively or maladaptively cope
    with task in each developmental stage
  • Respond adaptively acquire strengths needed for
    next developmental stage
  • Respond maladaptively less likely to be able to
    adapt to later problems

45
Something to Remember
  • Stages 1-4, children are mostly dependent on
    their parents or guardians for successful
    development.
  • Stages 5-8, young adults/Adults are responsible
    for successful development.

46
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47
Stage 1 Basic Trust vs. Mistrust
  • Birth to age 1
  • Totally dependent on others
  • Caregiver meets needs child develops trust
  • Caregiver does not meet needs child develops
    mistrust
  • Basic strength Hope
  • Belief our desires will be satisfied
  • Feeling of confidence

48
Stage 2 Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt
  • Ages 1-3
  • Child able to exercise some degree of choice
  • Childs independence is thwarted child develops
    feelings of self-doubt, shame in dealing with
    others
  • Basic Strength Will
  • Determination to exercise freedom of choice in
    face of societys demands

49
Stage 3 Initiative vs. Guilt
  • Ages 3-5
  • Child expresses desire to take initiative in
    activities
  • Parents punish child for initiative child
    develops feelings of guilt that will affect
    self-directed activity throughout life
  • Let me do it!
  • Basic strength Purpose
  • Courage to envision and pursue goals

50
Stage 4 Industry vs. Inferiority
  • Ages 6-11
  • Child develops cognitive abilities to enable in
    task completion (school work, play)
  • Parents/teachers do not support childs efforts
    child develops feelings of inferiority and
    inadequacy
  • Basic strength
  • Competence
  • Exertion of skill and intelligence in pursuing
    and completing tasks

51
Stage 5 Identity vs. Role Confusion
  • Ages 12-18
  • Form ego identity self-image
  • Strong sense of identity face adulthood with
    certainty and confidence
  • Identity crisis confusion of ego identity
  • Erikson considered this to be the most CRUCIAL
    stage.
  • Who am I?
  • Basic strength Fidelity
  • Emerges from cohesive ego identity
  • Sincerity, genuineness, sense of duty in
    relationships with others

52
Stage 6 Intimacy vs. Isolation
  • Ages 18-35 (approximately)
  • Undertake productive work and establish intimate
    relationships
  • Inability to establish intimacy leads to social
    isolation
  • Basic strength Love
  • Mutual devotion in a shared identity
  • Fusing of oneself with another person

Billy Mack When I was young, I was greedy and
foolish, and now I'm left with no one. Wrinkled
and alone.
53
Stage 7 Generativity vs. Stagnation
  • Ages 35-55 (approximately)
  • Active involvement in teaching/guiding the next
    generation
  • Stagnation involves not seeking outlets for
    involvement / being self-centered.
  • Basic strength Care
  • Broad concern for others
  • Need to teach others

54
Stage 8 Integrity vs. Despair
  • Ages 55
  • Evaluation of entire life
  • Integrity Look back with satisfaction
  • Despair Review with anger, frustration
  • Basic strength Wisdom
  • Detached concern with the whole of life

Japanese runner Kozo Haraguchi, 95, celebrates
after setting the new world record of the 100m
dash, 95-99 year-old class, in 22.04 seconds.
55
According to Erikson, failure to resolve the
tasks of middle adulthood leads to a sense of
__________ involving a concern for one's own
needs and comforts only.
  1. Despair
  2. Grief
  3. Stagnation
  4. Autonomy

56
Initiative and independence are fostered by
  1. Restricting a childs play and creativity
  2. Identity vs. role confusion
  3. Encouragement from parents when a child plans to
    do something on their own
  4. Mastering psychomotor skills

57
A child who is just starting school, trying to
learn good habits and to do well, is in Erikson's
stage of development called
  1. Initiative vs. Guilt
  2. Identity vs. Role Confusion
  3. Industry vs. Inferiority
  4. Integrity vs. Despair

58
A toddler learning to use the toilet who
sometimes feels bad when he or she "messes up" is
at Erikson's stage called
  1. Identity vs. Role Confusion
  2. Initiative vs. Guilt
  3. Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt
  4. Intimacy vs. Isolation

59
According to Erikson, a major conflict in the
first year of life is that between
  1. Initiative vs. Guilt
  2. Trust vs. Mistrust
  3. Autonomy vs. Shame and doubt
  4. Identity vs. role confusion

60
Contributions of Erikson
  • Personality develops throughout the lifetime
  • Identity crisis in adolescence
  • Impact of social, cultural, personal and
    situational forces in forming personality

61
Lesson Seven Objectives
  • Discuss the four main parenting styles
  • Define the parenting style(s) you were raised
    with.

62
  • The investment in raising a child buys many years
    not of only joy and love but of worry and
    irritation. Yet for most parents, a child is
    ones biological and social legacy ones
    personal investment in the human future.
  • Myers, 1998

63
Parenting Styles
  • 4 main parenting styles were determined by Diane
    Baumrind.
  • 1. Authoritarian
  • 2. Authoritative
  • 3. Permissive
  • 4. Rejecting-Neglecting, Uninvolved

64
Authoritarian Parenting
  • Impose rules and expect obedience.
  • Classic Phrases
  • 1. Dont interrupt me!
  • 2. Dont leave your room a mess!
  • 3. Dont stay out late or youll be grounded!
  • 4. Why? Because I said so!
  • 5. !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

65
Authoritative Parenting
  • Are both demanding and responsive.
  • Exert control by setting rules and enforcing
    them.
  • They also explain the reasons why.
  • Example Johnny, I can understand you are upset
    that you have to go to bed now. That is not a
    reason throw your toy at daddy though. Because
    you misbehaved, your consequence will be
    _________ and it IS time to go to bed.

66
Permissive Parenting
  • Submit to their childrens desires.
  • They make few demands and use little punishment.
  • Example Mom, Im going out to a party with
    Greg.
  • Mom yeah sure see you when I see you.

67
Rejecting-Neglecting Parents
  • These parents just dont care.
  • They invest little time with their children.
  • Example Mom, I have Senior Night tonight, are
    you going to be there?
  • Mom Probably not, The season finale of Biggest
    Loser is on.

68
So, Which Parenting Style is Best?
  • What do you think?
  • Most research shows that children with the
    highest self-esteem, self-reliance, and social
    competence usually have warm, authoritative
    parents.
  • These parents control but also communicate.
  • They have standards but respect the childs
    perspective.

69
Why Does it Work the Best?
  • People who have control in their lives are more
    motivated and self-confident.
  • Those who experience little control often see
    themselves as helpless and incompetent.
  • When rules seem more negotiated than imposed,
    older children feel more self-control. (Lewis,
    1981)

70
Introduction
  • Lawrence Kohlberg modified and expanded upon
    Piaget's work to form a theory that explained the
    development of moral reasoning.
  • Big Idea proposed that moral development is a
    continual process that occurs throughout the
    lifespan.

71
How Did He Conduct His Research?
  • He based his theory upon research and interviews
    with groups of young children.
  • A series of moral dilemmas were presented to
    children (and then later young adults, and
    adults).
  • Then they were interviewed to determine the
    reasoning behind their judgments of each
    scenario.

72
To Get Us Started
  • Has there ever been a time when you broke a rule
    (or law) because you felt it was the right
    thing to do?
  • Describe your experience on a half sheet of paper
    that I will share with the class.

73
Example Scenario
  • "Heinz Steals the DrugIn Europe, a woman was
    near death from a special kind of cancer. There
    was one drug that the doctors thought might save
    her. It was a form of radium that a druggist in
    the same town had recently discovered. The drug
    was expensive to make, but the druggist was
    charging ten times what the drug cost him to
    make. He paid 200 for the radium and charged
    2,000 for a small dose of the drug. The sick
    woman's husband, Heinz, went to everyone he knew
    to borrow the money, but he could only get
    together about 1,000 which is half of what it
    cost. He told the druggist that his wife was
    dying and asked him to sell it cheaper or let him
    pay later. But the druggist said "No, I
    discovered the drug and I'm going to make money
    from it." So Heinz got desperate and broke into
    the man's store to steal the drug-for his wife.
    Should the husband have done that? (Kohlberg,
    1963)."Kohlberg was not interested so much in
    the answer to the question of whether Heinz was
    wrong or right, but in the reasoning for the
    participants decision. The responses were then
    classified into various stages of reasoning in
    his theory of moral development.

74
Level 1. Pre-conventional Morality
  • Stage 1 - Obedience and Punishment
  • The earliest stage of moral development is
    especially common in young children, but adults
    are capable of expressing this type of reasoning.
  • At this stage, children see rules as fixed and
    absolute.
  • Obeying the rules is important because it is a
    means to avoid punishment.

75
Level 1. Pre-conventional Morality
  • Stage 2 - Individualism and Exchange
  • At this stage of moral development, children
    account for individual points of view and judge
    actions based on how they serve individual needs.
  • In the Heinz dilemma, children argued that the
    best course of action was whichever best-served
    Heinzs needs.
  • Reciprocity is possible, but only if it serves
    one's own interests.

76
Level 2. Conventional Morality
  • Stage 3 - Interpersonal Relationships
  • Often referred to as the "good boy-good girl"
    orientation, this stage of moral development is
    focused on living up to social expectations and
    roles.
  • There is an emphasis on conformity, being "nice,"
    and consideration of how choices influence
    relationships.

77
Level 2. Conventional Morality
  • Stage 4 - Maintaining Social Order
  • At this stage of moral development, people begin
    to consider society as a whole when making
    judgments.
  • The focus is on maintaining law and order by
    following the rules, doing ones duty, and
    respecting authority.

78
Level 3. Post-conventional Morality
  • Stage 5 - Social Contract and Individual Rights
  • At this stage, people begin to account for the
    differing values, opinions, and beliefs of other
    people.
  • Rules of law are important for maintaining a
    society, but members of the society should agree
    upon these standards.

79
Level 3. Post-conventional Morality
  • Stage 6 - Universal Principles
  • Kohlbergs final level of moral reasoning is
    based upon universal ethical principles and
    abstract reasoning.
  • At this stage, people follow these internalized
    principles of justice, even if they conflict with
    laws and rules.

80
Criticism 1
  • 1. Does moral reasoning necessarily lead to moral
    behavior? Kohlberg's theory is concerned with
    moral thinking, but there is a big difference
    between knowing what we ought to do versus our
    actual actions.

81
Criticism 2
  • Is justice the only aspect of moral reasoning we
    should consider? Critics have pointed out that
    Kohlberg's theory of moral development
    overemphasizes the concept as justice when making
    moral choices. Other factors such as compassion,
    caring, and other interpersonal feelings may play
    an important part in moral reasoning.

82
Lesson Nine Objectives
  • By the end of this lesson, I will be able to
  • 1. Describe how researchers developed theories on
    attachment.
  • 2. Identify several key terms that relate to
    developmental psychology.

83
Early Emotional Attachment
  • Attachment The close, emotional bonds of
    affection that develop between infants and their
    caregivers.

84
Attachment (Changes)
  • Attachment consists of two parts
  • 1. Secure base From which they can explore the
    world.
  • 2. Safe Haven In times of stress.
  • As we get older our secure base and safe haven
    shift from parents to peers and partners (husband
    or wife).

85
Harlow Review
  • 1. Physiological needs must be met
  • 2. Body contact is most important
  • Will children respond similar to monkeys?

86
What About A Childs Attachment?
  • Some babies seem to more easily form a secure
    attachment.
  • Mary Ainsworth assessed this during the 1970s.
  • On the next slide is a diagram of the situation.

87
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88
What Did She Find Out?
  • In about 60 of the cases, the child shows a
    secure attachment.
  • The parent leaves, the child is distressed, and
    when she returns the child seeks contact.
  • The child was also much more likely to explore
    the room.
  • Others showed insecure attachments.
  • They were less likely to explore their
    surroundings, were upset when mom left, but
    indifferent when she came back.

89
What is the response pattern of securely attached
children in the Strange Situation when their
mothers return?
  1. They tend to ignore their mothers because they
    are secure about her care
  2. Sometimes they run over to their mothers and
    sometimes the do not theres no consistent
    pattern in their responses
  3. They tend to go to their mothers for comfort
  4. They tend to run over to their mothers and beg
    them not to leave again.
  5. They hit their mothers

90
Are Their Different Behaviors Inborn?
  • Maybe.
  • Temperament includes the childs inborn
    emotional reactivity and intensity.
  • 1. Difficult Babies More irritable, intense,
    and unpredictable.
  • 2. Slow to warm up Take awhile to get there.
  • 3. Easy Babies Cheerful, relaxed, and
    predictable.

91
Konrad Lorenz Imprinting
  • Konrad Lorenz studied new born ducklings
    (chicks).
  • He found that the first moving object a duckling,
    or a chick sees during the short hours after
    hatching it will perceive as its mother.
  • This is called imprinting and is formed during
    the critical period.
  • Critical Period The optimal period shortly
    after birth where events must take place if
    proper development is to occur.

92
Imprinting
  • Imprinting The process by which certain animals
    form attachments during a critical period very
    early in life.
  • He wondered what ducklings would do if HE was the
    first moving creature they observed.
  • The ducks followed him everywhere that he went!!
  • Once this attachment is formed, it is difficult
    to reverse.

93
A critical period is a stage in development when
  1. Specific stimuli have a major effect on
    development that they do not produce at other
    times
  2. Children are resistant to any kind of discipline
    by their parents
  3. New learning is prevented by older learning
  4. Bonding between the child and parent first takes
    place
  5. The child first enters elementary school and
    needs positive reinforcement

94
Vygotskys Sociocultural Theory of Cognitive
Development
  • Lev Vygotsky emphasized the role of the
    environment and gradual growth in intellectual
    functioning.
  • Internalization the process of absorbing
    information from a specified social environmental
    context.
  • Children learn from their environment (very
    quietly and discreetly at times)

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More Vygotsky
  • Zone of Proximal Development The range between
    the level at which a child can solve a problem
    working alone with difficulty, and when they can
    solve a problem with parental or peer assistance.
  • When the goal is achieved without help, then the
    ZPD moves up a level and the child may need
    assistance.
  • Educators use this to their advantage in the
    classroom. (Gradual Release Model)

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Leftover Terms (part 1)
  • Cognitive Changes in Adults
  • Gerontoligist Warner Schaie came up with these
    two terms
  • Fluid Intelligence those abilities requiring
    speed (quick thinking) or rapid learning
    (diminishes with age) reason and solve problems
  • Crystallized Intelligence learned knowledge and
    skills (improves with age) - vocabulary

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With aging there is a decline of __________
intelligence, but not of __________ intelligence.
  1. Fluid fixed
  2. Fixed fluid
  3. Fluid crystallized
  4. Crystallized fluid

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Lesson Ten Objectives
  • By the end of this lesson, I will be able to
  • 1. Describe Jean Piagets background
  • 2. Define each of his stages

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Cognition How a Baby Thinks
  • Children are active thinkers, constantly trying
    to construct more advanced understandings of the
    world.
  • Jean Piaget Developmental Psychologist

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The Questions that Piaget Had
  • 1. When and how do children begin to see things
    from anothers point of view?
  • 2. When do they begin to reason logically?
  • 3. How does a childs mind grow?

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Where Did Piaget Start?
  • In 1920, Piaget began to develop questions for
    childrens intelligence tests.
  • He wanted to find out at what age children could
    answer certain questions.
  • He became interested in their wrong answers.
  • He noted that the errors made by children of any
    given age were very similar.

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What Did He Find Out?
  • Young children understand the world in radically
    different ways than adults.
  • Children are not miniature adults think
    little Hercules
  • For example an 8 year old would understand things
    that a 3 year old couldnt even come close to
    understanding.
  • Example Getting an idea is like having a light
    turn on in your head.

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Piagets BIG CONCEPTS 1
  • Object Permanence When a child recognizes that
    objects continue to exist even when they are no
    longer visible.

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Piagets BIG CONCEPTS 2
  • Conservation Physical quantities remain
    constant in spite of changes in their shape and
    appearance.

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Piagets BIG CONCEPTS 3
  • Centration Focus on one feature of a problem,
    neglecting other important features.

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Piagets BIG CONCEPTS 4
  • Irreversibility The inability to envision
    reversing an action.

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Piagets BIG CONCEPTS 5
  • Egocentrism Only my viewpoint matters.

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Piagets BIG CONCEPTS 6
  • Animism The belief that all things are living.

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Piagets BIG CONCEPTS 7
  • Abstract Logic Mathematics and outside the
    box thinking becomes apparent.
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