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Human Origins

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Human Origins Unit 1 - Foundations Theories on prehistory and early man constantly change as new evidence comes to light. - Louis Leakey, British ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Human Origins


1
Human Origins
  • Unit 1 - Foundations

Theories on prehistory and early man constantly
change as new evidence comes to light. - Louis
Leakey, British paleoanthropologist
2
OBJECTIVES
  • Differentiate between myths and history regarding
    human origins.
  • Identify human culture.
  • Start thinking in a global perspective.
  • Begin working with the habits of mind.

3
Essential Questions
  • How do paleoanthropologists interpret the past?
  • What images of humankind are represented in the
    creation stories?
  • What did Charles Darwins contribute to the field
    of paleoanthropology?

4
Creation Myths
Myths interpretive stories of the past. Cannot
be verified historically. Deep moral message.
  • Enuma Elish 2,000 BCE - Akkad in Mesopotamia
  • Rigveda 1,000 BCE - India
  • The Book of Genesis 1,400 1,600 BCE
    Mesopotamia

All oral tales passed down through generations
until finally written down
5
Lets take a look at some creation myths!
6
Enuma Elish - Mesopotamia
  • Tiamat and Kingu revolt against the other
    Mesopotamian dieties.
  • Mesopotamian dieties call upon Marduk for help.
  • Marduk dismembers Tiamat and Kingu.
  • Victorious gods made humans out of the blood of
    the defeated.

7
Rigveda Hindu
  • Emphasizes the mystical qualities of life and of
    human origins.
  • Humans are part of nature.
  • All humans are not equal.
  • Caste system.
  • The giant man, Purusha was dismembered by god.
  • Indra and Agni came from his mouth.

8
The Book of Genesis Jewish/Christian
  • God created heaven and earth from nothing.
  • Then god made light, darkness, water, dry land,
    plants, birds, fish, sun, moon, and stars.
  • Humans are the final crowning achievement of
    gods creativity.
  • Humans are special and were created in gods
    image.
  • Humans rule over all other creatures.

9
Edda Norse Creation
  • Originally there was a chasm with fire on one
    side and ice on the other
  • Where fire and ice combined the mist formed a
    giant named Ymir and a cow to feed him
  • The cow fed by licking salty ice blocks until one
    day, a man named Buri appeared.
  • Buris grandson Odin killed Ymir
  • From Ymir's dead body, Odin created the world.
    Ymir's blood was the sea his flesh, the earth
    his skull, the sky his bones, the mountains etc
  • Bors sons create man and woman from driftwood
    found on the beach

10
Evolutionary Explanations
  • By the mid 18th century an intellectual movement
    had begun.
  • Scientific method called for direct observation.

11
Darwin and Wallace
12
Darwin and Wallace (2)
  • Established the theory of biological evolution of
    species stating that similar species were in fact
    related to each other, not separate creations.

13
Darwin Goes Solo!
  • 1859 On the Origin of Species by Means of
    Natural Selection.
  • The better adapted to survival an organism was,
    the greater chance it had of surviving and
    passing that trait on to offspring.
  • Known as natural selection or survival of the
    fittest.

14
problems
  • It rejected the authority of religious texts.
  • No Teleology Natural selection states that
    organisms survive because they are more fit,
    not because they are more special.do our lives
    have purpose?

15
FOSSILS
  • Fossils Rock!!

Appearing in the order in which they were
unearthed!!
16
Early Humans
  • Existence of humans and human-like creatures
    (HOMONIDS) traced to over 4 million years ago.
  • Radiocarbon dating is used to date once living
    things
  • DNA used to track changes over time

17
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18
Neanderthal 200,000 BCE
  • The Missing Link 1856 CE Thomas Huxley.
  • Could make a variety of tools.
  • Survived in challenging environments.
  • Maintained family bonds.
  • Lived in groups.
  • First to have ritual burials.
  • Further studiesnot THE missing link

19
Homo Erectus1,600,000 BCE The Worldwide
Wanderer
  • The most widespread of all hominids (Africa,
    Europe, Asia,..etc)
  • Java Man 1891 CE E. DuBois.
  • Used fire for light and cooking.
  • Beijing Man Chinese discovery
  • Brain size keeps getting smaller

20
Australopithecus Africanus4 M 1 M BCE
  • 1924 medical student finds fossils in South
    Africa.
  • 1959 Louis Leakey - Olduvai Gorge
    Australopithecus boisei Zinj -1.7 M.
  • First hominid to walk upright.
  • Studies now involve paleoanthropology, the study
    of the tools, species and plants included in the
    locale of each find

21
Homo Habilis 2.5 M 1.5 M
  • Louis and Mary Leakey Handy Man
  • Lived side by side with Zinj.
  • Hunter and scavenger.
  • Features opposable thumbs, upright, and bipedal.
  • First to make stone tools.
  • Brain capacity 700 g

22
Australopithecus Afarensis3.2 M 3.5 M
  • Discovered by Johanson in 1974
  • Hadar, Ethiopia
  • Lucy in the Sky with Diamonds
  • 39 and 60 lbs.
  • Human-like hands.
  • No evidence of tools.
  • Curved arms.
  • Brain capacity 400 g

23
The latestSahelanthropus tchadensis
  • 2001 - Toumai
  • Discovered in Chad
  • Moves date of earliest hominid to 6-7 million
    years ago!

24
Modern Man has only been around about 200,000 yrs
25
The Debate over African Origins
  • Multi-regionalists vs- Out of Africa
  • Both sides agree that racial differences are
    simply adaptations to climate and are superficial

26
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27
Global Migration
  • Reasons for migration dont change
  • Push?
  • Pull?

28
The Genetic Record
  • Differences and similarities in DNA proteins
    suggest similar ancestry.
  • EXAMPLE Modern humans are 97 the same as
    chimpanzees
  • We had a common ancestor until about 6 million
    yrs ago
  • Tends to support the Out of Africa theory

29
  • the search continues.

30
What happened to all of the other hominids?
  • Defeated others via aggression, warfare, and
    plain murder.
  • There was probably mating among species which
    created the new human.
  • Homo sapiens sapiens filled the ecological niche
    and displaced the other hominids

31
homo sapiens sapiens
  • Modern humans who originated in Eastern Africa
  • Came into contact with Neanderthals Homo
    Erectus were the only ones left after awhile

32
homo sapiens sapiens
  • Burst of creativity 100,000 years ago
  • Homo sapiens sapiens developed symbolic
    expression, had spiritual beliefs (burial
    ceremonies), and creative artwork.

33
HUMANS CREATE CULTURE
  • By the time Homo sapiens had evolved, cultural
    creativity trumped biology as the default method
    for coping with nature.
  • Humans began to want to control nature rather
    than to just survive within nature.

34
The seven creative behaviors of Homo sapiens
sapiens
  • Persistence
  • Migration
  • Base camps
  • Improved tools / technology
  • Art
  • Language
  • Domestication of plants and animals

35
Key Stages in Human Development
36
Changes in the Toolkit
  • Presents clearest evidence of human development
  • Homo habilis began cultural adaptations by
    developing simple tools
  • 2.5 M 150,000 BCE hand-held axe.
  • 250,000 BCE side scrapers and backed knives
    standardized size
  • 40,000 BCE narrow blades of stone, and blades
    made from ivory, bone, and antler.

37
Not All Tools are Created Equal
  • Not always created for food or labor.
  • EXAMPLE bone flute was made for musical
    entertainment high aesthetic value.

38
Stone Ages, Etc.
  • Paleolithic 2.5 million to 12,000 B.C.
  • (Old Stone Age)
  • Mesolithic 12,000 to 8,000 B.C.
  • (Middle Stone Age)
  • Neolithic 8,000 B.C. to 5,000 B.C.
  • (New Stone Age)
  • Bronze circa 4,000 B.C. to 1,500 B.C.
  • Iron Age circa 1,500 to 550 B.C

39
Language!
  • No physical evidence for language development
  • Language began as soon as brain was large enough?
  • Brain had to be reorganized for language?
  • Language promoted development of concepts and
    reflective thought

40
Cave Art and Portable Art
  • Evidence of creativity, group process, and
    sharing of information.
  • Paintings of humans, cave stenciling, limestone
    engravings, rock paintings, Venus figures are
    most common.
  • Why was cave art placed so deeply into the
    recesses of the cave?

41
Increased Population and New Settlements
  • Early groups competed with one another for food
    and resources
  • Hunter-gatherer tribes averaged five hundred,
    divided into bands
  • Each band needed 77 square miles of unfertile
    land or 7-8 square miles of fertile land
  • Movement to small settlements took advantage of
    water resources

42
From Hunter-gatherer to FarmerNeolithic
Revolution!
  • Began settling for longer periods of time.
  • Began experimenting with seeds and planting
    cereal crops
  • Domesticated dogs and sheep.
  • Pressure of population expansion.
  • 8,000 BCE almost all humans hunted and gathered.
  • 2,000 years ago almost all farmed.

43
Why the shift to agriculture?
The Last Ice Age ended
Meat spoiled quickly In warm weather
Large game animals died out
Food became scarce
People relied on more plant foods for survival
Grow their own and live in permanent settlements
to protect their crops!
Domesticate their own animals!
44
The Development of AgricultureEffects
Farming settlements grew into villages
Villages practiced division of labor, enabling
some workers to specialize in useful crafts and
develop new technology
Productivity rose
People acquired more goods
Life made relatively easier
Demand for goods led to an increase in trade
idea of private property
45
The Growth of Cities
  • That leads us into chapter two!!
  • Primary legacy of early hominids
  • migration, tools, grouping, language, art,
    farming, and the desire to control their
    environment.
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