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Chapter 4 Section 3

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... President Pro Tempore of 2nd Continental Congress II. ... it was his habit to study until two o clock at night an rise at dawn. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Chapter 4 Section 3


1
Chapter 4Section 3
  • Declaring Independence

2
I. Introduction
  • British Soldiers occupied
  • Boston
  • Minutemen held hills
  • overlooking Boston

3
Bunker Hill
4
I. Introduction
  • June 17, 1775 Britain attacked
  • Breeds Hill (Bunker Hill)
  • British soldiers advanced
  • up hill 3 times

5
I. Introduction
  • June 17, 1775 Britain attacked
  • Breeds Hill (Bunker Hill)
  • Colonists retreated only
  • when they ran out of
  • gunpowder

3. 900 British casualties
  • Proved that colonists would
  • would stand and fight

6
Bunker Hill
A few such victories will ruin our army British
officer after Bunker Hill
7
II. Debating Independence
  • Representatives from 12
  • colonies met in Philadelphia

1. May 10, 1775
  • Radicals favored break
  • from Britain
  • Conservatives favored
  • favored staying loyal to
  • Britain
  • Most delegates were
  • moderates

8
II. Debating Independence
  • Since shots were already fired,
  • first business was to create
  • army
  • Appointed George
  • Washington commander of
  • Continental Army

9
Washington Appointed Commander in Chief of
Continental Army
10
Washingtons Flag
11
II. Debating Independence
C. Common Sense
  • Pamphlet written by
  • Thomas Paine

2. Paine was recent immigrant from England
12
Thomas Paine
Born February 9, 1737 Wrote Common Sense The
Crisis Rights of Man Age of Reason Agrarian
Justice After American Revolution went
to France and was involved in their Revolution.
Was given honorary French citizenship and,
despite not speaking French was elected to
French National Convention. Was later arrested
by the French and eventually returned to America.
13
II. Debating Independence
C. Common Sense
  • Convinced Americans that
  • that independence was
  • right

4. Sold 500,000 copies
14
II. Debating Independence
C. Common Sense
  • Fighting now had new
  • meaning
  • Not for rights, but for
  • independence

15
Common Sense
  • Arguments
  • An island cant rule a continent
  • Even if Britain is the mother country, no
    parent would treat her children like Britain has
  • Being part of Britain would involve the colonies
    in unnecessary European wars
  • Distance between Britain and colonies too great
  • Britain not interested in American interests but
    their own

16
II. Debating Independence
  • Richard Henry Lee of Virginia
  • proposed independence to
  • Second Continental Congress

Resolved That these United Colonies are, and of
right ought to be, free and independent States,
that they are absolved from all allegiance to the
British Crown, and that all political connection
between them and the State of Great Britain is,
and ought to be, totally dissolved.
Born January 20, 1732 Served as member of
Continental Congress Signer of Declaration of
Independence President Pro Tempore of 2nd
Continental Congress
17
II. Debating Independence
  • Richard Henry Lee of Virginia
  • proposed independence to
  • Second Continental Congress
  • Voted to put off decision
  • until July 1

2. Appointed committee to write statement
why independence needed
18
II. Debating Independence
  • Richard Henry Lee of Virginia
  • proposed independence to
  • Second Continental Congress
  • Thomas Jefferson given
  • the task in the committee

19
Thomas Jefferson
  • Born April 13, 1743,
  • in Virginia
  • Jeffersons Father died
  • when Thomas was 14
  • years old.
  • Entered the College of
  • William and Mary as an
  • advanced student.
  • Graduated at 19

20
Thomas Jefferson
  • During the most
  • closely occupied days
  • of his college life, it
  • was his habit to study
  • until two oclock at
  • night an rise at dawn.

21
Thomas Jefferson
  • After college he studied the law under George
    Wythe.
  • During this time he heard a
  • speech by Patrick Henry that
  • turned him into a Patriot. He
  • later said this was the most
  • important day of his life.

22
Thomas Jefferson
  • In 1767 Jefferson was admitted to the bar and
    became a lawyer.
  • He later married Martha Wayles Skelton.

23
Thomas Jefferson
  • In July of 1774, Jefferson wrote A Summary View
    of The Rights of British Americans. In it he
    wrote Can any one reason be assigned why
    160.000 electors in the island of Great Britain
    should give law to four million in the states of
    America, every individual of whom is equal to
    every individual of them in virtue, in
    understanding, and in bodily strength.

24
Thomas Jefferson
  • Jefferson initially suggested that John Adams
    write the
  • Declaration of Independence
  • Adams I will not. You should do it.
  • Jefferson Oh no! Why will you not? You ought to
    do it.
  • Adams I will not
  • Jefferson Why?
  • Adams Reasons enough
  • Jefferson Why can be your reasons.?
  • Adams Reason first Your are a Virginian, and
    a Virginian
  • ought to appear at the head of this business.
    Reason second
  • I am obnoxious, suspected, and unpopular. Your
    are very
  • much otherwise. Reason third You can write ten
    times better
  • than I can.

25
III. The Declaration of Independence
  • On of the most politically
  • important documents in history
  • Delegates who signed were
  • committing treason

26
III. The Declaration of Independence
C. Provisions of the Declaration
1. First part called preamble
  • States basic principles of
  • democracy

b. Natural rights given by God
c. . . . Life, liberty, and the pursuit of
happiness
27
III. The Declaration of Independence
C. Provisions of the Declaration
1. First part called preamble
  • People form
  • governments to protect
  • rights

28
III. The Declaration of Independence
C. Provisions of the Declaration
2. List of grievances
  • Taxed colonists without
  • their consent

b. Destroyed self government
  • Stopped colonists from
  • moving west

d. British troops in colonies during peacetime
29
III. The Declaration of Independence
C. Provisions of the Declaration
  • Last part declared
  • independence
  • Colonies had now become
  • the United States of
  • America

b. All political ties with Britain cut
30
III. The Declaration of Independence
D. Matching reality to ideals
E. Declaration stated all men are created
equal
1. Ideal, not reality
2. What about women, blacks, and Natives?
a. 500,000 slaves in colonies
31
III. The Declaration of Independence
E. Matching reality to ideals
4. Debate over slavery nearly derailed
Declaration
  • Jefferson had attacked
  • slavery in first Draft

Jeffersons first draft of Declaration of
Independence He has waged cruel war against
human nature itself, violating its most sacred
rights of life and liberty in the persons of a
distant people who never offended him,
captivating and carrying them into slavery in
another hemisphere, of to incur miserable death
in their transportation hither. . . . Determined
to deep open a market where men should be bought
and sold . . .
32
III. The Declaration of Independence
D. Matching reality to ideals
  • Abigail Adams urged
  • husband John to remember
  • the women

6. Even though the country could not live up
to the words now, it would become the
source for future rights
33
III. The Declaration of Independence
E. Debating loyalties
  • Colonists were divided over
  • loyalties

2. Patriots were people who favored
independence
  • Loyalists remained faithful to
  • Britain

34
III. The Declaration of Independence
E. Debating loyalties
  • Issue divided families and
  • friends
  • Benjamin Franklins son
  • was Loyalist

35
III. The Declaration of Independence
E. Debating loyalties
  • About 1/3 Patriots,
  • 1/3 Loyalists, 1/3 didnt care

6. Loyalists driven from homes, some fled to
England
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