Chapter 1: Basic Concepts - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Loading...

PPT – Chapter 1: Basic Concepts PowerPoint presentation | free to view - id: 6e6ecc-NGRlZ



Loading


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

Chapter 1: Basic Concepts

Description:

Chapter 1: Basic Concepts The Cultural Landscape: An Introduction to Human Geography ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:57
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Date added: 19 March 2020
Slides: 35
Provided by: Ach136
Category:

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: Chapter 1: Basic Concepts


1
Chapter 1 Basic Concepts
  • The Cultural Landscape
  • An Introduction to Human Geography

2
Defining Geography
  • Word coined by Eratosthenes
  • Geo Earth
  • Graphia writing
  • Geography thus means earth writing

3
Contemporary Geography
  • Geographers ask where and why
  • Location and distribution are important terms
  • Geographers are concerned with the tension
    between globalization and local diversity
  • A division physical geography and human geography

4
Geographys Vocabulary
  • Place unique location or position on Earth
  • Region combination of cultural/ physical
    features
  • Scale portion of the Earth compare to the whole
  • Space gap between two objects
  • Connections relationship btw people/objects

5
Maps
  • Two purposes
  • As reference tools
  • To find locations, to find ones way
  • As communications tools
  • To show the distribution of human and physical
    features

6
Early Map Making
  • Above oldest map (Turkey) 7th century BC
  • Below Babylon (Iraq) 6th Century BC

Figure 1-2
7
Maps Scale
  • Types of map scale
  • Ratio or fraction numerical ration btw distances
    on Earths surface 1100
  • Written written word form of ratio
  • Graphic bar line to show distance
  • Projection
  • Distortion 4 types
  • Shape appears more elongated
  • Distance distance, more or less
  • Relative size altered size
  • Direction distorted

8
  • Map Scale
  • 1) Washington State 110,000,000 (1 in
    10,000,000 inches or 158 miles)
  • 2) Western Washington 11,000,000
  • 3) Seattle 1100,000
  • 4) Downtown Seattle 110,000
  • As the area covered gets smaller, the maps get
    more detailed. 1 in represents smaller distances

Figure 1-4
9
2 Types of Uninterrupted Maps
  • Robinson Map shape distortion/ more ocean
  • Mercator Map accurate shape/ distorted poles

10
U.S. Land Ordinance of 1785
  • Township and range system
  • Township 6 sq. miles on each side
  • Northsouth lines principal meridians
  • Eastwest lines base lines
  • Township T1 (distance north or south on a
    particular baseline
  • Range R1 (distance east or west on a particular
    meridian line
  • Sections each township is divided into 36
    sections, each of which is 1 mile by 1 mile.

11
Township and Range System
  • TL north-south lines meridian lines (red
    lines). East-west lines base lines (green
    lines).
  • TR West 6x6 miles/ East 6x6 (then divided into
    36 1x1 mile subsections
  • BL scale of 124,000 or 1 inch 24,000 inches
    (2,000 ft)

Figure 1-5
12
Contemporary Tools
  • Geographic Information Science (GIScience)
  • Global Positioning Systems (GPS)
  • Remote sensing
  • Geographic information systems (GIS) fig 1-7

Figure 1-7
13
A Mash-up
Figure 1-8 https//developers.google.com/maps/
14
END of Key Issue 1
  • How Do Geographers Describe Where Things Are?

15
Key Issue 2
  • Why is Each Point on Earth Unique?
  • pg13 - 28

16
Place Unique Location of a Feature
  • Location 4 ways to identify
  • Place names
  • Toponym
  • Site the physical characteristics of a place
  • Situation location of a place relative to other
    places (helps locate a location)
  • Mathematical location

17
Place Mathematical Location
  • Location of any place can be described precisely
    by a numbering system
  • Meridians (lines of longitude) 74W
  • Prime meridian (Greenwich, England)
  • Parallels (lines of latitude) 41N
  • The equator

18
The Cultural Landscape
  • A unique combination of social relationships and
    physical processes
  • Each region a distinctive landscape
  • People/Culture the most important agents of
    change to Earths surface

19
Types of Regions
  • Region can apply to any area larger than a point
    but smaller than the planet.
  • Regional Studies approach to geography that
    emphasizes the relationship among social and
    physical phenomena in a particular study.

20
Types of Regions
  • Formal (uniform) regions
  • Example Florida or Red vs Blue state.
  • Functional (nodal or focal point) regions
  • Example the circulation area of a newspaper
  • Vernacular (cultural) regions rather than a
    scientific model
  • Example the American South

21
Vernacular Region by Mental Mapping
  • American South
  • Middle East
  • South America
  • Miami
  • Florida State University
  • Hawaii
  • Weston

22
Spatial Association
  • Spatial distribution of a region can be
    constructed to encompass an area of widely
    varying scale.
  • i.e. cancer rates vary according to cultural,
    economic, and environmental factors

23
Culture
  • Origin from the Latin cultus, meaning to care
    for. Body of customary beliefs, material traits,
    and social forms that distinguish a group.
  • Two aspects
  • What people care about
  • Beliefs, values, and customs
  • Three identifying factors of culture derive from
    Language, Religion, Ethnicity.
  • What people take care of
  • Earning a living obtaining food, clothing, and
    shelter
  • -

24
Cultural Ecology
  • The geographic study of humanenvironment
    relationships
  • Two perspectives
  • Environmental determinism
  • Possibilism
  • Modern geographers generally reject environmental
    determinism in favor of possibilism because
    humans have the ability to adjust to their
    environment/ resources
  • Determined by a groups values
  • Crop selection determine by environment
  • Vegetarian vs Non-vegetarian
  • Cremation versus burial

25
Physical Processes determined by human activity/
4 types
  • Climate Tropics, Dry, Warm, Cold, Polar
  • Vegetation Forest, Savanna, Grassland Desert
  • Soil 12,000 soil types
  • Landforms flat to mountainous

26
Modifying the Environment
  • Examples
  • The Netherlands
  • Polders creating land by drainage
  • The Florida Everglades
  • Not so sensitive environmental modification/
    unintended environmental/social consequences

Figure 1-21
27
Key Issue 2
  • Why Is Each Point on Earth Unique? Pg 13 - 28

28
Scale
  • Globalization
  • Economic globalization
  • Transnational corporations
  • Cultural globalization
  • A global culture?

29
Space Distribution of Features
  • Distributionthree features
  • Density
  • Arithmetic
  • Physiological
  • Agricultural
  • Concentration
  • Pattern

30
SpaceTime Compression
Figure 1-29
31
Spatial Interaction
  • Transportation networks
  • Electronic communications and the death of
    geography?
  • Distance decay

Figure 1-30
32
Diffusion
  • The process by which a characteristic spreads
    across space and over time
  • Hearth source area for innovations
  • Two types of diffusion
  • Relocation
  • Expansion
  • Three types hierarchical, contagious, stimulus

33
Relocation Diffusion Example
Figure 1-31
34
The End.
  • Up next Population
About PowerShow.com