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Chapter 20: The United States Looks Overseas

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The United States Looks Overseas Objectives: Describe early attempts by the U.S. to expand in the Pacific. Identify reasons that the U.S. declared war on Spain. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Chapter 20: The United States Looks Overseas


1
Chapter 20The United States Looks Overseas
  • Objectives
  • Describe early attempts by the U.S. to expand in
    the Pacific.
  • Identify reasons that the U.S. declared war on
    Spain.
  • Explain why and how the U.S. built the Panama
    canal.

1
2
Opening Japan to Trade
  • For 250 years, Japan blocked outside trade
  • 1853 Commodore Matthew Perry sails into Tokyo
    Bay and presented a letter from POTUS
  • Japan did not have the military to combat Perrys
    warships
  • Japan agreed to open trade with U.S. soon all
    European nations settled treaties with Japan
  • The Japanese transformed their society within 50
    years into a modern, Western nation

3
Sewards Icebox
  • Secretary of State William H. Seward argued that
    the nation's strategic interests favored the
    treaty.
  • Russia was open to the sale of the territory
    because it needed the money to fund its war with
    the British.
  • The negotiations concluded at 4 o'clock in the
    morning of March 30, 1867 with the purchase price
    set at 7,200,000 (about 1.9 per acre).

4
Reaction to Purchase of Alaska
  • Americans saw the purchase as a folly
  • Discovery of gold led to many settlers
  • Once there, they discovered the many natural
    resources of Alaska
  • Timber
  • Oil
  • Furs
  • Minerals

5
The Expansionist Mood
  • Isolationism avoiding involvement in the
    affairs of other countries
  • Imperialism building empires by imposing
    political and economic control over people around
    the world.
  • Prior to the 1850s the United States had been
    strictly isolationist, but feared that it would
    be militarily vulnerable if it allowed European
    nations to continue to colonize the Western
    Hemisphere.

6
The Turner Thesis
  • Basically this theory states that the only reason
    the U.S. started to build the empire was because
    it had Manifested its Destiny.
  • Other theories for imperialism in the U.S.
    included a sense of moral obligation to
    civilize the savages of the under developed
    world and the race for economic influence abroad.

7
Reasons for an American Empire
  • Economic U.S. produced more than it could buy
    new colonies could be markets for American goods
    to new peoples
  • Military Europe was carving up Asia and Africa
    U.S. shut out of military bases
  • Alfred Thayer Mahan Naval captain and author
    who argued that the U.S. needed to expand its
    navy to become a world power
  • Cultural spread of American and Christian
    values (The White Mans Burden)

8
The White Mans Burden by Rudyard Kipling
  • Take up the White man's burden
  • Send forth the best ye breed
  • Go bind your sons to exile
  • To serve your captives' need
  • To wait in heavy harness
  • On fluttered folk and wild
  • Your new-caught, sullen peoples,
  • Half devil and half child

9
Samoa
  • Important re-fueling station between U.S. and
    Australia
  • Britain and Germany also wanted the islands
  • All three nations send warships to area, but
    typhoon struck disabling most of the fleets
  • 1899 U.S. and Germany divide Samoan islands
  • Samoa becomes U.S. protectorate

10
Annexing Hawaii
  • In 1893, Queen Liliuokalani announced plans to
    establish a new constitution that would restore
    much of the power back to the monarchy and reduce
    the influence of outside business owners.
  • On January 14, 1893, a group of American and
    Europeans formed a Committee of Safety in
    opposition to the Queen, and seized control of
    government.
  • United States Government Minister John L.
    Stevens, responding to a request from the
    Committee of Safety expressing concern about
    possible violence directed against American
    citizens, summoned a company of uniformed U.S.
    Marines to come ashore to enforce neutrality.
  • President Grover Cleveland established an
    exploratory commission to research the legality
    of backing a nongovernmental entity with federal
    troops. They concluded that the overthrow of
    Liliuokalani was illegal. The U.S. Government
    first demanded that Queen Liliuokalani be
    reinstated, but the Provisional Government
    refused.

11
Annexing Hawaii
  • When William McKinley became president, this
    issue resurfaced.
  • In June of 1897, McKinley agreed to a treaty of
    annexation with these representatives of the
    Republic of Hawaii.
  • On July 7, 1898, by a vote of 42 to 21, the
    Senate agreed to the annexing Hawaii as a U.S.
    territory.
  • Though several attempts were made to achieve
    statehood, Hawaii remained a territory for 60
    years.
  • Plantation owners found territorial status
    convenient, enabling them to continue importing
    cheap foreign labor.
  • Finally, in March 1959, both houses of Congress
    passed the Hawaii Admission Act and U.S.
    President Dwight D. Eisenhower signed it into
    law.

12
An American Empire?
  • Ultimately Spain freed Cuba and granted Puerto
    Rico, the Philippines, Guam and Wake Island to
    the United States. In return, the United States
    paid Spain 20 million.
  • In 1902 the United States forced the Cubans to
    adopt the Platt Amendment
  • Basically stated that the U.S. could have a Naval
    base in Cuba and limited its the trade and
    barrowing abilities.
  • The Foraker Act of 1900 set up a limited
    self-rule system in Puerto Rico. The U.S. would
    still oversee much of its affairs, but they could
    make state level decisions independently.
  • Because fighting never really stopped in the
    Philippines, the United States did not make any
    such concessions with them. The islands remained
    heavily occupied by American troops until 1946.

13
Carving Up China
  • China lost Opium War to British
  • European powers take advantage of Chinas
    weakness by dividing it into spheres of influence
  • Regions in China could only trade with one
    country
  • Extraterritorial rights within each sphere

14
Open Door Policy
  • U.S. excluded from Chinese trade
  • Secretary of State John Hay issued message to
    China in other powers in 1899
  • Called on them to keep an open door in China
  • Guarentee the rights of all nations to trade
  • Though many nations agreed in principal, Hay
    announced the Policy as done deal

John Hay
15
Boxer Rebellion
  • Boxers were anti-foreigner secret society in
    China (Righteous and Harmonious Fists)
  • In 1900, Boxers began revolt to expel all
    foreigners in China
  • Attacked and killed Chinese Christians and
    westerners
  • Burned Christian churches and homes of foreigners
  • Took diplomats hostage in Beijing
  • U.S. and other powers send 18,000 troops
  • Freed diplomats and crushed rebellion
  • Looted capital and killed thousands of Chinese
  • Forced China to pay reparations

16
Revolt in Cuba
  • Cuba had been Spanish colony since days of
    Columbus
  • Cuba revolted several times, unsuccessfully
  • 1895 Cubans revolt again
  • Spanish commader Valeriano Weyler begins policy
    of reconcentration
  • Cubans were placed in concentration camps
  • Many died of starvation and disease
  • U.S. press revealed harsh conditions to public
  • U.S. Cubans led by Jose Marti
  • Urged United States to get involved in conflict

17
Revolt in Panama
  • In 1903, French canal builders agreed to sell
    their stake in the bankrupt Panama venture to the
    United States for 40 million.
  • Colombia, because of its sovereignty over Panama,
    expected part of the payment, but felt the price
    was too low.
  • Unwilling to have the sale jeopardized and
    recognizing Panamas desire for independence, the
    United States quietly encouraged Panama to rebel.
  • The ensuing three-day-long revolution, under the
    watchful eye of two U.S. gunboats, created the
    Republic of Panama.
  • A few days later, the United States and Panama
    signed a treaty to build the canal.

18
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19
Fighting Disease
  • As a result of the large number of deaths in the
    Spanish-American war that were due to Malaria,
    the American government sponsored the large scale
    spreading of pesticides around the canal zone.
  • The process used most often was developed by
    William Gorgas, an American tropical disease
    expert.
  • By spraying a thin film of oil on the waters
    surface, they smothered any mosquito larvae that
    might be living there.

20
The Gatun Locks
North
Gatun Lake
Limon Bay
21
The Pedro Miguel Lock
North
Gatun Lake
Miraflores Lake
22
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23
Roosevelt Corollary
  • On December 2, 1823, President James Monroe
    proclaimed that European powers were no longer to
    colonize or interfere with the affairs of the
    newly independent nations of the Americas.
    (Monroe Doctrine)
  • In December 1904 Theodore Roosevelt amended this
    statement by asserting the right of the United
    States to intervene to stabilize the economic
    affairs of other nations within this hemisphere.
  • This would prevent wars close to the United
    States and discourage countries (especially the
    Soviet Union) from attempting to colonize a
    country which could not pay back its debts.

24
Dollar Diplomacy
  • After William Howard Taft took over the
    presidency, he continued to work with other
    countries in North America to expand relations
  • The term dollar diplomacy was coined by President
    Taft, who claimed that U.S. operations in Latin
    America went from "warlike and political" to
    "peaceful and economic".
  • The term is also used historically by Latin
    Americans to show their disapproval of the role
    that the U.S. government and U.S. corporations
    have played in using economic, diplomatic and
    military power to open up foreign markets.
  • It basically means that anything that brings
    positive economic change to both the U.S. and
    other countries of the world is acceptable.
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