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Classical Greece

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Title: Classical Greece


1
Classical Greece
  • Chapter 5

2
Focus Question
  • In 2 to 3 sentences explain one of the forms of
    government that you learned yesterday.

3
Geography Shapes Greek Life
  • Greece is mountainous peninsula in the
    Mediterranean
  • 1400 Islands in the Aegean and Ionian Seas
  • The Greeks had also annexed islands off the west
    coast of Anatolia

4
Rugged mountains prevented unity
5
The Sea
  • The Greeks rarely traveled more than 85 miles
    from the coastline
  • Important trade routes were the Aegean, Ionian,
    and Black Seas
  • Sea travel and trade were important because
    Greece lacked natural resources

6
The Greek World
7
The Land
  • 3/4th of Greece is covered with mountains
  • This made unification of Greece difficult
  • Greece developed small, independent communities

8
The Land
  • Uneven terrain made land travel difficult
  • Sparta was only 60 miles from Olympia, but travel
    there took seven days.

9
The Land
  • Only 20 of the land was arable suitable for
    farming
  • Without large-scale agriculture, Greece was never
    able to support a large population.

10
The Climate
  • Temperatures ranges from 48º in the winter to 80º
    in the summer
  • The climate supported an outdoor life for the
    Greeks
  • Men spent time at outdoor public events and met
    to discuss politics, news and civic life

11
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12
Mycenaean Civilization Develops
  • They were a group of Indo-European migrants
  • They settled on the Greek mainland around 2000
    BCE
  • Their name came from their leading city, Mycenae

13
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14
Culture and Trade
  • While their nobles led a life of splendor, most
    people worked as farmers. Others were weavers,
    goat herders, or stonemasons

15
Invasion of Crete
  • Mycenaean warrior-kings invaded Crete
  • Minoan culture had thrived there for over 600
    years
  • Mycenaeans preserved some elements of Minoan
    culture
  • They adapted the Minoan writing system to the
    Greek language

16
Mycenaean Vases with Minoan Designs
17
Greek Culture
  • Minoan legends formed the core of Greek religious
    practice, art, politics, and literature
  • Western civilization has roots in early Greek
    civilizations

18
The Trojan War
  • Fought between Mycenaeans (Greeks) and Trojans
  • Lasted ten years
  • Legend says the war started because a Trojan name
    Paris had kidnapped Helen, the beautiful wife of
    a Greek king

19
The Judgment of Paris
20
"Beware of Greeks bearing gifts"
21
Manfred Korfmann
  • German historian
  • Found a cemetery near the site of ancient Troy
  • He believed the war was fought over control of a
    crucial waterway in the Aegean Sea

22
Issue Control of trade routes
23
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24
Greek Culture Declines Under the Dorians
  • Mycenae collapsed after the Trojan War
  • Sea raiders attacked and burned Mycenae around
    1200 BCE
  • The Dorians moved into the war-torn countryside

25
The Dorians
  • Less advanced than the Mycenaean Greeks
  • The economy collapsed
  • Trade came to a standstill

26
The Dark Age of Ancient Greece
  • Greeks appear to have lost the art of writing
    during the Dorian Age
  • 400 year period with no written records
  • 1150 BCE to 750 BCE
  • Without written records, little is known about
    this period of decline

27
Epics of Homer
  • Stories passed down by oral tradition
  • Blind storyteller
  • The Iliad about the Trojan War
  • The Odyssey about the return home of Odysseus
    after the war

28
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29
Penelope Weaves a Tapestry
30
Greeks Create Myths
  • Traditional stories about their gods
  • Used to explain the mysteries of nature and the
    power of human passions
  • Greek gods display human qualities

31
Greek Gods
  • They are jealous, they love and hate
  • They are immortal
  • Chief god Zeus
  • Hera, his wife is often jealous of his
    relationships with other women
  • Athena (goddess of wisdom) daughter and
    favorite child of Zeus

32
Olympus in winter
33
Photo of Athens
34
Warring City-States
  • Section 2
  • p. 115-119

35
Rule and Order in Greek City-States
  • The polis was the fundamental political unit in
    ancient Greece
  • Most city-states controlled between 50 and 500
    square miles of land
  • Often fewer than 20,000 residents

36
The Agora
  • The Agora is the public center of a city-state

37
The Acropolis
  • The highest point in elevation in a Greek
    city-state
  • Male citizens gathered at the agora or the
    acropolis to conduct business
  • Acro High
  • Polis City

38
The Acropolis at Athens
39
The Agora at Athens
40
Greek Political Structures
  • Some city states had a monarchy, rule by a king,
    queen, or royal family

41
Greek Political Structures
  • Some had an aristocracy, rule by a a small group
    of land-owning wealthy families

42
Greek Political Structures
  • Later, newly wealthy merchants who were
    dissatisfied with aristocracy formed a new type
    of government oligarchy, rule by a few powerful
    people
  • The idea of representative government began to
    take shape
  • The Greeks looked down on foreigners, who they
    considered barbarians

43
A New Kind of Army Emerges
  • Iron weapons make a new kind of army possible
  • Regular citizens were expected to defend the
    polis
  • Foot soldiers were called hoplites
  • Their fighting formation was called the phalanx

44
The Phalanx
  • Became the most powerful fighting force in the
    ancient world

45
Phalanx photo
46
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47
Tyrants Seize Power
  • Powerful individuals called tyrants gained
    control of the government by appealing to the
    poor and discontented
  • Different competing groups led to many turnovers
    in control of the government in many city-states

48
Sparta Builds a Military State
  • Sparta is isolated in the southern part of Greece
  • Unlike other Greek city-states, Sparta built a
    military government

49
Sparta Dominates Messenians
  • Sparta conquered Messenia around 725 BCE
  • The Messenians became helots, peasants forced to
    stay on the land they worked
  • Each year the Spartans demanded half of the
    helots yearly crop

50
Spartan Education
  • Military training for men began at age seven
  • Boys left home and moved into barracks
  • Wearing no shoes, they trained and marched during
    the day
  • They slept on hard benches at night
  • Coarse black porridge at mealtime

51
Spartan Education for Girls
  • No military training
  • They ran, wrestled, and played sports
  • Trained to put love for Sparta over that of
    family
  • They managed family estates while men served in
    the polis
  • They could not vote, but had more rights than
    women in other Greek city-states
  • (Athenian women were expected to stay out of
    sight and raise children)

52
Athens Builds a Democracy
  • Athens was north of Sparta
  • In outlook and values, Athens contrasted sharply
    with Sparta

53
Athens and Sparta
54
Political Developments in Athens
  • Athenians avoided the power struggles between
    rich and poor by starting a democracy
  • Democracy Rule by the people
  • Citizens participated in decision making

55
Democracy in Athens
  • Only free adult males counted as citizens and
    were allowed to vote
  • Women, slaves, foreigners living in Athens were
    not considered citizens and had few rights
  • Slaves made up 1/3rd of the population of Athens

56
Political Changes
  • Clashes between aristocrats and common people led
    to changes in Athens
  • A failed attempt to establish a tyranny led to
    the formation of a law code
  • In 621 BCE Draco wrote the first Greek legal code
  • It addressed debt slavery, in which poor farmers
    worked as slaves to pay debts

57
Solons Political andEconomic Reforms
  • Solon was chosen by aristocrats to lead the
    government
  • Solon outlawed debt slavery
  • Allowed all citizens to participate and debate in
    the Assembly
  • Any citizen could bring charges against wrongdoers

58
Solon
59
Pisistratus
  • Seized power in 546 BCE after the death of Solon
  • He became one of Athens first tyrants
  • He appealed to the poor by giving them funds for
    farm equipment
  • He gave jobs to the poor and earned their support

60
The Persian Wars
  • Danger of revolt led to creation of a military
    state in Sparta
  • Danger of a revolution led to democracy in Athens
  • Danger of invasion by Persians led to cooperation
    between Athens and Sparta

61
Consequences of the Persian Wars
  • Threat of Persian takeover ended
  • Greeks form an alliance of 140 city-states called
    the Delian League
  • The Delian League drove Persians from areas
    around Greece
  • Athens used its powerful navy to control the
    other members of the Delian League

62
Consequences of the Persian Wars
  • Set the stage for the Golden Age of Athens

63
DemocracyandGreeces Golden Age
  • Section 3
  • p. 120-125

64
Pericles Three Goals for Athens
  • Pericles dominated political life in Athens for
    32 years (461 BCE to 429 BCE)
  • This time is often called the Age of Pericles
  • His three goals were..

65
Direct Democracy
  • A form of government in which citizens rule
    directly and not through representatives.

66
Goal 1. - Stronger Democracy
  • Increased the number of paid public officials
  • Now, even poor people could afford to serve in
    the government

67
Goal 2 Strengthen the Athenian Empire
  • Used money from the Delian League to build
    Athens navy
  • A navy was important because it kept the empire
    safe and protected trade
  • Overseas trade made Athens prosperous

68
Goal 3 - Glorifying Athens
  • Used money from the Delian League to buy gold,
    ivory, and marble.
  • More money was used to hire artisans who worked
    for 15 years to build the Parthenon

69
Spartans and Athenians Go to War
  • The two city-states became rivals and leaders in
    both pressed for war

70
Peloponnesian War
  • Sparta declared war on Athens in 431 BC
  • Athens has a powerful navy, but Sparta could not
    be attacked easily from sea

71
Peloponnesian War Pericles Strategy
  • Avoid land battles with the superior Spartan army
  • Wait for opportunity to attack Sparta from the sea

72
War Brings Political Changes
  • After 27 years of war, Athens had lost its empire
  • The democracy of Athens was weakened

73
Philosophers Search for Truth
  • The term philosopher means lover of wisdom
  • Greek philosophy is based on two assumptions
  • 1. The world is put together in an orderly way
    and subject to unchanging laws
  • 2. people can understand these laws through logic
    and reason

74
Sophists
  • Questioned peoples unexamined beliefs and ideas
    about justice and traditional values

75
Protagoras
  • Famous Sophist
  • Questioned the existence of the traditional Greek
    gods
  • Argued that their was no universal truth
  • Man is the measure of all things
  • His ideas were considered radical and dangerous

76
Socrates
  • Criticized the Sophists
  • Argued that there are universal standards for
    truth and justice
  • He encouraged Greeks to question themselves and
    their moral character
  • The unexamined life is not worth living.

77
The Trial of Socrates
  • In 399 BCE when Socrates was 70 years old he was
    charged with corrupting the youth of Athens and
    neglecting the citys gods
  • He was convicted by a jury and sentenced to death
  • He was forced to drink hemlock poison

78
Plato
  • A student of Socrates
  • Wrote down conversations with Socrates
  • Around 385 BCE, he wrote is most famous work The
    Republic

79
Platos Republic
  • Platos vision of a perfectly governed society
  • Not a democracy
  • Citizens fall into three groups
  • Farmers and Artisans
  • Warriors
  • The Ruling Class
  • The person with the greatest insight and
    intellect from the ruling class would be chosen
    philosopher-king

80
Aristotle
  • Questioned the nature of the world and human
    belief, thought, and knowledge
  • Tried to summarize all of the knowledge of the
    world up to his time
  • Invented rules of logic
  • Applied logic to psychology, physics, and biology

81
Aristotles Famous Student
  • Aristotle worked as a tutor for Alexander, the
    13 year-old son of King Philip of Macedonia
  • In 343 BCE, Philip was assassinated and Alexander
    became ruler of Macedonia

82
Alexander the GreatEmpire Builder
  • Section 4
  • p. 128-131

83
Philip II of Macedon
  • The Peloponnesian War had weakened both Athens
    and Sparta
  • Philip II dreamed of taking over Greece first,
    then Persia

84
Philip Builds Macedonias Power
  • Macedonia lies just north of Greece
  • Macedonians lived in mountain villages instead of
    city-states
  • They considered themselves Greek, but were looked
    upon as uncivilized by the Greeks
  • Their shrewd and fearless kings were their
    greatest asset

85
Philips Army
  • Philip became king in 359 BC at 23 years old
  • He organized his army into phalanxes 16 men
    across and 16 deep
  • They used 18-foot pikes to pave the way for
    cavalry strikes through enemy lines
  • His army proved to be unbeatable

86
Demosthenes
  • Athenian orator
  • Tried to warn the Greeks of the threat posed by
    Philip
  • He urged the Greeks to unite against the
    Macedonians but they would not agree on policy

87
Alexander the Great
  • Philips son Alexander had the support of the
    army and proclaimed himself king at 20 years old
  • He will become called Alexander the Great

88
Alexander Defeats Persia
  • He had learned science, geography, and literature
    from Aristotle.
  • He carried a copy of Homers Iliad with him
  • He learned to use weapons, ride a horse, and
    command troops as a young man

89
Invasion of Persia
  • 334 BC
  • Alexander leads 35,000 soldiers across the
    Hellespont into Anatolia
  • A Persian army of 40,000 came to defend their
    empire

90
Alexanders Ambitions Grow
  • In an attempt to make peace, Darius III offered
    Alexander control of the western part of his
    empire
  • Alexander rejected the offer and marched into
    Egypt, a Persian territory
  • The Egyptians welcomed Alexander as a liberator

91
Pharaoh Alexander
  • While in Egypt, Alexander visited the temple of
    Zeus-Ammon
  • He was crowned pharaoh
  • He founded the city of Alexandria on the mouth of
    the Nile

92
Conquering the Persian Empire
  • Alexander then moved west to Mesopotamia
  • Darius assembled 250,000 men
  • Persians rode chariots with scythes on the wheels

93
Alexander Takes Persia
  • Alexander plundered the cities of Babylon, Susa,
    and Persepolis
  • Treasure is divided among Alexanders army
  • Persepolis is burned to signal destruction of the
    Persian Empire

94
Alexanders Other Conquests
  • Alexander wanted to expand his empire
  • He pursued Darius and found him already dead near
    the Caspian Sea
  • Darius had been murdered by one of his provincial
    governors
  • Over the next three years, Alexander pushed east
    into Asia

95
Alexander in India
  • In 327 BC Alexander enters the Indus Valley
  • He defeats an Indian army that included 200
    elephants at the Hydaspes River
  • After the victory Alexanders soldiers request to
    return home
  • A disappointed Alexander agrees

96
Alexander and His Troops
  • On the return trip the army crossed a desert
  • Some of the men collected water and brought it to
    Alexander
  • He poured it out in front of his troops to show
    that he was willing to suffer the same hardships
    they did

97
The Death of Alexander
  • 323 BC
  • Alexander is back in Babylon
  • He announces plans to organize his empire
  • One year after his return Alexander becomes ill
    with a fever and dies
  • He is one month short of his 33rd birthday

98
Alexanders Legacy
  • The empire was divided among Alexanders three
    strongest generals
  • Antigonus became king of Macedonia
  • Ptolemy became a pharaoh in Egypt
  • Seleucus took most of the old Persian Empire.
    (The Seleucid Empire)

99
Alexanders Legacy
  • Ended independent Greek city-states
  • Alexander adopted Persian dress and married a
    Persian wife
  • He included conquered people in his army
  • A blend of Macedonian, Greek, Persian, Egyptian,
    and Indian cultures resulted
  • This would come to be known as Hellenistic culture

100
The SpreadofHellenistic Culture
  • Section 5
  • p. 132-135

101
Hellenistic Culture in Alexandria
  • After Alexanders death a new culture emerged
  • It combined Egyptian, Persian, and Indian
    influences
  • This was Hellenistic culture
  • The language was Koine

102
Koine
  • The popular language spoken in Hellenistic cities
  • Koine means common
  • It was a dialect of Greek
  • It enabled traders all over the Hellenistic world
    to communicate

103
Trade and Cultural Diversity
  • Alexandria in Africa was the center of the
    Hellenistic world
  • Located in a strategic location on the western
    edge of the Nile
  • It grew and prospered from trade
  • It became an international community

104
Alexandrias Greatest Attractions
  • Broad avenues
  • Greek statues
  • Royal palaces overlooking the harbor
  • The Tomb of Alexander
  • 400 ft tall lighthouse known as the Pharos

105
The Museum at Alexandria
  • A temple dedicated to the Muses Greek goddesses
    of arts and sciences
  • The word museum comes from muse
  • Art galleries
  • A zoo
  • Botanical gardens
  • Dining hall

106
The Library at Alexandria
  • Half a million papyrus scrolls
  • First research library in the world

107
Science and Technology
  • Hellenistic scholars preserved Greek and Egyptian
    learning in the sciences
  • They provided most of the scientific knowledge
    available in the West until the 16th and 17th
    centuries

108
Astronomy
  • The museum contained an observatory
  • Astronomers could study the planets and stars

109
Aristarcus of Samos
  • Estimated that the sun was 300 times larger than
    the earth
  • Proposed that the earth and other planets
    revolved around the sun
  • Other astronomers of the day did not agree

110
Ptolemy
  • Alexandrias last renowned astronomer
  • Incorrectly placed the earth at the center of the
    solar system
  • This view was held by astronomers for the next 14
    centuries.

111
Eratosthenes
  • Closely calculated the earths true size
  • Director of the library at Alexandria
  • Used geometry to calculate the earths
    circumference at 24,662 miles
  • Today we calculate it to 24,860 miles
  • (Within 1 of modern calculations)

112
Mathematics and Physics
  • Aristarchus and Eratosthenes used a geometry text
    written by Euclid
  • Euclid wrote The Elements
  • 465 geometric propositions and proofs
  • Still the basis for modern geometry textbooks

113
Pythagorean Theorem
  • The square of a right triangles hypotenuse is
    equal to the sum of the squares of the other two
    sides

114
Archimedes
  • Estimated the value of pi (p)
  • The lever
  • The compound pulley
  • The Archimedes screw
  • Catapult
  • Buoyancy

115
Philosophy and Art
  • Hellenistic scholars believed that the universe
    followed rational principles
  • Two schools of thought developed during the
    Hellenistic period
  • Stoicism
  • Epicureanism

116
Stoicism
  • Founded by Zeno
  • A divine power controlled the universe
  • People should live in harmony with natural law
  • Vices like human desire, power, and wealth should
    be controlled
  • Followers focused on things they could control

117
Epicureanism
  • Founded by Epicurus
  • Universe is composed of atoms and controlled by
    gods who had no interest in humans
  • Only objects that the 5 senses could perceive
    were real
  • The greatest good and highest pleasure come from
    virtuous conduct and the absence of pain
  • Achieve harmony between body and mind

118
Epicurean
  • Today the term has come to mean a person devoted
    to pursuing human pleasures
  • During his lifetime Epicurus advocated moderation
    in all things

119
Realism in Sculpture
  • Rulers, wealthy merchants, and cities all
    purchased statues to honor the gods, commemorate
    heroes, and portray ordinary people
  • The largest known Hellenistic statue was the
    Colossus of Rhodes

120
Colossus of Rhodes
  • Stood over 100 feet tall
  • Toppled by an earthquake

121
Winged Victory of Samothrace
122
Hellenistic Sculpture
  • More realistic
  • More emotional
  • Real people in real situations were carved

123
Hellenistic World in Decline
  • By 150 BC the Hellenistic world was in decline
  • Rome was growing and gaining in strength
  • Greek drama, architecture, sculpture, religion,
    and philosophy were preserved and eventually
    became the core of Western civilization
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