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The Louisiana Purchase


The Louisiana Purchase Chapter 10, Section 2 – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Louisiana Purchase

The Louisiana Purchase
  • Chapter 10, Section 2

Control of the Mississippi
  • By 1800, nearly 1,000,000 Americans lived between
    the Appalachian Mountains and the Mississippi.
    Most were farmers.
  • With few roads in the area, they relied on the
    Mississippi River to transport their goods.

Control of the Mississippi
  • They sent their goods down the Mississippi to the
    city of New Orleans.
  • From there, larger ships carried them up the
    Atlantic coast to large cities.
  • Spain controlled New Orleans, and often
    threatened to close the port to Americans.

The Pinckney Treaty
  • In 1795, President Washington sent Thomas
    Pinckney to find a way to keep the port open to
  • In the Pinckney Treaty, Spain agreed to let
    Americans ship their goods down the Mississippi
    and store them in New Orleans.

A French Empire
  • However, in 1800, Spain gave Louisiana back to
  • President Jefferson suspected that Napoleon was
    building an American empire and decided to make
    an offer to buy New Orleans.

The Pinckney Treaty
  • Luckily, Napoleon gave up on an American empire
    when a revolution in the Caribbean made Haiti
    independent of the French.
  • Jefferson sent James Monroe and Robert Livingston
    to France to buy New Orleans and Florida with the
    offer of 10 million.

The Louisiana Purchase
  • Napoleon decided to abandon the Caribbean and
    sell Louisiana to fund his costly European wars.
  • Monroe and Livingston agreed to buy the Louisiana
    Purchase from France for 15 million.

Robert Livingston
Was the Purchase Constitutional?
  • Jefferson was cheerful with the deal, but not
    certain if the president had the constitutional
    power to buy the land.
  • However, the purchase was too good to pass up.
  • Congress approved the land deal in 1803, doubling
    the size of the United States.

Planning an Expedition
  • Jefferson immediately prepared a team to explore
    the new lands, choosing Lewis and Clark to lead.
  • The object of your mission is to explore the
    Missouri river, and such principal streams of it
    as by its course and communication with the
    waters of the Pacific ocean Thomas Jefferson,

The Purposes of the Expedition
  • Military Most members were soldiers.
  • Exploratory To explore the new borders of US
    and discover new wonders in the west.
  • Trade Discovering an all-water route across the
    continent would provide a more direct trading
    route with India and China.
  • Scientific To classify new species of plants
    and wildlife and study western geology.
  • Tribal Relations To meet Native tribes and
    begin trading relations.

The Journey Begins (1804)
  • The Corps set out from Camp Dubois and up the
    Missouri on May 14, 1804. However, the first year
    of the voyage was a tough one.
  • Several of the men had attempted desertion and
    others had been flogged for inappropriate
  • Sergeant Floyd died of a ruptured appendix in
  • In September, an argument between the expedition
    and the Teton Sioux nearly ended in a battle.

A Bittersweet Winter
  • The winter of 1804-5 was extremely cold.
  • Lewis and Clark studied the land to the west from
    the Hidatsa and explorers in the Mandan villages.
  • Here they also hired Charbonneau and his wife
    Sacagawea, who had her child Pomp that winter.
  • As a woman with a child, Sacagawea made the
    expedition look less like a war party to tribes
    along the way. She was also an interpreter,
    healer and sometimes a guide.

On the Road Again (1805)
At The Great Falls a Grizzly snuck up on Lewis
while his rifle was unloaded. Lewis ran away
into the river and used his espontoon to ward off
the bear.
  • That spring many of the men left back home,
    taking specimens with them. The remaining 33
    members moved on up the Missouri.
  • In April they entered Montana, passing by the
    White Cliffs and Decision Point, where the men
    nearly mutinied.
  • They were shocked by all the wildlife, and
    finally saw a grizzly, or White Bear for the
    first time.

The Corps Moves On
  • Once reaching the Great Falls, the Corps spent a
    month portaging around the falls.
  • Clark scouted ahead through the Gates of the
    Mountain and found the Three Forks in late July.
    Sacagawea recognized the country from her youth
    to the Corps delight.
  • They followed the Jefferson river, which soon
    forked, and the party followed the Beaverhead
  • After a time Sacagawea recognized another
    landmark Beaverhead Rock they were in the
    Shoshones territory.

More Help from Tribes
  • Lewis finally reached the source of the Missouri
    at Lemhi pass, but realized that he would need
    help crossing the endless mountains.
  • Luckily, he established good relations with 3
    tribes in the Rocky Mountains
  • The Shoshone, Sacagaweas tribe, shared horses
    and guides.
  • The Salish fed and clothed the Corps for a week
    before the expedition crossed Lolo pass.
  • The Nez Pierce nursed the men back to health
    after they had nearly starved and froze to death
    in the Rocky Mountains.

The Ocean at Last!
  • The Corps raced down the Colombia River, finally
    reaching the ocean just before the winter.
  • They quickly built Fort Clatsop, named for the
    local Indians, in modern-day Astoria.
  • In the spring, they returned along the same path,
    meeting most the same tribes along the way.
  • The party split in Lolo and explored new paths in

The Separation
  • Clark and the majority of the party headed south
    across Bozeman Pass to explore the Yellowstone
  • Along the way they looked for the Crow tribe, but
    never saw them. However, all of their horses
    were taken by the Crow in only two nights!
  • Lewis took a shortcut to the Great Falls and
    roamed into Blackfeet country, where he and his
    men fought with (and killed) two young Blackfeet
    men, then raced back to meet Clark.

Near present-day Billings Clark signed his name
in a huge rock pillar he named for Sacagaweas
son, Pomp. Pompeys Pillar is the only physical
sign left behind by the expedition that can still
be seen today.
  • Lewis finally caught up to Clark in early August
    near the confluence of the Missouri and
  • The captains dropped off Sacagawea, Pomp and
    Charbonneau at the Mandan Villages, as well as
    John Colter, who wished to stay and become a
    mountain man.
  • They were not safe yet though, as Cruzatte proved
    when he shot Lewis in the butt after mistaking
    him for an elk!

The Swift Ride Home (1806)
  • Now headed downstream again in August, the party
    moved about 70 miles a day (instead of 10 to 20
  • Finally, on September 23rd almost three full
    years after they set out Lewis and Clark
    returned to St. Louis.
  • One man claimed it was as if they had just
    returned from the moon!

The Entire Journey
The Legacy of Explorers
  • Zebulon Pike was another explorer, who journeyed
    along the Mississippi River and into Colorado and
    New Mexico.
  • He was arrested by the Spanish, however, and sent
    back to the U.S.
  • The Journeys of Pike and Lewis and Clark excited
    Americans, but pioneers did not immediately
    settle these western lands.

Threats from Overseas
  • Chapter 10, Section 3

Setting the Scene
The Captain said if we would come up, he would
give us some drink As soon as we got on the
quarter deck they surrounded us and the second
mate clapped a pistol to my chest. He said If
you move an inch, I will blow your brains out.
  • Four American sailors who had been kidnapped by
    the British navy off the coast of India saw their
    chance to escape one night.
  • They jumped into a small boat and rowed as fast
    as they could. Unfortunately, they were
    intercepted by another British boat before they
    could reach the shore.

Yankee Traders
  • After the Revolution, American trade grew
  • Ships from New England went on voyages that
    sometimes lasted years.
  • These Yankee traders traded New England ice for
    the spices and silks of India and China.

Yankee Traders
  • More than 10 years before Lewis and Clark, Yankee
    merchants had already sailed up the pacific
  • So many traders had visited the tribes there that
    the local Indians knew white men as Boston.

Robert Gray explored and traded along the
Colombia River for America
Yankee Traders
  • Trade was especially risky on the Mediterranean
    Sea, where pirates of the Barbary States (along
    North Africa) demanded a yearly tribute (bribe)
    to avoid attacks.
  • When Jefferson refused to pay this tribute, the
    Barbary States declared war on the U.S.
  • Jefferson responded by blockading the pirate
    capital of Tripoli. Admiral Stephen Decatur
    burned pirate ships while the marines launched a
    surprise attack on Tripoli by land.
  • By 1805, the ruler of Tripoli signed a treaty
    promising not to interfere with American ships.

American Neutrality is Violated
  • Unfortunately, Britain and France went to war
    again in 1803.
  • The U.S. tried to remain neutral and profit from
    trade with both nations.
  • Again, both Britain and France disregarded
    American neutrality by capturing American ships
    bound for Europe.

Impressment Gangs
  • The British navy badly needed more sailors, so
    they stepped up their impressment of Americans
    (forcing them to become sailors.)
  • Impressment gangs had already swept the villages
    of England and now they were taking our young
  • Furious Americans demanded a war against Britain.

Jeffersons Embargo
  • Jefferson knew that the American navy was no
    match for the British, so he avoided war and
    tried to hurt both France and Britain with a
    world Embargo (ban on trade.)
  • He felt that trade was the most powerful weapon
    that we could use in our defense.

Many Americans opposed the embargo, saying that
it wouldnt hurt our enemies soon enough.
Jeffersons Embargo
  • The Embargo Act kept us out of a war and did hurt
    Britain and France, but it hurt American shipping
    and Agriculture even more.
  • Both France and England were vast empires, that
    could trade with any of their colonies. Americans
    had far fewer trading partners.

Jeffersons Embargo
  • Supplies were cut off from Americans we could
    not buy British molasses, sugar or tea.
  • American exports dropped by 80 million in one
    year. American docks were filled with supplies
    with nobody to buy them.
  • Many merchants protested and even smuggled goods
    to avoid this unpopular act.

The Embargo Fails
  • By 1809, even Jefferson admitted that the Embargo
    Act had failed.
  • Congress replaced the Embargo act with the
    Nonintercourse Act, which allowed Americans to
    trade with all nations except Britain and France.
  • This act was also unpopular, but the Republican
    candidate James Madison still easily won the
    Presidential election in 1808 when Jefferson
    decided to leave office.